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Open Government Data: What it is, Where it is Going, and the Opportunities for SAIs

Keynote presentation given by Ryan Androsoff (Digital Government Policy Analyst, OECD) at the 2015 EUROSAI-OLACEFS conference in Quito, Ecuador on 25 June 2015. Focus of the presentation is on Open Government Data and the opportunities for Supreme Audit Institutions presented by open data. Video of the presentation is available at:

For more information on OECD's work relating to Open Government Data please see:

Open Government Data: What it is, Where it is Going, and the Opportunities for SAIs

  2. 2. • What is Open Government Data and why should we care? • Measuring the Status of Open Government Data – Indexes – Trends in OECD countries – Open Government Data in LAC – Furthering the OECD’s work on Open Data • SAIs and Open Data: Opportunities for Action Today’s Presentation
  3. 3. • Data = highest level of granularity from which information, content and knowledge are derived. • Public Sector Information = “information, including information products and services, generated, created, collected, processed, preserved, maintained, disseminated, or funded by or for a government or public institution” • Open Data = data that can be freely used, re-used and distributed by anyone, only subject to (at the most) the requirement that users attribute the data and that they make their work available to be shared as well. • Big Data = A data-driven socio-economic model; as a phenomenon emerged as available datasets produced by various sources have grown larger and data users more aware of the value obtainable through linked and combined data sets produced by different actors, both private and public. • Data analytics = the use of data to spot significant facts and trends to improve policy making and service delivery (public sector intelligence). Some Definitions
  4. 4. Public Sector Information Visual Definition Big Data Open Government Data Proprietary / Internal Analytics Apps Public / Open Analytics
  5. 5. • Economic Value • Growth and competitiveness in the wider economy • Fostering innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in government services (internal and external) • Social Value • Promoting citizens’ self-empowerment, social participation and engagement • Public Governance Value • Improving accountability, transparency, responsiveness and democratic control What Value are Governments Expecting?
  6. 6. Economic Value: Examples
  7. 7. Social Value: Examples
  8. 8. Public Governance Value: Examples
  9. 9. Measuring the Status of Open Government Data
  10. 10. • Produced by the World Wide Web Foundation • Measures on three dimensions, first launched in 2013 Open Data Barometer
  11. 11. • Produced by the Open Knowledge Foundation since 2013 • Index is based on 10 key datasets assessed against 9 criteria Global Open Data Index
  12. 12. The OECD OURdata Index The Open-Useful-Reusable Government data index (OURdata) launched in 2015 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Total score OECD NonationalOGDportal Source: 2014 OECD Survey on Open Government Data
  13. 13. Measuring three components of open government data activity The Open-Useful-Reusable Government data index (OURdata) Source: 2014 OECD Survey on Open Government Data 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Data availability Data accessibility Government support to re-use NonationalOGDportal All three dimensions were equally weighted (33.3% each) Note: Cronbach alpha = 0.81
  14. 14. • The “pioneers” (e.g. UK, USA, Spain) • Devising a sustainable financial mechanism (e.g. Denmark, the Netherlands) • Establishing the governance framework first (e.g. Germany, Switzerland) • Quick followers (e.g. France and Mexico) Emerging approaches
  15. 15. Top 5 main objectives of open data strategies or policies 0% 29% 33% 46% 54% 63% 67% 71% 71% 71% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Create economic value for the public sector Facilitate citizens' participation in public debate Enable citizens' engagement in decision-making processes Improve public sector performance by strengthening accountability for outputs/outcomes Deliver public services more effectively and efficiently by enabling delivery from private sector through data re-use Deliver public services more effectively and efficiently by improving internal operations and collaboration Facilitate creation of new businesses Increase transparency Increase openness Create economic value for the private sector Multiple answers allowed Percentage of respondent countries Source: OECD Open Data in Governments Survey 2013 Transparency vs. Innovation PS Efficiency Public Participation
  16. 16. • Which ecosystem? – Inside the public sector: gather, integrate, validate, release, up-date and promote re-use of data (statistical offices, archives, sector data producers, etc.) – Outside the public sector: sustain data re-use (media, private sector, civil society, librarians, developers, community of practitioners, etc.) • What activity? • Data mining, data analytics (for policy making and service delivery), crowd- sourcing to innovate services, social innovation, evidence-based performance, improved financial decisions, data mash-up and data sharing, licensing, standards, hackathon events, metadata. • Which capacities within the organisation? • To ensure sustainability and autonomy: data scientist, visualisation expert, statistics and data analytics expert, computing and systems programming skills, policy analysis expertise. Value creation : with whom and how?
  17. 17. Creating the right ecosystem: consulting the stakeholders 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Percentageofrespondentcountries Was the central/federal OGD strategy/policy developed in consultation with stakeholders? Source: Government at a Glance 2013
  18. 18. Involving users and knowing demand 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% a. Yes citizens' information needs b. Yes, businesses' information needs c. Yes, other stakeholders' needs (e.g. non-profit organisations) d. None of the above applies Percentageofrespondentcountries Source: Government at a Glance 2013 Does your government regularly consult users on their needs and preferences of the type of data released?
  19. 19. • Policy challenges • Technical challenges • Economic and financial challenges • Organisational challenges • Cultural challenges • Legal challenges Key challenges to implementation
