Root – based Vocabulary
Guess the Meaning:
Common Prefixes and Suffixes
pre = before
post = after
re = again
over = excess
under = not enough
trans = across
sub = under/below
inter = between
ist = denotes a person
ism = denotes a system
ive = denotes a quality (adj)
sion = denotes a state (noun)
tion =denotes a state (noun)
ment = denotes a noun
ise/ize = denotes a verb
age = denotes a noun
al = denotes an adjective
Mnemonics: Memory Tricks:
Don: Wear on an attire.
Doff: Wear off a hat.
Glitch: a sudden
de + suck = absorb
Heinous = mean
Sacrilegious (sack +
• A word replaces a description or statement.
• E.g. 1. A person without a fixed dwelling……
2. A person who fights for women’s rights
3. A cure for all…… panacea.
IDIOMS & PHRASES
• A usage that expresses a deeper meaning:
• E.g. 1. A Red Letter Day……. An important day.
2. Take After…… resemble.
3. Put out…… extinguish.
4. Slip one’s mind…… forget something
5. Be in two minds…… unable to decide
Synonyms: similar words
1. Look at the given
If you know the meaning,
look for the synonym of
If you can’t guess it, the
word here gives a
negative meaning as
‘ant’ means “against”.
Now, you can guess its
meaning from the
Antonyms: Opposite words
Guess the meaning of the
Imagine its opposite word.
Look for it or its synonym.
If you don’t know the
meaning of the Key
Word, look at “bust”
which gives the
meaning ‘burst’ that is
‘Active’. Hence, the
opposite of it is
Analogies: Related words
e.g. 1 Cobbler:: awl
• A. Carpenter:: auger
• B. Stethoscope:: Doctor
• C. Judge:: hammer
• D. Athlete::muscle
e.g. 2 Prose:: Paragraph
• Poetry:: stanza
• Read the given content.
• Guess the missing word/words.
• Now look at the options and arrive at the
Candidates who oppose the present state
income tax must be able to propose _______
ways to ________ the financing of state
• 1. Skimming: To get central idea through a
quick run through.
• 2. Scanning: Outline of content
• 3. Note making: Synopses (brief notes)
• 4. Concept mapping: Diagram or Chart
• E.g. 1. It was now six and he was tired because
he has been working since dawn.
Explanation: As the entire sentence denotes
what happened in the past, the word ‘has’
should be written as ‘had’.
Rearrangement of Sentences:
• Read all the units of text.
• Understand them separately.
• Try to make sense out of it by reorganizing the
Deeper Logic. Reasoning with better judgment and
e.g. A physically active lifestyle has been shown to
help increase longevity . In the Wistar region of
Bellaria, the average age of death is considerably
higher than any other part of the country. Wistar is
the only mountainous part of Bellaria. A
mountainous terrain makes even such basic
activities as walking relatively strenuous; it
essentially imposes a physically active lifestyle on
people. Clearly, this circumstance explains the long
lives of people in Wistar.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the
A. The Wistar region is one of the least populated
B. Per capita spending on recreational activities is no
higher in Wistar than it is in other regions of
C. In Bellaria all medical expenses are paid by the
Government, so the personal income does not
affect the quality of health care a person receives.
D. Many people who live in the Wistar region have
moved there in middle age or upon retirement.
Premises: In the Wistar region of Bellaria, the average age of
death is considerably higher than any other part of the
country. Wistar is the only mountainous part of Bellaria. A
mountainous terrain makes even such basic activities as
walking relatively strenuous; it essentially imposes a
physically active lifestyle on people. Clearly, this
circumstance explains the long lives of people in Wistar.
Conclusion: A physically active lifestyle has been
shown to help increase longevity.
Assumption: This assumes that a person should live in
a mountainous region through out his life to have a
Argument = Conclusion + Premises
• Conclusion 1: More
knowledge leads to a better
We understand things better
than our predecessors did.
E.g. 1. Our ancestors considered
earth flat. We know that it is
2.In the past women were made
responsible for conception of
male/ female child, but now we
know that the sex of the child is
decided by the father. 3.In the
recent past, we did not know
what came first egg or chick.
Now, we know that egg already
existed before the evolution of
More knowledge leads to
E.g. 1. Einstein gave a different
interpretation to Newtonian
gravitation. Still this force is
not properly understood. It
poses more problems than
2. Philosophers and Scientists
have been trying to
3. No right understanding of