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Comprehensive verbal content

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Comprehensive verbal content

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Comprehensive verbal content

  1. 1. Verbal Aptitude Company Recruitment Process: Step 1: Written Test: A. Quantitative Aptitude B. Verbal Aptitude Step 2: Group Discussion Step 3: Interview: A. Technical B. HR
  2. 2. Verbal Aptitude Verbal = of Words. Aptitude = Skill / Natural Ability. Verbal Aptitude covers Words and Structure of Word Combinations: Phrases, Clauses, Paragraphs Passages etc.
  3. 3. • • • • • • • • • • Verbal Aptitude: Topics Synonyms/Antonyms One – word Substitutions Idioms and Phrases Analogies Sentence Completion Sentence Rearrangement Reading Comprehension Spotting Errors Critical Reasoning Analytical Writing
  4. 4. Systematic Vocabulary Building • • • • • Root-based Vocabulary Rhyme/Spelling-based Vocabulary Group-based Vocabulary Thesaurus-based Vocabulary Mnemonic-based Vocabulary
  5. 5. Root – based Vocabulary Guess the Meaning: Incognito Corrigendum Progenitor Transgress Retrovirus Aver Abjure Abdicate Bellicose Cascade Moratorium Pandemonium Somniloquent Retort Monocle Resurgence Bibliophile Prehensile
  6. 6. Root-based Study international Nat=Root Nation=Base word Al=Suffix Inter=Prefix
  7. 7. Common Prefixes and Suffixes Prefixes Suffixes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • pre = before post = after re = again mis =bad over = excess under = not enough trans = across sub = under/below inter = between ist = denotes a person ism = denotes a system ive = denotes a quality (adj) sion = denotes a state (noun) tion =denotes a state (noun) ment = denotes a noun ise/ize = denotes a verb age = denotes a noun al = denotes an adjective
  8. 8. EXAMPLES Prefixes • review • preview • postmortem • misbehave • interaction • translation Suffixes • socialist • nepotism • Successive • donation • movement • Image • realize • critical
  9. 9. Root-based Study • Root1: Nat/Nas/Nes=Birth • Prenatal • Postnatal • Reincarnation • Nascent • Evanescent • Rejuvenate • • • • • • • Root2: SOMN=Sleep Somnambulist Somniloquent Somniferous Insomnia© Hypersomnia©
  10. 10. Root-based Study • Root3: cogn/gnos:knowledge • Recognition • Prognosis • Diagnosis • Cognizance • Incognito • Agnostic • Root4:Loc/Loq/Log: speak/study. • Prologue…Epilogue. • Monologue…Dialogue. • Trilogy. • Loquacious. • Circumlocution. • Philology. • Eloquent… magniloquent… grandiloquent
  11. 11. Root-based Study • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Root5:Ab=away Abscond. Abdicate. Abduct. Abjure. Abnegate. Abstruse. Absurd. Absorb. Abject Abort Ablutions Abominate Abase Absolve • • • • • • • Root6: Phil=love Philately Philosophy Philology Philanthropist Bibliophile Philander
  12. 12. Root-based Vocabulary • Root7:EVA=disappear • Evasive/Evasion/ Evade • Evacuate • Evanescent • Evangelic • • • • • • Root8:CARN=flesh Carnivore Reincarnation Carnal Carnival Carnage
  13. 13. Root-based Vocabulary • Root9: FER=strong/intense • Ferocious • Fervent • Fervor • Fervid • Infer • Refer • Confer • • • • Root10:Magn=Excess Magnification Magnificent Magnanimous
  14. 14. Root-based Vocabulary • Root11: Grand: impressive • Grandiose = more elaborate • Grandeur=impressive • Grandiloquent = difficult to understand • • • • • • • • • Root12: AC= Sharp Exacerbate Accurate Acute Accord Accent/Accentuate Acclivity Accumulate Acumen
  15. 15. Root-based Vocabulary • Root13:ob=heavy/bulk/ block • Obese • Oblivion • Obstruction • Obviate • Obtain • obsolete • Root14:BELLI= Aggressive • Belligerent • Rebellious • Bellicose
  16. 16. Root-based Vocabulary • • • • • • Root15:Corp=body Corporation Corporal Corpse Corpuscle Incorporation • • • • • • • • Root16:CUR=Run Current Recurrent Occur Curse Cursory Curator Precursor
  17. 17. Root-based Vocabulary • Root17:CUM=heavy/bu rden/occupy • Cumulative • Incumbent • Cumbersome • encumber • • • • • • Root18:BI=two Bisect Bipedal Biennial Bipartite Bigamy
  18. 18. Root-based Vocabulary • • • • • • Root19:Dic=word Dictionary Dictator Prediction Diction Dictum: a short statement • • • • • Root20:Greg:social Gregarious Egregious Aggregate Segregate
  19. 19. Root-based Vocabulary • Root21:Grav: weight, seriouness • Gravity • Aggravate • grave • Root22:Lev: • Levity • alleviate
  20. 20. Root-based Vocabulary • • • • • • • • Root23:BEN=Good Benediction Benevolent Benign Bonafide Beneficent Beneficiary Benefit • Root 24: MAL=bad, harmful • Malnutrition • Malodor • Malicious • Maladroit • Malaise • malignant
  21. 21. Root=-based vocabulary • Root25:JUR/JUD/JUS: Law • Jury • Perjury • Abjure • Adjudicate • Adjudge • Justice • Judiciary • Jurisdiction • Root26JUV: • Juvenile • Rejuvenate
  22. 22. Root-based vocabulary • • • • Root27:OMNI=All Omniscient Omnipresent omnipotent • • • • • Root28:AMBI=both Ambivalence Ambitious Ambiguous Ambience = Character and atmosphere of a place
  23. 23. Root-based Vocabulary • Root29:Per/Peri= Continuous, Boundary • Perennial • Persist • Perpetual • Peripatetic • Periphery • • • • • • • • • • Root30: ANNU/ENNI=year Annual Anniversary Biennial Triennial Annuity Perennial Centennial Millennium
  24. 24. Root-based Vocabulary • Root31:SAC/SAN/SANC/S AG= Holy • Sanctum sanctorum • Sanctuary • Sacred • Sage • Sagacious • Sacrilege • Insanity • • • • • • • • • • • Root 32:Cid=kill Homicide Genocide Feticide Patricide Matricide Fratricide Infanticide Suicide Regicide Menticide
  25. 25. Root-based Vocabulary Root: 33 PED/POD = Foot. Pedestrian Pedestal Podium Bipede Tripod Quadruped Centipede Millipede Pedicure Root: 34 PED = Child Pedagogue Pedantic = tendency to learn things in detail, like a teacher. Pediatrician
  26. 26. Root-based Vocabulary Root:35 Fid = trust, belief. Confidence Confidant(e) Confide Fidelity*Infidelity Root: 36 Vig/vit/viv = Life Vivid Survive Revive Convivial Vivacious Vitamin Vigor Vigilant Invigorate = Strengthen Invitro = Life in Test Tube.
  27. 27. Root-based Vocabulary: Root : 37. SEQ/ SEC/ SUC = Orderly. Sequence. Consecutive Successive Root : 38. COR=Proper Correct Incorrigible Corrigendum Corroborate
  28. 28. Root-based Vocabulary: Root= 39. CORD= Unit Cordon= Accord Discord Cordage Cordial Root= 40. PAN= All Panacea Panegyric Pan-American Pandemonium Pandemic
  29. 29. Root-based Vocabulary: Root= 41. MOR=Death Mortuary Morgue Moribund Morbid Moratorium Immortal Post-mortem Root= 42. SPEC/SPIC= View Spectacle Spectator Conspicuous Introspection Retrospection Circumspect=
  30. 30. Root-based Vocabulary Root = 43. Hen/hes = hold, grip. Comprehensive Prehensile Adhesive Apprehend Cohesion Coherence Root = 44. AM = Love Amity Amiable Amicable
  31. 31. Root-based Vocabulary: Root: 45 Circum= Circumference Circumlocution Circumnavigation Circumstances Circumspect Circumvent Root: 46 RECT= Correct Rectitude Rectification Rectify
  32. 32. Root-based Vocabulary: Root: 47 VER=Truth Verdict Aver Veracity • Root: 48 MEL/MOL= Pleasant • Mellifluous • Emollient • Melody
  33. 33. Root-based Vocabulary: Root: 49 LUC/LUM/LUS= Light Luminosity Lustrous Illustrious Illusion Lucid Lackluster Lucent Illuminate Root: 50 NOC/NOX= Harmful Nocturnal Noxious Obnoxious
  34. 34. Rhyme/Spelling-based 1.Continuous……continual 2.Incessant……intermittent 3.warp……wrap 4.Versatile……volatile 5.Intrepid……insipid 6.Adapt……adept
  35. 35. Rhyme-based vocabulary Rhyme-based Pairs: • 7.Vigorous……Rigorous • 8.Hasten……fasten • 9.Bask……cask • 10.Fallacy……fantasy • 11.Aviary……apiary • 12.Burgle……embezzle • 13.Razzmatazz……razzle -dazzle Rhyme-based Pairs: • 14.Rapture……rupture • 15.Amiable……amicable • 16.Rendezvous……déjà vu • 17.Dwindle……swindle • 18.Wrath……wreath • 19.Naive……waive • 20.Stickler……Haggler • 21.Hulk……sulk
  36. 36. Group-based Vocabulary: Words of same Class
  37. 37. Group-based • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1.Walk: Amble Ramble Straggle Hike Trek Stroll Saunter Mince Pace Wade Wander Trudge Plod Gambol • • • • • • • • • • • • 2.Food: Luscious Palatable Delicious Gong Gourmand Gourmet Sumptuous Sparing Bland Mouthwatering Lip smacking
  38. 38. Thesaurus-based Vocabulary 1. Key Word: NOVICE Synonyms: Beginner Apprentice Rookie Greenhorn Neophyte Tyro Probationer Antonyms: Expert Veteran Doyen Master Leader Specialist Connoisseur Virtuoso
  39. 39. Thesaurus-based Vocabulary: 2. Key Word: Ninny Synonyms: Simpleton Moron Dunderhead Greymatter Nincompoop Antonyms: Intellectual Genius Prodigy Cheat Mastermind Swindler
  40. 40. Mnemonics: Memory Tricks: • • • • • • Ramshackle Don: Wear on an attire. Doff: Wear off a hat. Fiasco: failure. Gloss: shine. Glitch: a sudden problem • Desiccate de + suck = absorb Heinous = mean Ghastly Alimony Sacrilegious (sack + religious)
  41. 41. Neologisms and Archaisms • • • • Neologisms: Juggernaut Glasnost Perestroika • Archaisms: • Thou, thy, thee, thine • shall
  42. 42. ONE-WORD SUBSTITUTIONS • A word replaces a description or statement. • E.g. 1. A person without a fixed dwelling…… nomad. 2. A person who fights for women’s rights ……feminist. 3. A cure for all…… panacea.
