Open Government Partnership, Open Data and FOI – A road map towards convergence

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A joint presentation made at the "Regional Conference on Freedom of Information Laws (FOI) in the Caribbean – Improving Management for the Environment" This presentation, delivered jointly by Dr Maurice McNaughton, Mona School of Business & Management, University of West Indies and Mrs Carole Excell, Senior Associate, World Resources Institute, sought to explore the philosophical differences and institutional synergy between the FOI and Open Data communities.

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  • Open data is data that can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone - subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike. Access to, or re-use of, the data is controlled by organisations, both public and private. Control may be through access restrictions, licenses, copyright, patents and charges for access or re-use. Advocates of open data argue that these restrictions are against the communal good and that these data should be made available without restriction or feeFreedom of Information (FOI) can be defined as the right to access information held by public bodies. It is an integral part of the fundamental right of freedom of expression
  • We acknowledge that people all around the world are demanding more openness in government. They are calling for greater civic participation in public affairs, and seeking ways to make their governments more transparent, responsive, accountable, and effective. We recognize that countries are at different stages in their efforts to promote openness in government, and that each of us pursues an approach consistent with our national priorities and circumstances and the aspirations of our citizens.We accept responsibility for seizing this moment to strengthen our commitments to promote transparency, fight corruption, empower citizens, and harness the power of new technologies to make government more effective and accountable. We uphold the value of openness in our engagement with citizens to improve services, manage public resources, promote innovation, and create safer communities. We embrace principles of transparency and open government with a view toward achieving greater prosperity, well-being, and human dignity in our own countries and in an increasingly interconnected world. Together, we declare our commitment to:Increase the availability of information about governmental activities.Support civic participation.Implement the highest standards of professional integrity throughout our administrationsIncrease access to new technologies for openness and accountability
  • In order to participate in OGP, governments must exhibit a demonstrated commitment to open government in four key areas, as measured by objective indicators and validated by independent experts. Any government not listed here can join OGP at any time once they have demonstrated that they meet these minimum criteria, and can contact OGP at info@opengovpartnership.org for more information.
  • In order to participate in OGP, governments must exhibit a demonstrated commitment to open government in four key areas, as measured by objective indicators and validated by independent experts. Any government not listed here can join OGP at any time once they have demonstrated that they meet these minimum criteria, and can contact OGP at info@opengovpartnership.org for more information.
  • In order to participate in OGP, governments must exhibit a demonstrated commitment to open government in four key areas, as measured by objective indicators and validated by independent experts. Any government not listed here can join OGP at any time once they have demonstrated that they meet these minimum criteria, and can contact OGP at info@opengovpartnership.org for more information.55 countries having formally signaled their commitment and/or intent to join this global initiative. Asia (5); Eastern Europe (15); Western Europe (11), Middle East (3), Africa (50), North America (2), Central America (6), South America (6), Caribbean (2)
  • In order to participate in OGP, governments must exhibit a demonstrated commitment to open government in four key areas, as measured by objective indicators and validated by independent experts. Any government not listed here can join OGP at any time once they have demonstrated that they meet these minimum criteria, and can contact OGP at info@opengovpartnership.org for more information.
  • to Promote efficiency on Forestry Management. Promoting transparency, accountability and public participation in the area of environment, natural resources, and spatial data management.
  • including recipients of Unemployment Benefits for Artisanal Fishermen Unemployment Benefits Civil Defense Payment Cards
  • Currently FOI laws recognise the need for government to proactively release information to the public.No International standards on the types of standards for release of information and data Civil Society have begun to develop standards for aid data , environmental data etc
  • Local Law 11 of 2012 – Publishing Open DataNew York City Council voted on and passed this legislation on February 29, 2012. Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg signed it into law on March 7, 2012. that it is in the best interest of New York city that its agencies and departments make their data available online using open standards. Making city data available online using open standards will make the operation of city government more transparent, effective and accountable to the public. It will streamline intra-governmental and inter-governmental communication and interoperability, permit the public to assist in identifying efficient solutions for government, promote innovative strategies for social progress, and create economic opportunities.
