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REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
PARTICIPATION OF LO...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
3. Serve as
nodes i...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Land-based Pollutio...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Cross-sectoral Mana...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Cross-sectoral Mana...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Involvement of Loca...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Involvement of Loca...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Law Enforcement thr...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Law Enforcement thr...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Changes of Awarenes...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Changes of Awarenes...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Involvement of Priv...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Involvement of Priv...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Integration of Trad...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Integration of Trad...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Supplementary and A...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Supplementary and A...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Sustainable Tourism...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Sustainable Tourism...
REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS
IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND
WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG
Replication of Less...
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Participation of Local Government and Communities in Implementing Activities at the Demonstration Sites of the UNEP/GEF South China Sea Project (Tuan)

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Presented by Dr. Vo Si Tuan, Former Senior Expert, UNEP/DGEF For further information, please visit the project website: www.unepscs.org

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Participation of Local Government and Communities in Implementing Activities at the Demonstration Sites of the UNEP/GEF South China Sea Project (Tuan)

  1. 1. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG PARTICIPATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND COMMUNITIES IN IMPLEMENTING ACTIVITIES AT THE DEMONSTRATION SITES OF THE UNEP/GEF PROJECT ENTITLED “REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND” Presented by Dr. Vo Si Tuan, Former Senior Expert, UNEP/DGEF For further information, please visit the
  2. 2. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG 3. Serve as nodes in a regional learning network for the South China Sea. Habitat demonstration sites approved by the Project Steering Committee Role of demonstration sites: 1. Implement experiment in new management models and methods. 2. Generate knowledge, experiences, and good practices. Kampot
  3. 3. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Land-based Pollution Pilot Activities and Self-funded Projects LingDingYang – artificial wetlands for waste treatment SFP Cu Lao Cham – MPA for sustainable use of coral reefs & associated resources SFP Thi Nai – Ecological restoration and multiple use of coastal lagoon SFP LARCM – Coastal zone management SFP CHARM – Coastal habitat & resource co-management Batam – Industry & community Involvement in waste management
  4. 4. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Cross-sectoral Management to Ensure Coordination Mechanism for Multiple Use of Coastal Habitats Concerns: Sectoral management common in the region – conflicts among sectors and reduction of total benefits from habitats Solutions: Management Boards with participation of related government utilities, NGOs, private sector, local communities Integration of activities under demonstration projects with other related actions at local levels Maintenance of coordination mechanism for management of habitat and resources beyond the project
  5. 5. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Cross-sectoral Management to Ensure Coordination Mechanism for Multiple Use of Coastal Habitats Good Practice at Hepu Seagrass Demonstration Site Hepu Dugong Protection Station Beihai EPA CSCIO Beihai RDC Beihai Aquatic Adm Beihai Ocean Adm Beihai MSA Hepu Govt Tieshanggang Govt Admin. Committee (City Govt.) • Establishment of the first State-level Nature Reserve for Seagrass-Dugong • Improved infrastructure for the Zone • Building of a platform for scientific research and education • Maintaining a favorable balance between economic development and environmental protection
  6. 6. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Involvement of Local Related Stakeholders in Development of Fisheries Refugia Concerns: MPAs/Marine Parks developed not based on sound scientific information for re-stock of living resources – poor integration with fisheries sectors Limitation of experts on life-cycle of marine resources Weak integration among scientists, managers and local communities Solutions: • Using knowledge of local fishermen in identifying spawning and nursery areas – Interpretation between local and scientific language • Participation of local people in developing and implementation of management plan and regulation • Formalisation of local agreements by local governments
  7. 7. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Involvement of Local Related Stakeholders in Development of Fisheries Refugia Development of the regional refugia network Pilot project for development of pilot refugia at Phu Quoc (Viet Nam) Stakeholder Consultations on Refugia Concept Review of Fish Egg and Larvae Data for Refugia Identification Local consultation in Phu Quoc on Mapping Known Refugia
  8. 8. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Law Enforcement through Supports of Local Government and Participation of Communities Concerns: Many laws but inefficient effectiveness Lack of human and financial capacity for enforcement Solutions: • Appropriate mechanism and legal basis for local involvement • Financial supports from local government • Mobilising fund from other sources • Training on knowledge on habitats and enforcement skill • Public awareness to gain community supports
  9. 9. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Law Enforcement through Supports of Local Government and Participation of Communities Good Practice at Bolinao Seagrass Demonstration Site : “Bantay Daggat” – Local Law Enforcement in Coastal Management • The “Bantay Dagat” operates with 8 motorized native outriggers (bancas): 1 speedboat (donated by BFAR) 1 from SAGIP Project 1 from BSDS 5 from LGU Decrease in number of violations (dynamite and trawl fishing and use of active gear (1997 - 2007) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 No.ofapprehensions • 17 law enforcers, 16 volunteers from peoples’ organizations (POs)
