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Human Biological and
Cultural Evolution
Cultural Anthropology
Culture in Evolutionary Perspective
To understand culture, we need to:
 (1) Know our biological capacity for culture
 (2...
Our Capacity For Culture: Our
Biological Roots
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(1) Our thinking ability
(2) Our language ability
(3) Our abili...
Topics of This Section I
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We start with the taxonomy, and where we fit in the
animal kingdom.
We then look...
Topics of This Section II
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We then look at hominin/hominid fossils and the
tools they made—or didn’t make.
W...
First Things First: Taxonomy
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Definition: Hierarchical,
systematic classification of all
lifeforms
From the gen...
Taxonomy: Binomial
Nomenclature
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Every species has at least two names
Genus: Homo
Species: sapiens
Varie...
Taxonomy: The General Taxa
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Kingdom: Animalia (ingests food, moves)
Phylum: Chordata (has spinal cord)
Subphyl...
Taxonomy: Order Primata
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Order: Primata
Larger brain relative to body size.
Stereoscopic vision: eyes angle...
Taxonomy: Suborder Anthropoidea
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Suborder Prosimii: These are the lemurs,
tarsiers, and other so-called prosi...
Taxonomy: Superfamily
Hominoidea
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Superfamily Cercopithecoidea: Old World Monkey
Most have tails, smaller ...
Taxonomy: Hominids (Old
Taxonomy)
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Now the confusion begins
Old taxonomy: three hominoid families
Hylobatidae ...
Taxonomy: Hominids (New
Taxonomy)

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This is the new taxonomy:
Hominids apply to all humans and African apes
Homini...
On Hominid Taxonomy, DNA, and
Monkey Wrenches
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Why can’t they leave well enough alone?
Answer: DNA compariso...
Human Comparative Anatomy
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Why anatomy? We need to know what biological
features give us the capacity for cu...
Overview: The Human Skeleton
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You do need to know
some of the parts of the
human skeleton
Use the online graphics
...
Where It All Begins: The Brain
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Frontal Lobe and Motor
Cortex:
Cognition
Motor Abilities
Parietal Lobe:...
Frontal Lobe: Cognitive Areas
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The Frontal Lobe directs
much of our thinking
Note the following:
Executive...
Parts of the Brain: Motor Cortex,
Cross Section
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Related to Language:
Lower Part:
Lips
Tongue
Vocalizati...
Cerebral Cortex: Essential
Language Centers
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These are the essential language
centers:
Broca’s area (purple)...
Parts of the Brain: Language
Centers in Context I
Parts of Cerebrum:
Frontal Lobe (Thinking)
Motor Cortex: Voluntary
movem...
Parts of the Brain: Language
Centers in Context II
Parts of Language
Mechanism
Broca’s Area (Speech
production))
Temporal ...
Parts of the Brain: Language
Centers in Context III
Parts that provide content to
language:
Parietal Lobe (Taste and touch...
Comic Relief, Anyone?
(Courtesy of Geico)

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So easy a caveman can do it. . . .?
Human Skull
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Note the following:
High forehead
Rounded skull
No brow ridge
Chin is present
Teeth are small
T...
Skull Morphology: Chimp and
Human

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Note the following
Larger brow ridge (supraorbital torus) of chimp than
hum...
Human and Chimp Skulls
Compared: Brain Structure
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Compare the following
Chimp’s brain is much
smaller (400c...
What This All Means
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Our brains are larger than the chimps’
We have a well-developed frontal lobe
We have well de...
Dentition
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For each jaw (upper or
maxilla or lower or
mandible:
Incisors (4) for cutting
Canines (cuspid) (2)...
Chimp and Human Jaws

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Note the following:
Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arclike; apes, parallel back
teeth, which ...
Anatomy of Tool Making and Use:
The Hand
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Note The Following:
Our digits are straight
Our thumb is opposab...
Ape and Human Hands
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Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human
Note the following:
Our thumbs are longer...