  • Open Government Partnership, Open Data and FOI – A road map towards convergence

    1. 1. Open Government Partnership, openData and FOI – A road map towards convergence
    2. 2. Two parallel movements
    3. 3. Freedom of Information RIGHTS IMPACT TRANSPARENCY/SECRECY ACCOUNTABILITY ENFORCEMENTMONITERING PERFORMANCE
    4. 4. What Is Open Data? • Government Agencies Create and Maintain Authoritative Data – Records (regulatory, financial, reports, etc.) – Statistics (census, crimes, accidents, etc.)Facilitation – Geodata (resources, transportation, services, etc) • Governments Share Public Sector data on-Web – Raw data, not in report form – Accessible through APIs – Free to access and use • Empowering civil society organizations, businesses to: – Access, consume and reuse those dataValue-Creation – Develop New Applications that bring Data into various Contexts – Deliver new and valuable services to citizens • Enhanced Government and Citizen Engagement & Collaboration – Data-rich web applications enable increased transparency, communication, efficiency & innovation
    5. 5. Open Government Data Principles• Governments collect and hold information on behalf of people, and citizens have a right to seek information about governmental activities.• Promoting increased access to information and disclosure about governmental activities at every level of government.• Pro-actively provide high-value information, including raw data, in a timely manner, in formats that the public can easily locate, understand and use, and in formats that facilitate reuse.
    6. 6. FOI v. Open Data – Essential Differences• Philosophical• Implementation / Technical considerations• Cost / Value Considerations• Roles & Obligations / Institutions & Ecosystems
    7. 7. FOI v. Open DataFOI Characteristics OGD Characteristics• Emphasis on accountability • In addition to accountability / and transparency transparency; improved service delivery /innovation and citizen engagement / participation• Access to documents • Access to data • Pro-active• Reactive • Supply-driven• Demand-driven • Reliance on Infomediaries• Reliance on Gatekeepers • Interactive communication,• One-way information data sharing
    8. 8. GOJ/MOF publish GOJAn Example of FOIA 2012 Budget
    9. 9. Gleaner publish GOJAn Example of FOIA 2012 Budget Online
    10. 10. An Example of Open Data 2012/13 Budget Budget Transparency Visualization• Making budget information available and accessible to Civil Society (NGOs, journalists, citizens, etc.)• Provides a basis for discussions, participation• Provides mechanisms for greater civil society engagement in the entire budget process. Demo: http://caribbeanopeninstitute.org/gojbudget_Functions
    11. 11. An Example of Open Data 2012/13 Budget Budget Transparency VisualizationDemo: http://caribbeanopeninstitute.org/gojbudget_Functions
    12. 12. Economics of Open Data• Data is the new fuel or the new raw material of the 21st century.• Unlike natural raw materials, data is not diminished when it is consumed.• Like other raw materials, specialist tools and effort are required to locate, extract and refine data before it yields actionable information – Developers• Research suggests that the key link in the value chain for open data is the consumer/citizen• Direct impact of Open Data on the EU27 economy was estimated at €32 Billion in 2010, with an estimated annual growth rate of 7%
    13. 13. Value-Drivers of Open DataRef: Jetzek, Thorhildur, Michel Avital, and Niels Bjørn-Andersen. "The Value of Open Government Data: AStrategic Analysis Framework." 2012 Pre-ICIS Workshop.
    14. 14. Open Data Ecosystem / Actors Data Publishers, Policy & Legislative Framework Data Consumers, Engagement, GOVERNMENT Enablers, Funders, Best Participatory Practice, Research Multilateral Citizens Agencies Data Consumers / FOIA Activists, Sources, Innovation, Agency, Advocacy Novel Services Business NGOs Technical Implementers,Interpretation, Innovation, Research, Data Publishers, Demonstration Policy Advocacy INFOMEDIARIES Academia Data Journalism MEDIA Citizen Access, New Media services
    15. 15. Convergence http://www.danpontefract.com/images/con
    16. 16. THE OPEN GOVERNMENT PARTNERSHIP -A new multilateral initiative that aims to secure concrete commitments from governments to promote transparency, empower citizens,fight corruption, and harness new technologies to strengthen governance .
    17. 17. • Launched 20 September 2011 Basic facts • Overseen by a steering committee of Governments and Civil Society organizations • 8 founding governments (Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Norway, Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States)• 58 countries having formally signaled their commitment and/or intent to join this global initiative
    18. 18. Fiscal Transparency Access to InformationDisclosures Relatedto Elected or Senior Public OfficialsCitizen Engagement
    19. 19. How does it work?Eligible countries sign up to Open Gov DeclarationCountries identify key areas to strengthenopenness and develop concrete OGP Action Planwith public consultation (Guidelines developed)Countries secure peer review and technicalsupport to implement planProvide annual reports that are subject toindependent review
    20. 20. Key Steps to join OGP • OGP Participation• STEP 1: Meet the minimum eligibility criteria, and agree to the OGPs five common expectations.• STEP 2: Signal the governments intent to participate in OGP by sending a letter to the OGP Steering Commitee for posting on the OGP Portal.• STEP 3: Undertake the broad public consultation to inform the governments OGP commitments, and identify a multi-stakeholder forum for regular public consultation on OGP implementation.• STEP 4: Develop an OGP country plan with concrete commitments on open government that address at least one grand challenge, drawing on the expertise provided by the OGP networking mechanism as needed.• STEP 5: Participate in peer consultation on the OGP country plan with participants and the Steering Committee.• STEP 6: Publicly endorse the OGP Declaration of Principles and deposit the final country plan on the OGP portal.• STEP 7: Publish a self-assessment report on progress after 12 months of OGP implementation, and cooperate with the independent reporting mechanism in generating its own report.
