Kinship III: Kinship Units and Groups Cultural Anthropology
Demonstrated and Stipulated Descent <ul><li>Demonstrated Descent: </li></ul><ul><li>Descent  is traced </li></ul><ul><li>t...
Lineages and Clans <ul><li>Lineages: </li></ul><ul><li>Unilineal descent units and groups </li></ul><ul><li>Whose kin can ...
Descent Units and Descent Groups <ul><li>Descent organizes larger kin as well </li></ul><ul><li>Descent Groups </li></ul><...
Descent Units <ul><li>A group of kin </li></ul><ul><li>descended unilineally </li></ul><ul><li>or bilaterally </li></ul><u...
Descent Groups (Corporate Groups) <ul><li>Are organized with the following characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Own estate: l...
Descent Groups: Rights and Obligations <ul><li>Estate entails rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul...
Descent Groups: Perpetuity <ul><li>The lineage or clan is  sociocentric </li></ul><ul><li>It outlasts the life span of ind...
Legal Persons <ul><li>Corporations are defined as legal persons </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to descent groups </li></ul><ul>...
Principles of Lineage Formation and Segmentation <ul><li>Suppose an extended family gets too large </li></ul><ul><li>The f...
Patrilineal Descent Units/Groups <ul><li>Patrilocal extended families undergo division </li></ul><ul><li>They can keep tie...
Matrilineal Descent Units/Groups <ul><li>Matrilocal extended families undergo like division </li></ul><ul><li>Keep ties ag...
Nonunilineal or Ambilineal Descent Groups <ul><li>Develops from ambilocal extended families--whose descent is bilateral </...
Ambilocal Descent Group: Conditions  <ul><li>Usually found where </li></ul><ul><li>Land is circumscribed by geography </li...
Marriage as Alliance <ul><li>Another function of marriage: alliance </li></ul><ul><li>European history: peace sealed by mo...
Bridewealth  <ul><li>More than a marriage transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of daughter: loss of reproductivity </li></ul...
Bride Labor and Dowry <ul><li>Theme and variation: son proves his worth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that wife will be lo...
Exchange Theory: Mauss’s Analysis of the Gift <ul><li>Exchange Creates and maintains ties between two groups </li></ul><ul...
Parallel and Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Parallel cousin marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Father’s brother’s child or </li></u...
Patrilateral Parallel Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Father’s brother’s children belong to same patrilineal descent unit </li></u...
Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Partner is always outside one’s own lineage or clan </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration </li></ul...
Matrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Definition: marriage of man to his mother’s brother’s daughter </li></ul><ul><l...
Matrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage: Alliance Patterns <ul><li>Effects on social status </li></ul><ul><li>Group B takes wif...
Patrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Woman is man’s father’s sister’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>But man is woman’s ...
Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Two definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Man marries  either </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s b...
Alliance Patterns: Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>If you have only two lineages </li></...
Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage: Results <ul><li>Fissioning village, </li></ul><ul><li>Villages always divide in pairs  </...
Importance of Kin Terms: Bilateral <ul><li>Reflect how cousins are to behave toward each other </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian:...
Importance of Kin Terms: Unilineal <ul><li>Iroquois:  Parallel cousins merged with siblings </li></ul><ul><li>Separated fr...
Kinship Terminology <ul><li>Much more could be said </li></ul><ul><li>Omaha and Crow reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal...
Conclusion: Value of Marriage and Kinship <ul><li>Involves how gender relations are managed </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual relat...
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Descent UInts and Groups.

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Types of Descent and Descent Uniits. Marriage Alliances and Kinship Terminology Derived Therefrom.

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Descent UInts and Groups.