  10. 10. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Changes of Awareness and Habits for Encouraging Local People in Managing Land-based Pollution Concerns: Lack of willingness of local people Costed in waste treatment Negative habits in discharsing domestic waste Solutions: • Involvement of local people in planning & implementation • Clear responsiveness in sustainable development • Tools for management (legal basis and commitments, monitoring) • Enhancement of public awareness
  11. 11. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Changes of Awareness and Habits for Encouraging Local People in Managing Land-based Pollution Good Practice at Batam Pilot Project, Indonesia : Industry and Local Community Involvement in Land-based Pollution Management • Local Government : Controlling and evaluating of environmental management of industries (e.g. documents, sea water quality and activities) & seminar, socialization, training for industrial sectors / stake holders • Industrial sector: Reporting of environmental management of industrial activities; Compliance to the National and Local government regulations; and Monitoring Sea Water Quality • Participation of the local communities started from planning, designing, construction and maintenance of communal septic tank system. • The willingness of local community to offer their own land for the placement of communal septic tank. • Participation of women (house wives) in solid waste management particularly for composting activities. Domestic waste management Heavy metal discharging management
  12. 12. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Involvement of Private Sector in Habitat Management Concerns: Inadequacy of human and financial capacity for management Priority of private sector in getting profits Solutions: • Appropriate policy of the government for private sector in habitat management • Profits for investors through sustainable use of resources • Integration of private sector and local communities Coordination Committee of FCG Demo Site Zone 1 (Beilun Mangrove Reserve) Managed by Oceanic Administration of FCG Zone 2 (Mangrove Park run by Xindi Co. Ltd Guangxi Mangrove Research Center Site Manager ( LIU Jingfa ) And Chief Scientist ( Dr. FAN Hangqing )
  13. 13. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Involvement of Private Sector in Habitat Management • Xindi Co. Ltd donates money to support mangrove conservation activities organized by local government • Local government offers policy supports to mangrove conservation in a multi-sectoral management attempt • Army and police help to conduct law and regulation enforcement for mangrove conservation • Schools and local communities engage in mangrove education • Invite famous designer (Edew of USA) to design a mangrove eco park • Raise construction funds from different sources Good Practice at Fangchengang Mangrove Demonstration Site – Management of the Mangrove Urban by Xindi Co. Ltd
  14. 14. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Integration of Traditional Wisdom into Management Plan Concerns: Traditional regulations applied effectively Weak enforcement of formal laws because of lack capacity Solutions: • Possibility to integrate traditional wisdom to management at large scale • Promotion of participation of local communities in enforcement
  15. 15. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Integration of Traditional Wisdom into Management Plan Good Practice at Belitung Coral Reef Demonstration Site – Integration of Traditional Wisdom in Development of Management Plan The traditional wisdom: - Whoever fishes in Gersik and Suak Gual waters should use the same fishing gear as local people - Light fishing is forbidden in Gersik and Suak Gual village waters -Whoever goes against the agreement will be punished Experiences and practices of the traditional wisdom in Gersik and Suak Gual would be applied into management plan for coral reefs and related resources of Selat Nasik Sub- district
  16. 16. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Supplementary and Alternative Livelihood as a Tool For Improvement of Habitat and Resources Management Concerns: Dependence of local people on resources related to coastal habitats Poor practices causing habitat degradation Low awareness on sustainable useSolutions: • Finding alternate activities not harmful directly to habitats • Training on techniques and improvement of quality & prices of products • Reasonable use of nature living resources that recovered by effective management
  17. 17. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Supplementary and Alternative Livelihood as a Tool For Improvement of Habitat and Resources Management Good Practice at Batu Ampar Mangrove Demonstration Site – Livelihood Alternatives Coconut charcoal production to reduce mangrove cutting Soft-shell crab culture Leban plantation forLeban plantation for replaced materialsreplaced materials
  18. 18. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Sustainable Tourism Based on Coastal Habitats Concerns: Expanded uncontrolled tourism in the region Poor planning for tourist development Tourism as tool for enhancement of habitat management or as impacts for degradation? Solutions: • Planning with participation of local related stakeholders • Sound scientific information required for planning • Enhancement of consensus and awareness on sustainable management • Mechanism for enforcement • Encouraging responsiveness of tourist sectors
  19. 19. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Sustainable Tourism Based on Coastal Habitats Good Practice at Koh Chang Coral Reef Demonstration Site – Sustainable Tourism based on Coral Reefs - Carrying capacity study for tourism in Mu Koh Chang - Study to determine tourist fee for coral reef management purposes - Establishment of Local Guide Centre - Demonstration project of coral reef restoration - An underwater snorkeling trail - Installation of additional mooring buoys - Building awareness and education on ecological importance and sustainable use of coral reefs A management plan and guideline for sustainable tourism based on coastal resources, taking into account functions of local related stakeholders and linkages in the network
  20. 20. REVERSING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION TRENDS IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA AND GULF OF THAILAND WWW.UNEPSCS.ORG Replication of Lessons Learnt and Good Practices What should be done: • Documentation for dissemination (project website, publications ...) • Visits to the sites Feasibility in application: • Lessons learnt at the regional level could be applied in other regional projects • Consideration if any difference in real conditions at the site level (Municipal rights to sea areas in the Philippines; dependence of coastal communities on forest resources in Batu Ampar) • Some sensitivities (serve punishes of Belitung traditional wisdom, including stoned)

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