Origin of Nation State


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  • Origin of Nation State

    1. 1. Origin and Journey of the Nation State System <ul><li>Mid 16 th century developments in in Europe led to declaim of old controls( of Roman Empire of Church) </li></ul><ul><li>Search for NEW IDENTITY began and thus came the idea of NATION in to the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal, Spain, Britain ,France were the early beginners as Monarchic States ( fre from Holy roman empire) </li></ul>
    2. 2. The Rise of Monarchial Nation States: 1500 - 1700
    3. 3. Prime Characteristics of the Nation States <ul><li>Growing Bureaucratization: More and more was the need to have a centralized state. </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of a Permanent Mercenary Army: Due to the wars, people wanted armies. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing need to tax: In order to pay for the armies and for the wars, monarchy needed taxes. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Consequence of raise of Nation State <ul><li>Balance Power has shifted as each new nation state want to expand its sphere of Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Search for new territories has started </li></ul><ul><li>The Ideas of Individualism and reason stated to get impetus. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonization began to take shape </li></ul>
    5. 5. Examples of an expansion :16th Century Spanish Empire
    6. 6. Phases of Development of Nation State <ul><li>Treaty of Westphalia 1648 </li></ul><ul><li>Utrecht Treaty 1713 </li></ul><ul><li>Congress of Vienna 1815 </li></ul><ul><li>First World War 1914-19 </li></ul><ul><li>Second World War 1939-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>From 1945 onwords </li></ul>
    7. 7. Europe During The Treaty of Westphalia 1648
    8. 8. Simplified image Europe in 1648 <ul><li>Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixels </li></ul>
    9. 9. By the time of Treaty of Westphalia ( which is in modern day Germany) <ul><li>England, France, Spain and Swedon were great powers </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark( with Norway) ,Holland, Portugal and Switzerland were small powers </li></ul><ul><li>Russia was yet to become power full </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty ended thirty war within the holy roman empire and eighty years rivalry between Spain and Dutch republic </li></ul>
    10. 10. Consequences of Treaty of Westphalia <ul><li>General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, was recognised </li></ul><ul><li>Gave way to religious freedom: The Kingdoms were free to follow Catholicism, Lutheranism or Calvinism </li></ul>
    11. 11. Europe in 1713 during Utrecht Treaty
    12. 12. Utrecht Treaty (Utretcht is A Dutch city) <ul><li>Colonial supremacy fights for western hemisphere were on </li></ul><ul><li>Paved way for alliances and the balance of power as the basis of future of Nation state system </li></ul><ul><li>Treaties were signed between Spain, France, England ,Dutch republic etc. </li></ul><ul><li>After this treaty till the French revolution(1789) and Raise of Napoleon Old balance of power continued in Europe </li></ul>
    13. 13. World between 1700 -1763 Colonies
    14. 14. Europe During Treaty of Vienna 1815
    15. 15. The principal negotiators At Vienna Congress <ul><li>Austria - Metternich </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia- Hardenberg and von Humbolt </li></ul><ul><li>Russia - Nesselrode and Rasoumoffski </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain- Castlereagh, and later, Wellington </li></ul><ul><li>France - Talleyrand and Dalberg </li></ul>
    16. 16. Significance of Congress of Vienna -1 <ul><li>The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary wars, and the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress of Vienna was seen as the first f a series of Congresses. Diplomats felt that they should 'stick together' in peacetime to preserve the peace </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted a fair policy of no great rewards and no great punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Gave a balanced settlement which ensured no major conflict for forty years (the Crimean War,1854-6) and then until 1914 </li></ul>
    17. 17. Significance of Congress of Vienna-2 <ul><li>The Congress of Vienna settlement, despite later changes, formed the framework for European international politics until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>In February 1815, the Congress condemned the slave trade as inconsistent with civilization and human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Restored monarchies across Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Ignored demands for greater democracy and nationalism; this led to the majority of conflicts in the Nineteenth Century, between and within countries( thus ignited Liberal National Revolutions of 1848 Across Europe) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Europe in 1850
    19. 19. Italian Unification by 1870
    20. 20. Unification of Germany 1866-71
    21. 21. Europe in 1900
    22. 22. From 1815 to 1914 <ul><li>The Russian attempt to expand west words was stopped by Crimea war(1854-56) by Britain and France </li></ul><ul><li>Germany became united and started as a new power player in 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Italy followed the immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Development of these new powers led to a a search for new balance of power in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Many central American countries got independence from Spanish control. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Two world wars and nation states <ul><li>The first worked war spell the doom of old empires( Ottoman , astro hungarian empire) and paved way for emergence of many nation states form the empire. Russsia in the form of USSR could still hold many nationalities in in its fold . Yugoslavia is an exaple for a emergence of new state, </li></ul><ul><li>After the second world warie after 1945 war many nations in Africa Asia got independence thus le to the in thglobe </li></ul>
    24. 24. Essential nature of modern nation sate <ul><li>Territoriality </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of nationality </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Equal recognition in the community of nations </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of international law </li></ul>
    25. 25. 1914 Ethnolinguistic Map of Europe
    26. 26. Napoleon's Empire
    27. 27. Austro Hungarian empire
    28. 28. Ottoman empire1174-1914
    29. 29. 1914 Political Map of Europe
    30. 31. World Map 1914
    31. 32. World in 1945
    32. 33. Current World Map