  43. 43. IDIOMS & PHRASES • A usage that expresses a deeper meaning: • E.g. 1. A Red Letter Day……. An important day. • 2. Take After…… resemble. • 3. Put out…… extinguish. • 4. Slip one’s mind…… forget something • 5. Be in two minds…… unable to decide
  44. 44. Synonyms: similar words 1. Look at the given word. If you know the meaning, look for the synonym of the word. If you can’t guess it, the word here gives a negative meaning as ‘ant’ means “against”. Now, you can guess its meaning from the listed words. Example: Antagonist: A. Terrorist B. Florist C. Rival D.Hawker
  45. 45. Antonyms: Opposite words Guess the meaning of the word. Imagine its opposite word. Look for it or its synonym. If you don’t know the meaning of the Key Word, look at “bust” which gives the meaning ‘burst’ that is ‘Active’. Hence, the opposite of it is inactive. Example: Robust: A. Energetic B. Bubbly C. Inactive D.Playful
  46. 46. Analogies: Related words e.g. 1 Cobbler:: awl • A. Carpenter:: auger • B. Stethoscope:: Doctor • C. Judge:: hammer • D. Athlete::muscle e.g. 2 Prose:: Paragraph • Drama::role • Message::code • Poetry:: stanza • Epic::lyric
  47. 47. Sentence Completion • Read the given content. • Guess the missing word/words. • Now look at the options and arrive at the appropriate answer.
  48. 48. Sentence Completion Candidates who oppose the present state income tax must be able to propose _______ ways to ________ the financing of state operations. A.individual…… diversify B.arbitrary…… maintain C.alternate…… continue D.innovative…… alleviate
  49. 49. Reading Comprehension • 1. Skimming: To get central idea through a quick run through. • 2. Scanning: Outline of content • 3. Note making: Synopses (brief notes) • 4. Concept mapping: Diagram or Chart
  50. 50. Spotting Errors • E.g. 1. It was now six and he was tired because A B C he has been working since dawn. D Explanation: As the entire sentence denotes what happened in the past, the word ‘has’ should be written as ‘had’.
  51. 51. Rearrangement of Sentences: • Read all the units of text. • Understand them separately. • Try to make sense out of it by reorganizing the units.
  52. 52. Critical Reasoning Deeper Logic. Reasoning with better judgment and analysis. e.g. A physically active lifestyle has been shown to help increase longevity . In the Wistar region of Bellaria, the average age of death is considerably higher than any other part of the country. Wistar is the only mountainous part of Bellaria. A mountainous terrain makes even such basic activities as walking relatively strenuous; it essentially imposes a physically active lifestyle on people. Clearly, this circumstance explains the long lives of people in Wistar.
  53. 53. Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? A. The Wistar region is one of the least populated regions. B. Per capita spending on recreational activities is no higher in Wistar than it is in other regions of Bellaria. C. In Bellaria all medical expenses are paid by the Government, so the personal income does not affect the quality of health care a person receives. D. Many people who live in the Wistar region have moved there in middle age or upon retirement.
  54. 54. Critical Reasoning: Conclusion= Argument. Premises= Reasons. CONCLUSION ASSUMPTIONS PREMISES
  55. 55. Critical Reasoning Explanation: Premises: In the Wistar region of Bellaria, the average age of death is considerably higher than any other part of the country. Wistar is the only mountainous part of Bellaria. A mountainous terrain makes even such basic activities as walking relatively strenuous; it essentially imposes a physically active lifestyle on people. Clearly, this circumstance explains the long lives of people in Wistar. Conclusion: A physically active lifestyle has been shown to help increase longevity. Assumption: This assumes that a person should live in a mountainous region through out his life to have a long life-span.
  56. 56. Analytical Writing: Argument = Conclusion + Premises Conclusion:1 • Conclusion 1: More knowledge leads to a better comprehension: Premises (reasons): • • • We understand things better than our predecessors did. E.g. 1. Our ancestors considered earth flat. We know that it is oval-shaped. 2.In the past women were made responsible for conception of male/ female child, but now we know that the sex of the child is decided by the father. 3.In the recent past, we did not know what came first egg or chick. Now, we know that egg already existed before the evolution of birds.
  57. 57. Analytical Writing: Conclusion 2: More knowledge leads to greater confusion: E.g. 1. Einstein gave a different interpretation to Newtonian gravitation. Still this force is not properly understood. It poses more problems than ever. 2. Philosophers and Scientists have been trying to understand Consciousness. 3. No right understanding of Time.

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