  1. 1. Kinship III: Kinship Units and Groups Cultural Anthropology
  2. 2. Demonstrated and Stipulated Descent <ul><li>Demonstrated Descent: </li></ul><ul><li>Descent is traced </li></ul><ul><li>through all linking males/females </li></ul><ul><li>to ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Stipulated descent </li></ul><ul><li>Descent from ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Is assumed and </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be traced through linking kin </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lineages and Clans <ul><li>Lineages: </li></ul><ul><li>Unilineal descent units and groups </li></ul><ul><li>Whose kin can demonstrate their descent </li></ul><ul><li>From their ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Clans: </li></ul><ul><li>Unilineal descent units and groups </li></ul><ul><li>Whose kin can only stipulate their descent </li></ul><ul><li>From their ancestors </li></ul>
  4. 4. Descent Units and Descent Groups <ul><li>Descent organizes larger kin as well </li></ul><ul><li>Descent Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Descent Units </li></ul>
  5. 5. Descent Units <ul><li>A group of kin </li></ul><ul><li>descended unilineally </li></ul><ul><li>or bilaterally </li></ul><ul><li>who reckon their descent for some purpose </li></ul><ul><li>but who are not necessarily organized </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Navajo are matrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>dispersed throughout countryside </li></ul><ul><li>main function: hospitality </li></ul>
  6. 6. Descent Groups (Corporate Groups) <ul><li>Are organized with the following characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Own estate: land, cattle, fishing/hunting ground </li></ul><ul><li>May be owned by group or </li></ul><ul><li>owned by their constituent families </li></ul>
  7. 7. Descent Groups: Rights and Obligations <ul><li>Estate entails rights and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Rights to cattle for bridewealth </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to provide cattle for bridewealth </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to defend herds (or add to them) </li></ul><ul><li>Fulani: </li></ul><ul><li>If one loses herd due to disease </li></ul><ul><li>Others contribute to replenishment of here </li></ul>
  8. 8. Descent Groups: Perpetuity <ul><li>The lineage or clan is sociocentric </li></ul><ul><li>It outlasts the life span of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Not unlike corporations and downsizing </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasts with kindreds- egocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Kindred comprises full brothers and sisters </li></ul><ul><li>Overlaps with other kindreds </li></ul><ul><li>When full siblings die, kindred dies </li></ul>
  9. 9. Legal Persons <ul><li>Corporations are defined as legal persons </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to descent groups </li></ul><ul><li>Kwakiutl: murder of noble of one clan by commoner of another </li></ul><ul><li>Requires death of noble of commoner’s clan </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility is thereby collective </li></ul><ul><li>New Guinea: murder requires revenge--regardless of individual view </li></ul>
  10. 10. Principles of Lineage Formation and Segmentation <ul><li>Suppose an extended family gets too large </li></ul><ul><li>The family divides into two </li></ul><ul><li>The families may retain ties as lineages </li></ul><ul><li>When lineages get large </li></ul><ul><li>They divide into two </li></ul><ul><li>May retain affiliation as even larger lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Process can continue indefinitely </li></ul>
  11. 11. Patrilineal Descent Units/Groups <ul><li>Patrilocal extended families undergo division </li></ul><ul><li>They can keep ties through lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Process continues indefinitely </li></ul><ul><li>At the end, they may form clans. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Matrilineal Descent Units/Groups <ul><li>Matrilocal extended families undergo like division </li></ul><ul><li>Keep ties again through lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Process continues indefinitely </li></ul><ul><li>Again form clans over long term </li></ul><ul><li>Main difference: role of brother and husband </li></ul><ul><li>Authority figures compete for power </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, segmentation involves Br-Si. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nonunilineal or Ambilineal Descent Groups <ul><li>Develops from ambilocal extended families--whose descent is bilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Each couple chooses residence based on economic advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Kainga on Truk in Gilberts </li></ul><ul><li>Kainga is a landholding unit </li></ul><ul><li>When couple chooses residence, departing spouse retains rights </li></ul><ul><li>But rights do not pass to his/her child </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ambilocal Descent Group: Conditions <ul><li>Usually found where </li></ul><ul><li>Land is circumscribed by geography </li></ul><ul><li>Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands </li></ul><ul><li>And population shifts rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Another example: Scottish clans </li></ul><ul><li>Arable land restricted in highland </li></ul><ul><li>Similar practices observed </li></ul>
  15. 15. Marriage as Alliance <ul><li>Another function of marriage: alliance </li></ul><ul><li>European history: peace sealed by monarchial marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Yanomamo: highest alliance is sealed by marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Women marry cross-cousin--kind of protection </li></ul><ul><li>No such protection if she marries outside </li></ul><ul><li>Must reflect high degree of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to secure alliance: bridewealth and exchange marriage </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bridewealth <ul><li>More than a marriage transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of daughter: loss of reproductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Loss must be compensated. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridewealth </li></ul><ul><li>Entails payment by groom’s kin to wife’s kin </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that wife’s kin attracts wives for its sons </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens bond of kin through network of obligations </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bride Labor and Dowry <ul><li>Theme and variation: son proves his worth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that wife will be looked after </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dowry (p. 252) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of wealth from wife’s family to husband </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition: he looks after wife’s welfare even after his own death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An assurance that woman’s status is on par with husband’s </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Exchange Theory: Mauss’s Analysis of the Gift <ul><li>Exchange Creates and maintains ties between two groups </li></ul><ul><li>Three obligations </li></ul><ul><li>To give: to form ties </li></ul><ul><li>To receive </li></ul><ul><li>To cement ties </li></ul><ul><li>Failure: creates hostilities </li></ul><ul><li>To repay </li></ul><ul><li>Failure makes the recipient a beggar </li></ul><ul><li>Results in his/her inferior status </li></ul>