Power and Precision Grip
Note the Following:
 Power grip: Fingers
and thumbs wrap
around the object
 Precision grip:
For...
Bipedalism
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We are the only mammals
that can stand and walk on
two feet
Kangaroos hop and maintain
balance with...
Chimp and Human Locomotion
Advantages of Bipedalism
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Efficient locomotion
Freeing of hands
Foraging and hunting/scavaging
Tool making a...
Vertebral Column and Pelvis
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Note the following
Human vertebral
column is S-Shaped
Chimp verebral
column is b...
Pelvis and Femur
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Note the following:
Longer ilium of chimp
Shorter, more curved
ilium of human
Straight verti...
Foot Structure
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Note the following:
Large toe of chimp foot
(right) is opposable to other
digits
Large toe of hu...
Foot Arch: Longitudinal and
Transverse
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Note the following:
Longitudinal arch
reflected from
First metatarsa...
The Evolution of Humankind
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The fossil records tells us one thing: human
populations today are very different...
The Model of Evolution
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The model of evolution: genetic change interacting
with environmental pressures
Mutat...
Early Models: The Great Chain of
Being
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A hierarchy of entities from the
simplest to most complex
anticipated the ...
Catastrophism
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Earth’s history is product of sudden
change
Example: Creation of Earth in six
days (upper left),...
Catastrophists: Ussher and Linnaeus
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James Ussher (1581-1656): Argued that
humankind created noon, Oct. 23, ...
The Garden of Eden: Overview

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Location: Southern Iraq where the Tigris and Euphrates meet
(left)
The Garden of Eden,...
The Garden of Eden: The Myth
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The beginning: Adam and Eve
live in the Garden of Eden
God: “Of every tree, thou
...
Garden of Eden: The Temptation
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Tempted by the Serpent, Eve does so (left)
She is the one who starts the Fall
T...
Garden of Eden: The Expulsion
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The couple is expelled from the
Garden of Eden
Consequences:
Woman must bear ...
Of Course, Others Besides
Adam Talk to God . . .
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But was bombing the
Garden of Eden back to
the Stone Age
Somethi...
Uniformitarianism
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Definition: All geological processes occurred
in the past as they do today
Implications: It tak...
Uniformitarianism According to Charles
Lyell
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Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
Espoused extreme form of uniform...
Evolutionary Theories: Natural
Selection
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Natural selection defined:
Evolutionary change by
Differential repro...
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Origin of
Species
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Charles Darwin (above) observed that
pigeons, dogs, and horses were ...
Charles Darwin and Natural
Selection
Natural Selection: Definition and
Implications
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Variations are already present when selection occurs
Natu...
Genetics and Mutation
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Natural selection is one principle of evolution.
Species proliferate
Some are removed by...
Principles of Evolution: Genetics I
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Gregor Mendel: Genetic theory, based on
experiments with peas
Genes:...
Principles of Evolution: Genetics II
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When different alleles combine:
Allele of one manifests in physical ch...
Reconstructing Fossil Hominins and
their Tools
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If taxonomies keep changing, it’s
because we rely on fragments ...
Trends in Human Evolution:
Australopithecus to Homo
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Australopithecus afarensis to A. africanus: Gracile
A...
Fossil Hominins: Skull, Arms,
Hands
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Large bulbous cranium
Short face compared to ape
Vertical carriage of...
Fossil Hominins: Bipedalism
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S-shaped vertebrae (backbone)
Short, wide, bowl-shaped pelvis
Femoral head (ba...
Encephalization (a.k.a. Bigger
Brains)
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Defining Cranial Capacity (and cc’s)

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Ardipithecus ramidus: ca. 400 cc
A. afa...
Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) the
Former First Biped—and Us
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Note the Following:
Shorter (3’6”)
...
Ardipithecus ramidus: The New Kid
on the Fossil Hominin Block
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What’s new?
Ardi is bipedal
She has an ...
Ardipithecus ramidus: A Comparison
with Other Fossil Hominins
When We Became Bipedal
(According to Gary Larson)
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“Hey! Look! No
hands!”
