Ilustración, revolución americana , despotismoy los borbones en españa
Enlightenment• The Age of Enlightenment is the era in Western philosophy and intellectual, scientific, and cultural life, centered upon the 18th century• The Enlightenment is held to be the source of critical ideas, such as the centrality of freedom, democracy, and reason as primary values of society. This view argues that the establishment of a contractual basis of rights would lead to the market mechanism and capitalism, the scientific method, religious tolerance, and the organization of states into self-governing republics through democratic means. In this view, the tendency of the philosophes in particular to apply rationality to every problem is considered the essential change.
John Locke (The promoter)John Locke (1632-1704)• Two Treatises of Government (1690) – Mankind naturally in state of anarchy (no government) – Individuals left to own device would act with self-interest – Mankind must enter into a political society to ensure stability – Government therefore necessary, but only if it acts in the interest of the people- Social Contract Theory – People have right to rebel in such cases • Glorious Revolution (1688)
RousseauJean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)The Social Contract (1762)• Humans are good, but the society in which they live is corrupt and bad• Society will eventually deteriorate into chaos unless humans come together and adopt government• S33ubmission to the authority of the will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others• He defends “Social contract”
MontesquieuMontesquieu: (1689-1755)• Believed a republic was the best form of government• He claims the separation of powers example of government: • king (enforced laws), Parliament (elected, made laws), and the judges of the English courts (interpreted laws)
Voltaire• He is against Catholist Church• Defends religious tolerance• He said”I do not agree with what you say but I will defend to the death your right to say”• He defends a Taxes System
Diderot• He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenment and is best-known for serving as co-founder and chief editor of and contributor to the Encyclopédie.• He rejected the Idea of Progress. In his opinion, the aim of progressing through technology was doomed to fail.
Thanks to the Freedom of SpeechPopular Print Culture:• Newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, broadsides, miscellaneous ephemra• “Textualize” protest to create a uniformed and united response• Help to draw interests of diverse colonies together• Not just propaganda• Articulated a coherent and unified popular political ideology
Independence WarThe American Revolution:• Organized, popular opposition to an unjust government• British government not acting in the interest of the people• Protests, riots, crowd action used to defend an emerging common interest – English in origin, but adopted by American colonists
Military Strategies• The Americans • The British• Attrition [the Brits had a • Break the colonies in half by long supply line]. getting between the No. &• Guerilla tactics [fight an the So. insurgent war you don’t • Blockade the ports to have to win a battle, just prevent the flow of goods wear the British down] and supplies from an ally.• Make an alliance with one of • “Divide and Conquer” use Britain’s enemies. the Loyalists.
No Taxation without Representation!• Colonists were not represented in Parliament, therefore shouldn’t be taxed• Riots and protests as popular forms of social contract theory• Spread via newspapers, pamphlets and broadsides• Created an organized, slowly unified popular movement
State Constitutions • Republicanism. • Most had strong governors with veto power. • Most had bicameral legislatures. • Property required for voting. • Some had universal white male suffrage. • Most had bills of rights. • Many had a continuation of state-established religions while others disestablished religion.
Failure of Revolution: • Counter-revolutionary in many ways • A device for establishing a virtuous republican government over a population of less than virtuous people. • The voice of the people replaced by representative democracy • Right to vote guaranteed to select few • African slaves, women, native Americans and some poor whites failed to secure the freedoms and liberties that they had fought and died for.
WAR OF SUCCESION • In 1700, Charles II, the last Spanish monarch of the House of Habsburg, died without issue • He bequeaths his possessions to Philip, grandson of his half-sisterand King Louis XIV of France. • The war was centered in Spain and West- Central Europe • The war was concluded by the treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714). As a result, Philip V remained King of Spain but was removed from the French line of succession, averting a union of the two kingdoms. The Austrians gained most of the Spanish territories in Italy and the Netherlands
Nueva Planta decrees • These acts constituted the first realization of Spain as a centralized country. • Court cases could only be presented and argued in Castilian . • Abolishing the Parliament • The viceroy is replaced by a General Master. • A new territorial organitation appear
The Spanish eighteenth century• Spain is below average.• Population grows• Market and Industry increase• Big problem: Low demand and there isn´t agrary reform.