  19. 19. Parallel and Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Parallel cousin marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Father’s brother’s child or </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s sister’s child </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cousin marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Sister’s brother’s child </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s brother’s child </li></ul>
  20. 20. Patrilateral Parallel Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Father’s brother’s children belong to same patrilineal descent unit </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced among Arab nomadic peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Rwala Bedouin </li></ul><ul><li>Serves to preserve wealth within extended family or lineage </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: limitation on alliance/network </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Partner is always outside one’s own lineage or clan </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s brother’s daughter: belongs to lineage or clan of the brother </li></ul><ul><li>Father’s sister’s daughter: belongs to lineage or clan of sister’s husband </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: cross-cousins always belong to different lineages or clans </li></ul>
  22. 22. Matrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Definition: marriage of man to his mother’s brother’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Man is woman’s father’s sister’s son </li></ul><ul><li>Reference point is always male </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when everyone practices matrilateral cross-cousin marriage </li></ul><ul><li>There are at least 3 groups </li></ul><ul><li>They marry in a circle </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram illustrates why </li></ul>
  23. 23. Matrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage: Alliance Patterns <ul><li>Effects on social status </li></ul><ul><li>Group B takes wife from Group A </li></ul><ul><li>Group B can never return favor with wife from own group </li></ul><ul><li>Why: man from Group A would marry father’s sister’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>“ Violates” matrilateral cross-cousin rule </li></ul><ul><li>Result: B is “beggar” to A: likewise C to B </li></ul><ul><li>Has effect in stratified states, as will be seen </li></ul>
  24. 24. Patrilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Woman is man’s father’s sister’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>But man is woman’s mother’s brother’s son </li></ul><ul><li>Again, male is reference point </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern is somewhat more complicated </li></ul><ul><li>and rarer in occurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Structural implications will be bypassed </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Two definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Man marries either </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s brother’s daughter or </li></ul><ul><li>Father’s sister’s daughter OR </li></ul><ul><li>He marries both </li></ul><ul><li>Mother’s brother’s daughter or </li></ul><ul><li>Father’s sister’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>This diagram shows how </li></ul>
  26. 26. Alliance Patterns: Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>If you have only two lineages </li></ul><ul><li>And everyone does it </li></ul><ul><li>You have only one choice: cross cousin </li></ul><ul><li>An ideal type </li></ul><ul><li>Only one male and only one female </li></ul><ul><li>Applied to Yanomamo, every marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a cross-cousin tie (p 146. 148) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong because it involves future spouses </li></ul>
  27. 27. Bilateral Cross-Cousin Marriage: Results <ul><li>Fissioning village, </li></ul><ul><li>Villages always divide in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Two kinds of people: your kin and your future spouse’s kin </li></ul><ul><li>Kin terms </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquois cousin terminology: </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel cousins: same as brother and sister </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cousin: </li></ul><ul><li>Suaboya: female cross cousin and wife </li></ul><ul><li>Hearoya: male cross-cousin and husband </li></ul>
  28. 28. Importance of Kin Terms: Bilateral <ul><li>Reflect how cousins are to behave toward each other </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaiian: all cousins merge siblings with cousins </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral: marriage outside kin </li></ul><ul><li>Eskimo: our own: immediate siblings separated from cousins </li></ul><ul><li>Often found with nuclear families </li></ul>
  29. 29. Importance of Kin Terms: Unilineal <ul><li>Iroquois: Parallel cousins merged with siblings </li></ul><ul><li>Separated from cross cousins </li></ul><ul><li>Yanomamo: give indication of marriageable partners </li></ul><ul><li>Guinea: Cross-cousins separated from immediate siblings and parallel cousins, </li></ul><ul><li>Matrilateral and patrilateral cousins also separated </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests matrilateral or patrilateral cross-cousin marriage is preferred </li></ul>
  30. 30. Kinship Terminology <ul><li>Much more could be said </li></ul><ul><li>Omaha and Crow reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilineal and matrilineal relations, respectively </li></ul><ul><li>Main point: terms are “markers” of basic relationships </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusion: Value of Marriage and Kinship <ul><li>Involves how gender relations are managed </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual relations </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage and childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Involves relations outside immediate realm of kin </li></ul><ul><li>Economic rights and obligations (next) </li></ul><ul><li>Social control through other institutions </li></ul>

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