    21. 21. Key Steps to join OGP• Open Government Partnership Eligibility • Fiscal Transparency – The timely publication of essential budget documents forms the basic building blocks of budget accountability and an open budget system. • Access to Information – An access to information law that guarantees the public’s right to information and access to government data is essential to the spirit and practice of open government. • Disclosures Related to Elected or Senior Public Officials – Rules that require public disclosure of income and assets for elected and senior public officials are essential to anti-corruption and open, accountable government. • Citizen Engagement – Open Government requires openness to citizen participation and engagement in policymaking and governance, including basic protections for civil liberties.• Jamaica already Eligible to Participate in the OGP
    22. 22. Key Steps to join OGP• Open Government Partnership Expectations 1. Endorse a high-level Declaration of Principles on Open Government; 2. Make concrete commitments as part of a country action plan that stretches the country beyond current practice; 3. Develop country action plans through a multi-stakeholder process, with the active engagement of citizens and civil society; 4. Commit to a self-assessment and independent reporting on the country’s progress; 5. Contribute to the advancement of open government in other countries through sharing of best practices, expertise, technical assistance, technologies and resources, as appropriate.
    23. 23. Key Steps to join OGP• Select One or More Grand Challenge • Improving Public Services—measures that address the full spectrum of citizen services including health, education, criminal justice, water, electricity, telecommunications and any other relevant service areas, by fostering public service improvement or private sector innovation • Increasing Public Integrity—measures that address corruption and public ethics, access to information, campaign finance reform, and media and civil society freedom • More Effectively Managing Public Resources—measures that address budgets, procurement, natural resources and foreign assistance • Creating Safer Communities—measures that address public safety, the security sector, disaster and crisis response, and environmental threats • Increasing Corporate Accountability—measures that address corporate responsibility on issues such as the environment, anti-corruption, consumer protection, and community engagement• Participatory Budgeting is a good candidate
    24. 24. Convergence in CommitmentsINDONESIA -• Develop One-Map Portal• Publication of revenue informationSOUTH AFRICAExplore the feasibility of establishing a single agencymandated by Government to develop acomprehensive and publicly accessible portal ofenvironmental management information.
    25. 25. Action PlansMEXICORegarding Fossil Fuels, geological and geophysicalinformation will be published in accordance withinternational transparency parameters so that projects maybe publicly scrutinized.CHILEChile considers essential the full implementation of therights of access, participation and environmental justiceenshrined in Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration. For thisreason, Chile promotes the celebration of regionalconventions for the adoption of Principle 10.
    26. 26. BRAZIL Action PlansResearch study to identify the demands of society in regardto access to information, with a view to strengthening activetransparency policiesBrazil publish specific data on their transparency portal
    27. 27. Convergence in Promoting Proactive Release The Republic of Guinea has put all of its mining contracts on line http://www.contratsminiersguine e.org/#documents The US has put all of its enforcement information on environmental permits online (ECHO)http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-thTtNWGT2a0/T3TxOBRanYI/AAAAAAAAAKo/5sr-
    28. 28. Convergence in legislation – New York City open data law
    29. 29. Institutional Arrangements• Amendments to Access to Information Act – Formats of Data / License to use• Leverage existing Administrative Structures to provide policy guidance and oversight to OGD activities – Access to Information Unit – Responsible Officers in MDAs• Existing ATI Unit(s) => Executing Agency to manage OGP Commitments & Action Plans
    30. 30. Convergence PerspectivesAccording to Helen Darbishire, a European FOI activist and thedirector of Access Info, a Madrid based NGO. “The open data movement has given a welcome impetus to the transparency movement “I’m ready to come out now and say I am also an open data person; I am not longer just a FOI person” “You have to take up the opportunities that are presenting themselves as the world evolves technologically and politically,” Darbishire said, terming the OD movement a “refreshing” source of “renewal and renovation.”Another Perspective To many FOI activists, open data activists are geeks, talking an incomprehensible technical language at events called mashups, hackathons and transparency camps. They wear t-shirts with slogans such as “Code for America” and “Data Wants to Be Free”

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