(Does he look like Lucy
to you. . .?)
Gracile and Robust
Australopithecines
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For A. africanus (top), note:
Somewhat rounder skull
No sagittal ...
Homo habilis: The First Known
Toolmaker
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Note the following:

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Face is much flatter
Reduced brow ridge (supraorbital
t...
Homo erectus: Cranial Structure
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Note the Following:
Cranial capacity: 1,000 cc
Occipital bun
Reduced bro...
Homo Erectus (H. ergaster to Some):
Postcranial Skeleton
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Note the following:

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Fully bipedal
Arms about length of Hom...
Lower Paleolithic
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Oldowan Tradition:
Four or five strokes
Unspecialized: choppers
Flakes also made and us...
Homo heidelbergensis (a.k.a.
“Archaic” Homo sapiens
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Note the following:
Brow ridges much reduced
Forehead is ...
Manufacturing Levallois Cores
and Flakes
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Knappers:
Selects the appropriate core,
up to a pound of stone
...
Homo neanderthalensis and H.
sapiens skull

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Note the following for “Classic” Neanderthal

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Greater prognathism; human...
Homo neanderthalensis and H.
sapiens: Postcranial Skeletons
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Note the following for
Neanderthals:

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Heavier brow ridge...
Neanderthal Tools: Mousterian and
Châtelperronian Traditions
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Mousterian (top)
Bordes: 63 types
Burin...
Upper Paleolithic: Modern
Human Tool Traditions.
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Commonalities of Tools:
Blades: Ever thinner and
smalle...
Review and Conclusion
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We have. . .
Looked at the biological bases of culture: for
language, toolmaking, and ...
The Territory Ahead
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Nonhuman Primate Behavior: How close in behavior are
our cousins?
Language: The ...
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Human biological and cultural evolution 2

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Human biological and cultural evolution 2

  1. 1. Human Biological and Cultural Evolution Cultural Anthropology
  2. 2. Culture in Evolutionary Perspective To understand culture, we need to:  (1) Know our biological capacity for culture  (2) How we fit into the animal kingdom  (3) How we came to be what we are: Homo sapiens  We are the only human species in the world.  Neanderthals, our closest “relatives” disappeared 30,000 years ago.
  3. 3. Our Capacity For Culture: Our Biological Roots      (1) Our thinking ability (2) Our language ability (3) Our ability to make and use tools (4) Our bipedalism—ability to stand and walk on two feet If the “science of humankind” is to be taken seriously, we need to know our own anatomy
  4. 4. Topics of This Section I        We start with the taxonomy, and where we fit in the animal kingdom. We then look at human anatomy and compare it with the chimps. Primary foci of the analysis of our anatomy: Capacity for thinking Capacity for language Capacity for tool making and use Capacity for bipedalism, which enables us to do many other things.
  5. 5. Topics of This Section II      We then look at hominin/hominid fossils and the tools they made—or didn’t make. We then look at the behavior of our closest relatives —the chimps, bonobos, and gorillas. For example, we diverged from our chimpanzee ancestors 6 million years ago (6 mya) By observing nonhuman primate behavior (monkeys and apes), we might get an inkling of fossil hominin behavior too—and of our own. All of these have a bearing on our capacity for culture.
  6. 6. First Things First: Taxonomy     Definition: Hierarchical, systematic classification of all lifeforms From the general (kingdom. Phylum, class, order) To the specific (genus, species, variety) Taxon (pl. taxa): categories at all levels from broad to specific
  7. 7. Taxonomy: Binomial Nomenclature          Every species has at least two names Genus: Homo Species: sapiens Variety: sapiens? (If we accept the lumpers’ terms) Stylistic Convention Italicize or underline all names Capitalize the genus Lowercase the species and variety Example: Homo (sapiens) sapiens
  8. 8. Taxonomy: The General Taxa      Kingdom: Animalia (ingests food, moves) Phylum: Chordata (has spinal cord) Subphylum: Vertebrata (has segmented protective bone or cartilage) Class: Mammalia (warm blooded, female secretes milk, has hair or fur) (Pop quiz: what is our constant temperature fixed at?)
  9. 9. Taxonomy: Order Primata       Order: Primata Larger brain relative to body size. Stereoscopic vision: eyes angled toward the same direction, enabling depth perception Flexible digits: Hands only in humans; hand and feet with other primates. Complex sociability: We live in groups but have complex interactions, from grooming to dominance hierarchies to infant rearing. Suborder: Anthropoidea (monkey, apes, humans)
  10. 10. Taxonomy: Suborder Anthropoidea      Suborder Prosimii: These are the lemurs, tarsiers, and other so-called prosimians. The don’t look much like human, but have all the features of primates. Suborder Anthropoidea (“Manlike”) These are the monkeys (New World, Old World) and apes They look like men: almost upright, hands like ours, even the feet look similar.
  11. 11. Taxonomy: Superfamily Hominoidea         Superfamily Cercopithecoidea: Old World Monkey Most have tails, smaller brained, smaller in size. Superfamily Hominoidea: All apes and humans. They look even more humanlike than the monkeys Larger brains No tails Larger body size Social behavior more humanlike
  12. 12. Taxonomy: Hominids (Old Taxonomy)      Now the confusion begins Old taxonomy: three hominoid families Hylobatidae or Hylobates: the lesser apes— gibbons and siamangs Pongidae, or pongids: Orangutans (SE Asia), gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (all African apes) Hominidae: All bipedal humans and prehumans: Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Homo
  13. 13. Taxonomy: Hominids (New Taxonomy)     This is the new taxonomy: Hominids apply to all humans and African apes Hominins apply to Homo sapiens and All extinct ancestors: Australopithecus, Homo habilis, H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis
  14. 14. On Hominid Taxonomy, DNA, and Monkey Wrenches       Why can’t they leave well enough alone? Answer: DNA comparisons versus morphology Humans and chimps DNA genomes vary only by about 99.5%; gorillas, by about 99% or so. Human and Orangutan genomes vary by about 95%, justifying another taxon, pongidae (orangutans); the hylobates (gibbons) are even more distant. The new taxonomy is justified by genetic variations We’ll stick to the old system for now; but you should know that this issue exists.
  15. 15. Human Comparative Anatomy      Why anatomy? We need to know what biological features give us the capacity for culture. The brain is the seat of thinking ability, language, and even tool use. Our vocal tract enables speech, as we will see in the unit on language. Our hands are key to our ability to make and use tools. Our ability to stand and walk on two feet frees our hands to do these things and many others.
  16. 16. Overview: The Human Skeleton    You do need to know some of the parts of the human skeleton Use the online graphics (such as this) Or your printed handouts
  17. 17. Where It All Begins: The Brain         Frontal Lobe and Motor Cortex: Cognition Motor Abilities Parietal Lobe: Touch and Taste Primary somatosensory cortex: feedback from our motor abilities Temporal Lobe: Hearing Occipital Lobe: Vision Olfactory Bulb: Smell
  18. 18. Frontal Lobe: Cognitive Areas       The Frontal Lobe directs much of our thinking Note the following: Executive area for task management Working memory for spatial tasks Working memory for object recall tasks Area for solving multitask problems
  19. 19. Parts of the Brain: Motor Cortex, Cross Section         Related to Language: Lower Part: Lips Tongue Vocalization Related to Tool Making and Use: Upper part: Fingers and Thumb Hand Arm
  20. 20. Cerebral Cortex: Essential Language Centers      These are the essential language centers: Broca’s area (purple): where speech is generated Wernicke’s area (orange brown): where speech is received and processed Arcuate fasciculus (green bundle): transmission between speech generation and reception Geschwind’s territory: where the five senses are interconnected.
  21. 21. Parts of the Brain: Language Centers in Context I Parts of Cerebrum: Frontal Lobe (Thinking) Motor Cortex: Voluntary movement Somato-Sensory Cortex: Feedback from voluntary movement
  22. 22. Parts of the Brain: Language Centers in Context II Parts of Language Mechanism Broca’s Area (Speech production)) Temporal Lobe (Hearing) Auditory Cortex (Hearing) Wernicke’s Area (Speech reception) Arcuate Fasciculus (Coordinator of Broca’s with Wernicke’s areas
  23. 23. Parts of the Brain: Language Centers in Context III Parts that provide content to language: Parietal Lobe (Taste and touch) Occipital Lobe (Sight) Geschwind’s Territory (Intersensory Connector Angular Gyrus (Specialized part that links sound with meaning; coordinates touch, taste, sight, and hearing)
  24. 24. Comic Relief, Anyone? (Courtesy of Geico)  So easy a caveman can do it. . . .?
  25. 25. Human Skull        Note the following: High forehead Rounded skull No brow ridge Chin is present Teeth are small The bones are named after the lobes of the brain they cover
  26. 26. Skull Morphology: Chimp and Human      Note the following Larger brow ridge (supraorbital torus) of chimp than human’s Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human More prognathous jaw of chimp compared to human Larger canine and gap (diastema) of chimp than human
  27. 27. Human and Chimp Skulls Compared: Brain Structure       Compare the following Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs 1400cc) It has reduced frontal lobe It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language
  28. 28. What This All Means     Our brains are larger than the chimps’ We have a well-developed frontal lobe We have well developed language areas: Broca’s and Wernicke’s area The motor strip is more well developed among humans than among chimps
  29. 29. Dentition      For each jaw (upper or maxilla or lower or mandible: Incisors (4) for cutting Canines (cuspid) (2) for piercing Premolars (4) for light grinding Molars (6) for grinding
  30. 30. Chimp and Human Jaws     Note the following: Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arclike; apes, parallel back teeth, which are larger than human molars Canines and Diastema (gap): Apes have larger canines and gaps in opposite jaw to fit them; humans do not Ape incisors are more horizontal than vertical.
  31. 31. Anatomy of Tool Making and Use: The Hand        Note The Following: Our digits are straight Our thumb is opposable The thumb is long The wrist bones are known as carpals. The bones of the hand are called metacarpals. The fingers are known as phalanges.
  32. 32. Ape and Human Hands      Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human Note the following: Our thumbs are longer than the others’ We can make a finer grip than the others can Less visible: apes’ digits are curved, ours are straight
  33. 33. Power and Precision Grip Note the Following:  Power grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object  Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object  Importance: We can do finer work compared to nonhuman primates
  34. 34. Bipedalism     We are the only mammals that can stand and walk on two feet Kangaroos hop and maintain balance with their tails Apes are semibipedal, but use their knuckles to get around Notice the human is on his knees, not just his feet
  35. 35. Chimp and Human Locomotion
  36. 36. Advantages of Bipedalism        Efficient locomotion Freeing of hands Foraging and hunting/scavaging Tool making and use Care and provisioning of offspring Tracking migrating herds Predator avoidance
  37. 37. Vertebral Column and Pelvis      Note the following Human vertebral column is S-Shaped Chimp verebral column is bow-shaped Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium
  38. 38. Pelvis and Femur      Note the following: Longer ilium of chimp Shorter, more curved ilium of human Straight vertical orientation of chimp femur Inward angle of human femur
  39. 39. Foot Structure     Note the following: Large toe of chimp foot (right) is opposable to other digits Large toe of human foot (left) is aligned with other digits Ankle bones (tarsals) of human food are larger and more rigid than the chimps’
  40. 40. Foot Arch: Longitudinal and Transverse       Note the following: Longitudinal arch reflected from First metatarsal to Calcaneus (heel bone) Transverse arch can be inferred from Lower placement of outside foot.
  41. 41. The Evolution of Humankind      The fossil records tells us one thing: human populations today are very different from those one million years ago. Human biological evolution is well established for that reason. This section provides a cultural and intellectual history of creationism and evolutionism It describes the mechanisms of evolution It concludes with a record of both biological and cultural evolution to the present.
  42. 42. The Model of Evolution      The model of evolution: genetic change interacting with environmental pressures Mutation: Genetic change that is random Natural Selection: environmental pressures that favor some lifeforms over others Gene Flow: Change in the population by migration of life form from another population Genetic Drift: Change induced in small population by differential reproduction of the new lifeform.
  43. 43. Early Models: The Great Chain of Being    A hierarchy of entities from the simplest to most complex anticipated the later rise of taxonomy; Karl von Linné (discussed below) drew on this model. In this view, the human race was the most complex and perfect of all living forms Humans, however, were below the divine beings (including demons in the model depicted here.
  44. 44. Catastrophism     Earth’s history is product of sudden change Example: Creation of Earth in six days (upper left), including Adam Example: Flood (Noah’s Ark), which eliminated all life except Noah’s family and the male and female animals he allowed into the ark Catastrophism does have some basis of reality: an asteroid that struck the earth 65 million years ago (lower left) nearly destroyed all life
  45. 45. Catastrophists: Ussher and Linnaeus      James Ussher (1581-1656): Argued that humankind created noon, Oct. 23, 4004 BCE (Upper left) He based his calculations on biblical history and astronomy Carolus Linnaeus (Carl Linné; 17071778) Inventor of taxonomy—classification of lifeforms based on similarities and differences (Sample taxonomy next slide) Viewed system as divinely ordained
  46. 46. The Garden of Eden: Overview   Location: Southern Iraq where the Tigris and Euphrates meet (left) The Garden of Eden, Home of the First Couple—and of Original Sin
  47. 47. The Garden of Eden: The Myth     The beginning: Adam and Eve live in the Garden of Eden God: “Of every tree, thou mayest eat freely But of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, thou mayest not eat For in the day thou eatest of it, thou shalt surely die”
  48. 48. Garden of Eden: The Temptation      Tempted by the Serpent, Eve does so (left) She is the one who starts the Fall Tempted by Eve, Adam also eats the fruit God confronts the pair for having done so (lower left) Despite their supplications, He carries out His punishment
  49. 49. Garden of Eden: The Expulsion       The couple is expelled from the Garden of Eden Consequences: Woman must bear the pain of childbirth And be subject to man’s dominion Man toils by the sweat of his brow The serpent is forever reviled
  50. 50. Of Course, Others Besides Adam Talk to God . . .    But was bombing the Garden of Eden back to the Stone Age Something God had in mind? (Censored by the FCC)
  51. 51. Uniformitarianism    Definition: All geological processes occurred in the past as they do today Implications: It takes millions, perhaps billions of years for the geological processes to take place The earth could not be only 6,000 years ago as Ussher would have claimed
  52. 52. Uniformitarianism According to Charles Lyell        Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Espoused extreme form of uniformitarianism by denying catastrophism (Principles of Geology) Three aspects hold up today Geological processes of past are the same as today Stratigraphy serves to reconstruct history of the earth Immense amount of time necessary for geological processes to effect change in the landscape Age of earth: The current estimate is 4.5 billion years
  53. 53. Evolutionary Theories: Natural Selection      Natural selection defined: Evolutionary change by Differential reproductive success of individuals within a species (group of organism able to reproduce fertile offspring) Through successful adaptation to an environment
  54. 54. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Origin of Species    Charles Darwin (above) observed that pigeons, dogs, and horses were subjected to artificial selection in order to improve their breeding On Galapagos Islands in 1832, Darwin observed that 13 species of finches adapted in different niches descended from a common ancestor (next slide) He conceived the idea of natural selection and after years of dithering finally published his conclusions in The Origin of Species in 1859
  55. 55. Charles Darwin and Natural Selection
  56. 56. Natural Selection: Definition and Implications        Variations are already present when selection occurs Natural selection has no particular direction— change is random Therefore, not all evolution is from the simple to the complex Species can and do become extinct New species can and do arise (Darwin had no way of explaining how the originated, however.) New species fill new niches Dark-winged moths filled a new environment in a soot-darkened coal-fired steel city; birds couldn’t see them
  57. 57. Genetics and Mutation      Natural selection is one principle of evolution. Species proliferate Some are removed by natural selection. But how do new species emerge in the first place? An Austrian Monk, Gregor Mendel, provided a partial answer
  58. 58. Principles of Evolution: Genetics I       Gregor Mendel: Genetic theory, based on experiments with peas Genes: Hereditary information determining physical characteristics Genotype: the genetic makeup of a particular characteristic (color of flowers in pea plant) Phenotype: the physical characteristics created by the genetic makeup Genes are always paired: male contributes half, female contributes half Alleles: Variations of a genetic characteristic
  59. 59. Principles of Evolution: Genetics II       When different alleles combine: Allele of one manifests in physical characteristic (Dominant) The other does not (Recessive) Or both may manifest as hybrid (Codominant) Traits change when mutation occurs in the genes change in the sex cells of one or both individuals. This process of mutation requires information beyond the scope of this course.
  60. 60. Reconstructing Fossil Hominins and their Tools     If taxonomies keep changing, it’s because we rely on fragments and infer from them Human remains: mostly teeth, bones, and stones—because they are preserved the best Here is Lucy—that’s one of the most complete remains we have that is dated 3.7 million years Here are two stone choppers—we think (lower left)
  61. 61. Trends in Human Evolution: Australopithecus to Homo       Australopithecus afarensis to A. africanus: Gracile Australopithecines Paranthropus robustus and P. boisei: Robust Australopithecines—Dead end? A. africanus to Homo habilis: Rise of tool manufacture? H. habilis to H. erectus: Migration throughout Old World; more kinds of tools H. erectus to H. heidelbergensis to H. sapiens: Tool specialization and population explosion to New World H. neanderthalensis: Dead end?
  62. 62. Fossil Hominins: Skull, Arms, Hands         Large bulbous cranium Short face compared to ape Vertical carriage of head Shortened forelimb Hands (manipulation, not locomotion) Enlarged thumb Straight fingers, not curved Enhanced finger sensitivity
  63. 63. Fossil Hominins: Bipedalism        S-shaped vertebrae (backbone) Short, wide, bowl-shaped pelvis Femoral head (ball of femur at pelvis) angled and strengthened Lengthened hindlimb Angle of knee: femur “slopes” to pelvis Platform (arched) structure of foot Nonopposable big toe; toes not curved
  64. 64. Encephalization (a.k.a. Bigger Brains)  Defining Cranial Capacity (and cc’s)  Ardipithecus ramidus: ca. 400 cc A. afarensis: 390-500 cc; av. 440 cc A. africanus: 435-530 cc; av. 450 cc A./P robustus: 520 cc, one specimen A.P. boisei: 500-530 cc; av. 515 cc. H. habilis: 500-800 cc; av. 680 cc. H. erectus: 750-1250 cc; av. 1000 cc H. neanderthalensis: 1300-1750 cc; av. 1450 H. (s.) sapiens: 900-2350 cc. av. 1400        
  65. 65. Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) the Former First Biped—and Us            Note the Following: Shorter (3’6”) Longer arms Curved fingers Shorter lower legs Greater prognathism Sloped forehead Smaller cranial capacity What are the Similarities? Hint: it’s all related to bipedalism Give up? Check on Ardi, next slide.
  66. 66. Ardipithecus ramidus: The New Kid on the Fossil Hominin Block           What’s new? Ardi is bipedal She has an opposable toe She lived in a wooded environment She is dated at about 4.4 mya Otherwise,. . . About 4 feet tall Longer arms Cranial capacity: 400 cc Curved fingers and the rest.
  67. 67. Ardipithecus ramidus: A Comparison with Other Fossil Hominins
  68. 68. When We Became Bipedal (According to Gary Larson)   “Hey! Look! No hands!” (Does he look like Lucy to you. . .?)
  69. 69. Gracile and Robust Australopithecines          For A. africanus (top), note: Somewhat rounder skull No sagittal crest Prognathous jaw For Paranthropus boisei, note: Sagittal crest (ate a lot of veggies) Massive lower jaw (mandible) Flatter face Massive cheek bones (zygomatic arch)
  70. 70. Homo habilis: The First Known Toolmaker  Note the following:  Face is much flatter Reduced brow ridge (supraorbital torus) Larger cranial capacity (680 cc.)    Toolmaking Technique  Hammerstone used to strike A core (lump of stone) to knap A Flake (stone chip) Note: Stone has to be crystalline (so it will fracture predictably)   
  71. 71. Homo erectus: Cranial Structure         Note the Following: Cranial capacity: 1,000 cc Occipital bun Reduced brow ridge Reduced sloping forehead Reduced prognathism No chin; jaw is reinforced by a simian shelf Artist’s conception of H. erectus
  72. 72. Homo Erectus (H. ergaster to Some): Postcranial Skeleton  Note the following:  Fully bipedal Arms about length of Homo sapiens Cranial capacity: 1000 cc (average) Main apelike features: Prognathous lower face Sloping forehead     
  73. 73. Lower Paleolithic         Oldowan Tradition: Four or five strokes Unspecialized: choppers Flakes also made and used Acheulean Tradition: 50-75 strokes Symmetrical design Multiple uses: cutting, piercing, chopping
  74. 74. Homo heidelbergensis (a.k.a. “Archaic” Homo sapiens       Note the following: Brow ridges much reduced Forehead is higher, though sloping Reduced prognathism Cranial capacity 1200 cc. Artist’s conception shows closer similarities to ourselves
  75. 75. Manufacturing Levallois Cores and Flakes        Knappers: Selects the appropriate core, up to a pound of stone Strikes the edge of the core Knaps the surface of the intended flake Knocks off the flake Retouches the flake to desired shape May knap four to five flakes
  76. 76. Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens skull  Note the following for “Classic” Neanderthal  Greater prognathism; humans lower jaw is straight Absence of chin that humans have. Presence of brow ridge; human has none, has higher forehead Presence of occipital bun Larger cranial capacity: 1450 cc vs. 1400 cc in humans Also note: Artist’s conception of Neanderthal child     
  77. 77. Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens: Postcranial Skeletons  Note the following for Neanderthals:  Heavier brow ridge and sloping forehead Bones generally more robust Larger rib cage Broader pelvis Shorter forearm Shorter tibia Larger ankle joint      
  78. 78. Neanderthal Tools: Mousterian and Châtelperronian Traditions           Mousterian (top) Bordes: 63 types Burins (engravers) Scrapers and knives Even a type of handaxe Part of the Mesolithic Châtelperronian (bottom) First blades—by Neanderthals Definition: flakes twice as wide as they are long Initiated the Upper Paleolithic
  79. 79. Upper Paleolithic: Modern Human Tool Traditions.        Commonalities of Tools: Blades: Ever thinner and smaller Increased tool specialization Other material: bone, ivory, antler Other Developments Artwork (such as this mural at Altamira, Spain) Ornamentation (Venus statuettes)
  80. 80. Review and Conclusion      We have. . . Looked at the biological bases of culture: for language, toolmaking, and bipedalism Compared our anatomy with chimps, our closest relatives Discussed evolutionary change based on natural selection and mutation Looked at our ancestors and the tools they made
  81. 81. The Territory Ahead          Nonhuman Primate Behavior: How close in behavior are our cousins? Language: The medium of culture Making a Living: Industrial societies are not the only cultures in the world Sex, Family, and Its Extensions: The world’s first social organizations Economics: How goods and services are provided Social Control: Governance and law Psychology: Freud didn’t start it all The Supernatural: Were there gods before God? Culture Change and Globalization: Is there life outside corporations?

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