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Patrick ten Brink EP WS EU Action on Marine Litter 3 May 2017

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Presentation by Patrick ten Brink of IEEP at the European Parliament (EP) Workshop on EU Action on Marine Litter 3 May 2017 - Measures to address Marine Litter

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Patrick ten Brink EP WS EU Action on Marine Litter 3 May 2017

  1. 1. www.ieep.eu @IEEP_eu Measures to address Marine Litter Patrick ten Brink Director IEEP-Brussels & Head of the Green Economy Programme 3 May 2016 European Parliament, Brussels
  2. 2. Structure 1. Plastics the Circular Economy and Marine Litter 2. Overview of Measures 3. Examples 4. Way forward Portugal, 2012 France, 2015 South Africa, 2015
  3. 3. ECONOMY Plastic producers & converters (inc. Packaging) Sectors using plastic e.g. intermediate and final consumption Food and Drink Cosmetics and personal care products Textiles and Clothing Agriculture; Fisheries & Aquaculture Construction Terrestrial transport; Shipping Tourism SOCIETY & its INSTITUTIONS WASTE & WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT Final consumption by citizens ~300mt/yr Recyclers MARINE ENVIRONMENT TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT Goods Services e.g. accidental releases Landfill Coast,surfacewaters,watercolumn,seabed,ingestionbyspecies Reuse, repair, remanufacture, recycle RETAIL Reuse e.g. microbeads in products; accidental releases; plastic blasting; degradation of buoys; loss of nets e.g. loss of packaging; tyre wear; accidental releases e.g. windblown waste from landfills e.g. litter washed into stormwater drains; microfibres; microbeads; bio-filters e.g. littering; deliberate/illegal waste disposal Raw material inputs: fossil fuels and agricultural material for bioplastics Plastics, the Circular Economy and Marine Litter
  4. 4. Producer responsibility & consumer behaviour • Production as a source: ˜300m metric tonnes of plastic produced annually; $400bn annual market for consumer packaging • Consumers as a source: 4,000 tonnes/year of microbeads in EU personal care products; microfibers from laundry; littering; packaging • Impacts on consumers: health & safety, food chain, well-being • Means of engagement/solutions: product design, product charges/ deposits, infrastructure, technology (e.g. apps), info campaigns © Agua Costa Rica Butt bins, Denmark
  5. 5. Waste and wastewater sector • Waste sector as a source/pathway: poor infrastructure, dumping, windblown waste, biofilters, stormwater, microbeads • Waste prevention: extended producer responsibility, product design, wastewater treatment • Waste collection: public/municipal and small/voluntary projects • Waste disposal: capture windblown waste, clean up illegal dumps • Trash to treasure…! © Net-WorksTM © Bureo © G-STAR RAW
  6. 6. Fishing and aquaculture • Fisheries/aquaculture as a source: abandoned, lost & discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) e.g. nets, buoys, ropes • Impacts on the sector: vessel damage (cooling systems, propellers), loss of catch through ghost fishing, reduced value of catch (e.g. from chemical/ microplastic ingestion) • Actions and costs: fishing for litter, modified gear, on-board technology, deposit refunds, port reception facilities and fees
  7. 7. Tourism sector • Tourism sector as a source: littering, recreational fishing & boating, hotels/shops, inadequate waste infrastructures • Impacts on the sector: loss of aesthetic value, health & safety risks, reduction in tourist numbers, loss of tourism jobs • Actions and costs: beach clean-ups, beach certification/ sustainable tourism, bans, fees and fines, awareness-raising © Susan White/USFWS
  8. 8. Plastics, the Circular Economy, Marine Litter & Instruments Research & development (e.g. for product innovation) Direct investments in infrastructure Bans Market-based instruments (e.g. deposit-refund schemes, product charges) Fees and Fines & criminal rulings Taxes & charges – landfill, incineration, waste water Innovation - e.g. waste water treatment for micro plastic Awareness raising Clean-up measures EPR: Extended Producer Responsibility Better implementation of legislation Fishing for litter Product design e.g. to facilitate reuse, repair, remanufacture, recycling New legislation: e.g. Bans, Standards, info requirements Clean-up measures Fees & Fines; standards; insurance & criminal rulings Transparency
  9. 9. Hierarchy and types of actions adapted from Watkins et al, forthcoming Prevent/reduce waste that contributes to marine litter: • Product design, material choice, awareness raising Prevent/reduce litter that reaches the marine environment: • Waste and wastewater infrastructure; incentives e.g. deposit refund, EPR; plastic bag charges; bans e.g. bags/smoking; awareness raising Collect litter from marine environment: • Clean-ups; fishing for litter Recycle/upcycle collected litter: • Trash to treasure, recycling, new products
  10. 10. Conclusions / summary and way forward • There are many circular economy solutions to address marine litter – which mix of instruments is best will be specific to issue and country contexts • Costs (environmental, health, social and economic) of inaction are too high to accept the status quo of plastic pollution • Need multi-level governance solutions (i.e. action by all parties) • Best to follow a hierarchy of prevention over treatment as this is likely to be more (cost)effective • Learn from others: e.g. inspired by plastic bag taxes to product bans • EU Plastics strategy within the Circular Economy package a major opportunity for policy commitment • Need measures and ambition in proportion to the challenge of keeping plastic and its value in the economy and out of the oceans
  11. 11. Further information: www.ieep.eu & ptenbrink@ieep.eu • Soon to start! Massive Open Online Course on Marine Litter: https://www.marinelittermooc.org/ & https://www.marinelittermooc.org/learn/marine-litter-mooc-may-2017 • Plastics, Marine Litter and The Circular Economy – supported by the MAVA foundation. A briefing on a road map of circular economy measures to address marine litter and catalyse a transition to a circular economy for plastics as well as three product fiches – on microplastics, single use products, and on polystyrene. 2016-17. http://www.ieep.eu/work-areas/natural-resources-and-waste/resource-use/2016/10/tackling-marine-litter-with-the- circular-economy-and-the-eu-plastics-strategy • Watkins E., ten Brink P., Withana S., Kettunen M., Russi D., Mutafoglu K., Schweitzer J-P., and Gitti G. (2017): ’Socio- Economics of Marine Litter’. In Nunes P., Svenssona L.E., and Markandya A. (eds). Handbook on the Economics and Management for Sustainable Oceans, Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK and Massachusetts, USA. • GESAMP (2016). “Sources, fate and effects of microplastics in the marine environment: part two of a global assessment” (Kershaw, P.J., & Rochman, C.M., Eds). (IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/UNIDO/WMO/IAEA/UN/UNEP/UNDP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection). Rep. Stud. GESAMP No. 93, 220 p. http://www.gesamp.org/data/gesamp/files/file_element/0c50c023936f7ffd16506be330b43c56/rs93e.pdf • Watkins, E., ten Brink, P., Mutafoglu, K., Withana, S., Schweitzer, J-P., Russi, D., Kettunen, M. and Gitti, G. (2016) Marine litter: Socio-economic study. A report by IEEP for UNEP. • Newman S, Watkins E, Farmer A, ten Brink P, Schweitzer J-P (2015) ‘The economics of marine litter’ in: Bergmann M, Gutow L, Klages M (eds) Marine Anthropogenic Litter. Springer, Berlin, pp ##) http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-16510-3_14 • ten Brink, P., Lutchman, I., Bassi, S., Speck, S., Sheavly, S., Register, K., and Woolaway, C., 2009. Guidelines on the Use of Market-based Instruments to Address the Problem of Marine Litter. Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), Brussels, Belgium, and Sheavly Consultants, Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA. 60 pp. http://www.ieep.eu/assets/477/Economic_Instruments_and_Marine_Litter.pdf

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