  20. 20. Principal challenges for further development of OGD initiatives 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Organisational challenges Institutional challenges Funding challenges Policy challenges Technical challenges Context challenges Percentageofrespondingcountries Source: Government at a Glance 2013 (forthcoming)
  21. 21. Open Government Data in Latin America
  22. 22. Yes Central national strategy co-exists with line ministries' own strategies No, but individual line ministries / agencies have a separate strategies / policies in place No OGD policies / strategies in place COLOMBIA  - - - COSTA RICA - - -  GUATEMALA - -  - REPUBLICA DOMINICANA - - -  MEXICO  - - - PERU - - -  CHILE -  - - URUGUAY  - - - BRAZIL -  - - EL SALVADOR - - -  PARAGUAY - -  - OGD strategies in LAC countries
  23. 23. Responsible agency
  24. 24. Centralized data portal
  25. 25. Targeting the ecosystem to create value
  26. 26. Financial challenges
  27. 27. Furthering the OECD’s Work on Open Government Data
  28. 28. Phase 1 • Working Paper “Open Government Data: Towards Empirical Analysis of Open Government Data Initiatives” with full assessment methodology [Dec 2012-May 2013] Phase 2 • OGD survey : strategy, implementation, value generation, challenges [Apr – Sept 2013] Phase 3 • Pilot testing in 8 OECD countries : validate methodology, map initiatives, collect practices, impact assessment + MENA and LAC regions [2013 – 2014] Now • OGD Country Reviews: Poland, Mexico • OURdata Index 2015 • OECD Open Government Data Expert Group OECD OGD PROJECT 2012-15 2015 OGD Report : Data analysis and outcome of pilot testing
  29. 29. • Improve understanding and measuring of OGD impact on social innovation, open innovation, service delivery innovation and public value creation • Tackling pending issues: • Balancing the strive for openness with privacy and security • Resolving legal conflicts • Harmonising definitions • Acquiring adequate skills and capabilities in the public sector • Avoiding new divides and focus on OD for participatory governance • Improving understanding of context and data demand • Ecosystem creation Focus of further OGD analytical work
  30. 30. • Strategy – secure political leadership support – institutionalise processes – incentivize buy in across the public sector – develop action plan • Implementation – build and/or strengthen capacities at all levels of governments and in society – ensure resources to secure sustainability – from a supply driven to a demand driven approach – communication and awareness • Impact – economic, social and political value – focus on re-use – know demand and ecosystem – engage the ecosystem (incld. research/academia, media, archives, statistical offices) – monitor and evaluate – link with access to information and transparency agendas Key OECD Policy Messages on OGD
  31. 31. SAIs and Open Data: Opportunities for Action
  32. 32. • OECD (GOV-PSI) is conducting an ongoing internationally comparative study with 12 SAIs • Looking at the role of SAIs in supporting better formulation, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes, including: – the openness of government-wide strategic planning processes – the openness of budgetary planning processes including: the existence and/or adequacy of participative and realistic debates on budgetary choices – the openness and consultation of the regulatory policy process – the accessibility and reliability of data systems for collecting, storing and using performance information – the compliance with access to/freedom of information laws • OECD publication on role of SAIs in better policy making and governance to be launched November in Brazil The role of SAIs in Good Governance
  33. 33. • Citizen portals for accountability and complaints – The GEO-CGR portal: Articulation, storage, consultation and publication of information on investment in public works. • Co-ordinated audits – Country level: The Amazon Biome, Protected areas, Co-ordinated Audit between Brazil’s TCU and 9 State Courts of Audit in the Brazilian Amazon – International level: Co-ordinated international audit on climate change between 14 SAIs Examples of Using OGD Principles in the work of SAIs
  34. 34. Effective Institutions Platform • Multi-stakeholder alliance of over 60 countries and organisations established in 2012 engaged in public sector reforms (government representatives as well as CSOs, legislators, think tanks, etc.) • 3 Major Pillars of work Website:
  35. 35. EIP: Engaging Citizens in Accountability Institutions • Global commitments and regional standards recognise: – Importance of external stakeholder engagement – Need to go beyond traditional engagement mechanisms – Role that development cooperation can play • Project under the EIP initiated in 2013 to review Supreme Audit Institutions (SAI) engagement practices and to develop practical guidance – Phase I: SAI and citizens engagement (32 SAIs); 2013-2014 – Phase II: checklist on engagement with other stakeholders (citizens, parliaments and the media) with global survey and 4 case studies; 2015- 2016. Presented at XXVth OLACEFS (October 2015, Mexico) • Steering group: Brazil, South Africa, Chile, Costa Rica, IDI, New Zealand, Philippines, OECD • P2P Learning Alliance in October 2014 (Paris) to discuss benefits and risks of SAIs engagement (7 SAIs: Brazil, Costa Rica, Chile, France, Philippines, South Africa, Zambia with CSOs and development reps.)
  36. 36. • Transparency practices (widespread, yet uneven; well distributed, but more developed in stronger SAIs) • Participatory practices (Incipient, but promising; more common in non- OECD countries and regionally concentrated in Latin America & Asia Pacific) 36 EIP: Mechanisms of Engagement
  37. 37. EIP: Benefits and Risks of Engaging Citizens Benefits  Better informed audit activities  Strengthened audit independence  Audits more relevant to citizen needs  Stronger citizen demand for enforcing audit recommendations  Enhanced trust in SAIs  Educated citizens on the audit process and results of government actions Risks ✓Undermining perceived independence ✓Delays and increased costs ✓Work overload ✓Transparency and participatory fatigue ✓Difficulty in measuring progress ✓Resistance to change ➡Risk Mitigation Strategies needed
  38. 38. 1. Adding open government data programs as an audit topic 2. Using Open Government Data as an input into audit activities 3. Become a contributor to the Open Data ecosystem (audit results, info about SAIs) – Need to set common data format standards to enable inter-jurisdictional comparison Three areas for future exploration by SAIs regarding OGD
  39. 39. Thank You! For more information: Twitter: @RyanAndrosoff LinkedIn: