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Rules of Descent How Kin Are Reckoned (Recognized)
What is Kinship? <ul><li>Study of relations based on </li></ul><ul><li>Sex and Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul...
Why Kinship? <ul><li>World’s first organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms basis of: </li></ul><ul><li>Property rights </li>...
Constants of Kinship: Biological <ul><li>Sex: The First Two Constants </li></ul><ul><li>Men impregnate the women </li></ul...
Constants of Kinship: Death—Or You Can’t Take It With You <ul><li>Death: Demands a replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions...
Constants of Kinship: Incest Tabu I <ul><li>A cultural universal tabu: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary kin may not mate with eac...
Constants of Kinship: Incest Tabu II <ul><li>Exceptions: Brother sister marriage of royal lineage </li></ul><ul><li>Egypti...
Constants of Kinship: Male Dominance <ul><li>Male Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Males exercise authority over households and...
Overview of Topics I <ul><li>Begin with principles of descent </li></ul><ul><li>Descent governs all aspects of kinship </l...
Overview of Topics II <ul><li>Family and household types </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear and extended </li></ul><ul><li>Postmari...
Principles of Descent: Nuts and Bolts <ul><li>Figures on chart </li></ul><ul><li>Triangles: males </li></ul><ul><li>Circle...
Principles of Descent: Two Major Types <ul><li>Bilateral:  one reckons kin through both sexes equally (top) </li></ul><ul>...
Kinship reckoning is  Social <ul><li>Exercise: Name all 4 grandparents </li></ul><ul><li>Name siblings of all 4 grandparen...
Descent Rules: Bilateral <ul><li>Definition: Rule by which kin are reckoned through both male and female kin equally. </li...
Descent Rules: Unilineal <ul><li>Rule of affiliation with a </li></ul><ul><li>Group of kin with descent links to ancestor ...
Patrilineal Descent: Exercise <ul><li>Use name with P, for Patrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>Name by number those persons </li...
Matrilineal Descent: Exercise <ul><li>Use name with M, for Patrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>Name by number those persons </li...
Principles of Unilineal Descent <ul><li>Kin not directly descended through one sex from ancestor are excluded </li></ul><u...
Double (Unilineal) Descent <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Coexistence of patrilineal and matrilineal descent in same...
Double (Unilineal) Descent: <ul><li>Yakö of S. Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed cultivation with cattle herding </li></ul><...
A Riddle: Who Has the Cow, Man? <ul><li>(Sorry, Bart) </li></ul><ul><li>Male property mostly inherited by sons </li></ul><...
Give Up? <ul><li>Cattle go from mother’s brother </li></ul><ul><li>To sister’s son </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship is ...
Importance of Descent <ul><li>Bilateral descent: allows flexibility of kin reckoning </li></ul><ul><li>Unilineal descent e...
Coming Up Next <ul><li>The roots of kinship: sex and gender </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage, its definition and functions </li>...
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Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.

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Defining Kinship and its rationale. Rules of descent.

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Rules of Descent: How Kin are Reckoned.

  1. 1. Rules of Descent How Kin Are Reckoned (Recognized)
  2. 2. What is Kinship? <ul><li>Study of relations based on </li></ul><ul><li>Sex and Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Inheritance and succession </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family and larger groups </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of descent </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of social anthropology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Kinship? <ul><li>World’s first organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms basis of: </li></ul><ul><li>Property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Economic units </li></ul><ul><li>Political organizations--even war </li></ul><ul><li>Law and customary law </li></ul><ul><li>Supernatural relations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Constants of Kinship: Biological <ul><li>Sex: The First Two Constants </li></ul><ul><li>Men impregnate the women </li></ul><ul><li>Women bear the children </li></ul><ul><li>This implies cooperation between two person </li></ul><ul><li>May imply cooperation between two groups </li></ul><ul><li>Long period of child dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Mother nurtures the child (as depicted by this statue of Yashoda and Krishna in India) </li></ul><ul><li>Enculturation involves both sexes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Constants of Kinship: Death—Or You Can’t Take It With You <ul><li>Death: Demands a replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions on inheritance : </li></ul><ul><li>Property to eldest son? </li></ul><ul><li>Property divided among male or all children? </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions on succession : </li></ul><ul><li>Important political posts </li></ul><ul><li>Governance of family, larger kin group </li></ul>
  6. 6. Constants of Kinship: Incest Tabu I <ul><li>A cultural universal tabu: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary kin may not mate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Father-daughter (as depicted here of Lot and his daughters in Genesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-son </li></ul><ul><li>Brother-sister </li></ul>
  7. 7. Constants of Kinship: Incest Tabu II <ul><li>Exceptions: Brother sister marriage of royal lineage </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian (depicted), Inca, Hawaiians </li></ul><ul><li>Implications: mates must be sought outside family or group </li></ul><ul><li>Tylor: Tribes have the option “to marry out or die out” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Constants of Kinship: Male Dominance <ul><li>Male Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Males exercise authority over households and wider groups </li></ul><ul><li>Such as this group of Masai men to the upper left </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions often illustrate the rule </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquois: women control land they cultivate (left), vote </li></ul><ul><li>But they do not sit on council or serve as chiefs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Overview of Topics I <ul><li>Begin with principles of descent </li></ul><ul><li>Descent governs all aspects of kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Gender relations </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual behavior (especially incest) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender statuses and roles </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions (including sambandham) </li></ul><ul><li>Its functions </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage types </li></ul>
  10. 10. Overview of Topics II <ul><li>Family and household types </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear and extended </li></ul><ul><li>Postmarital residential </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Descent-based groups </li></ul><ul><li>Lineages and Clans </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate and other </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage alliances </li></ul>
  11. 11. Principles of Descent: Nuts and Bolts <ul><li>Figures on chart </li></ul><ul><li>Triangles: males </li></ul><ul><li>Circles: females </li></ul><ul><li>Squares: either sex </li></ul><ul><li>Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical: generational link </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal above figures: sibling link </li></ul><ul><li>Equal sign or horizontal line below figures: affinal (or marriage) link </li></ul>
  12. 12. Principles of Descent: Two Major Types <ul><li>Bilateral: one reckons kin through both sexes equally (top) </li></ul><ul><li>Unilineal: one reckons kin through the male line only or the female line only </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal: the male line only (lower left) </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilineal: the female line only (lower right) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Kinship reckoning is Social <ul><li>Exercise: Name all 4 grandparents </li></ul><ul><li>Name siblings of all 4 grandparents </li></ul><ul><li>Name all 8 great grandparents </li></ul><ul><li>Biological kin are socially selected </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral descent: memory in Anglo-American society </li></ul><ul><li>Other societies: land rights, community seats </li></ul><ul><li>Unilineal: automatic exclusion of kin </li></ul>
  14. 14. Descent Rules: Bilateral <ul><li>Definition: Rule by which kin are reckoned through both male and female kin equally. </li></ul><ul><li>Term: bi - means two; lateral means side </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on closeness or distance of kin laterally </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral reckoning is inclusive </li></ul><ul><li>All on this chart are kin </li></ul><ul><li>Nonkin mechanism does the exclusion </li></ul>
  15. 15. Descent Rules: Unilineal <ul><li>Rule of affiliation with a </li></ul><ul><li>Group of kin with descent links to ancestor through </li></ul><ul><li>one sex only </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal : Line of kin comprises males only </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilineal: Line of kin comprises females only </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis: line of kin, not those in one side or other </li></ul>
  16. 16. Patrilineal Descent: Exercise <ul><li>Use name with P, for Patrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>Name by number those persons </li></ul><ul><li>Who have name at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Who retain name at marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Who pass name on to children </li></ul><ul><li>Name by number those who lose name upon marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Name by number those who gain name through marriage </li></ul>
  17. 17. Matrilineal Descent: Exercise <ul><li>Use name with M, for Patrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>Name by number those persons </li></ul><ul><li>Who have name at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Who retain name at marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Who pass name on to children </li></ul><ul><li>Name by number those who lose name upon marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Name by number those who gain name through marriage </li></ul>
  18. 18. Principles of Unilineal Descent <ul><li>Kin not directly descended through one sex from ancestor are excluded </li></ul><ul><li>Those with females in line of patrilineal descent are excluded </li></ul><ul><li>Those with males in line of matrilineal descent are excluded </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s left? </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal kin </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilineal kin </li></ul>
  19. 19. Double (Unilineal) Descent <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Coexistence of patrilineal and matrilineal descent in same culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal descent exists for some purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilineal descent exists for other purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at chart in book: Are some people excluded? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Double (Unilineal) Descent: <ul><li>Yakö of S. Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed cultivation with cattle herding </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in Umor, a densely populated city </li></ul><ul><li>Property ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Male property: land, trees, houses, cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Female property: household items, coins </li></ul><ul><li>Property inheritance: </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal: all immovable property </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilineal: all moveable property </li></ul>
  21. 21. A Riddle: Who Has the Cow, Man? <ul><li>(Sorry, Bart) </li></ul><ul><li>Male property mostly inherited by sons </li></ul><ul><li>Female property mostly inherited by daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle, male property, </li></ul><ul><li>Is moveable </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore is inherited matrilineally </li></ul><ul><li>Question: who gets the cattle? </li></ul><ul><li>Hint: Has to be consanguineal kin. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Give Up? <ul><li>Cattle go from mother’s brother </li></ul><ul><li>To sister’s son </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship is known as the avunculate </li></ul><ul><li>It recurs in other societies </li></ul><ul><li>And under other circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Such as this Kaguru legend of famine and mothers </li></ul>
  23. 23. Importance of Descent <ul><li>Bilateral descent: allows flexibility of kin reckoning </li></ul><ul><li>Unilineal descent entails automatic inclusion and exclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Both form the basis of economic rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Political affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Even ancestral worship </li></ul>
  24. 24. Coming Up Next <ul><li>The roots of kinship: sex and gender </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage, its definition and functions </li></ul><ul><li>Family types arising from marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Larger kin units and groups </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage as alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship terminology: what it reflects </li></ul>

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