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sedative and hypnotics

This presentation explain the knowledge about sedative and hypnotics drugs also its physical properties, storage ,uses,dose, brand name and marketed formulations.

1 of 10
Sedatives and Hypnotics
Presented By: Priyanka N. Deshmukh
K.Y.D.S.C.T’s college of pharmacy, sakegaon
 Introduction
Sedative:
Sedatives are C.N.S depressants but do not induce (produce)
sleep in normal dose but calms the nerves.
Hypnotics in smaller doses may be sedative while sedatives in large doses produce
hypnotics effect.
Hypnotics:
Hypnotics are the drugs which depress C.N.S
and produce sleep, resembling natural sleep
in normal dose.
Sedative and Hypnotics
Barbiturate Non barbiturates
Ultrashort acting barbiturates:e.g. Methohexitone sodium,
thiopentone sodium
1. Barbiturate
Short acting barbiturates: e. g. cyclobarbitone
Long acting barbiturates: e.g. Barbitone ,phenobarbitone
Intermediate acting barbiturates:e.g. butobarbitone
Acyclic nitrogen containing compounds:e.g. Meprobamate
Other cyclic nitrogen containing compounds- amides& imides e.gGlutethimide
Miscellaneous:e.g.bromides, antihistamines
2. Non-Barbiturate
Benzodiazepine:e.g. Dazepam, nitrazepam
Alcohols and their derivative:e.g. Triclofos sodium
Aldehyde and derivative:e.g.paraldehyde
Contents Diazepam Alprazolam
Molecular formula C16H13ClN2O C17H13ClN4
Structure
Chemical name 7-Chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-
1H[e][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one
8-Chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl
4Hbenzo[f][1,2,4]triazolo[4,
3-a][1,4]diazepine
Physical properties • Off-white to yellow,
odourless crystalline powder.
• Tasteless at first with a bitter
after taste.
• white crystalline
odourless solid powder.

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sedative and hypnotics

  • 1. Sedatives and Hypnotics Presented By: Priyanka N. Deshmukh K.Y.D.S.C.T’s college of pharmacy, sakegaon
  • 2.  Introduction Sedative: Sedatives are C.N.S depressants but do not induce (produce) sleep in normal dose but calms the nerves. Hypnotics in smaller doses may be sedative while sedatives in large doses produce hypnotics effect. Hypnotics: Hypnotics are the drugs which depress C.N.S and produce sleep, resembling natural sleep in normal dose.
  • 4. Ultrashort acting barbiturates:e.g. Methohexitone sodium, thiopentone sodium 1. Barbiturate Short acting barbiturates: e. g. cyclobarbitone Long acting barbiturates: e.g. Barbitone ,phenobarbitone Intermediate acting barbiturates:e.g. butobarbitone
  • 5. Acyclic nitrogen containing compounds:e.g. Meprobamate Other cyclic nitrogen containing compounds- amides& imides e.gGlutethimide Miscellaneous:e.g.bromides, antihistamines 2. Non-Barbiturate Benzodiazepine:e.g. Dazepam, nitrazepam Alcohols and their derivative:e.g. Triclofos sodium Aldehyde and derivative:e.g.paraldehyde
  • 6. Contents Diazepam Alprazolam Molecular formula C16H13ClN2O C17H13ClN4 Structure Chemical name 7-Chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl- 1H[e][1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one 8-Chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl 4Hbenzo[f][1,2,4]triazolo[4, 3-a][1,4]diazepine Physical properties • Off-white to yellow, odourless crystalline powder. • Tasteless at first with a bitter after taste. • white crystalline odourless solid powder.
  • 7. Chemical properties • Lipophilic in nature. • Completely soluble in in DMF(Dimethyl formamide). • Sparingly soluble in propylene glycol. • Freely soluble in methylene chloride. • Sparingly soluble in acetone and alcohol. • Practically insoluble in water. Uses • Sedative and hypnotics agent. • To treat anxiety, alcohol withdrawal and seizures. • Sedative and hypnotics agent. • In anxiety disorder. • In panic disorder. Storage • Stored in tightly closed, light resistant containers. • Store protected from light. Formulation • Tablet, capsule,injection, gel • Tablet, capsule, injection, gel, syrup Brands Alzepam Aaram Dose • 2mg to 10 mg two to four times per day. • No more than 0.5 mg every 3 days.
  • 8. Contents Nitrazepam Phenobarbitol Molecular formula C15H11ClN2O3 C12H12N3O3 Structure Chemical name 7-nitro-5-(2,3,4,5,6- pentadeuteriophenyl)-1,3- dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2- one 5-ethyl-5-phenylpyrimidine- 2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione Physical properties • Yellow crystalline and odourless powder. • white crystalline powder.
  • 9. Chemical properties • Soluble in alcohol, acetone, chloroform. • Insoluble in water,ether, benzene. • Hygroscopic substance. • Soluble in alcohol • Freely soluble in water. Uses • Sedative and hypnotics agent. • To treat insomnea. • Sedative and hypnotics agent. • Useful in nervous and related tension states. Storage • Stored in tightly closed, light resistant containers. • Well closed container. Formulation • Tablet, capsule, injection • Tablet, injection, elixir Brands Nitravet,Nitraz-5 Phenotone Dose • 5 mg before retiring daily this dose may be increased if necessary to 10 mg. • 15-20mg/kg IV loading dose infused at 25-100 mg/min; may repeat once after 10 min additional 5- 10mg/kg.