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OBIS at UNGA BBNJ 6th meeting NY 19-23 August 2013

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OBIS and its contribution to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.

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OBIS at UNGA BBNJ 6th meeting NY 19-23 August 2013

  1. 1. Ocean Biogeographic Information System Biodiversity in ABNJ Ward Appeltans, Manager OBIS IOC-UNESCO IODE 6th UNGA BBNJ Meeting, 19-23 August 2013, New York
  2. 2. IOC of UNESCO Established in 1960 Functional autonomy within UNESCO 145 Member States Focal point for ocean observations, science, services and data exchange Competent international organization for marine science and transfer of marine technology (UNCLOS) 2
  3. 3. From vision to execution 3
  4. 4. Major IOC Programmes Ocean Observations and Services Global Ocean Observing System. GOOS is a permanent global system for observations, modelling and analysis of marine and ocean variables to support operational ocean services worldwide. (and JCOMM) International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange. Established in 1961, IODE facilitates the exchange of oceanographic data and information between participating Member States, and serves the needs of users for data and information products.4
  5. 5. NODCs 1961 6
  6. 6. NODCs 2013 7
  7. 7. 1. To facilitate and promote the discovery, exchange of, and access to, marine data and information including metadata, products and information in real-time, near real time and delayed mode, through the use of international standards, and in compliance with the IOC Oceanographic Data Exchange Policy for the ocean research and observation community and other stakeholders; 2. To encourage the long term archival, preservation, documentation, management and servicesof all marine data, data products, and information; 3. To develop or use existing best practices for the discovery, management, exchange of, and access to marine data and information, including international standards, quality control and appropriate information technology; 4. To assist Member States to acquire the necessary capacity to manage marine research and observation data and information and become partners in the IODE network; 5. To support international scientific and operational marine programmes, including the Framework for Ocean Observing for the benefit of a wide range of users. IODE Objectives (2013) 8
  8. 8. Foundation: IOC Data Policy (2003) Clause 1: Member States shall provide timely, free and unrestricted access to all data, associated metadata and products generated under the auspices of IOC programmes.. 9
  9. 9. Ocean Biogeographic Information System OBIS is the world’s largest open access, online data system on the diversity, distribution and abundance of marine species 10 • 35 million species observations • 120,000 marine species • 1,130 datasets • >450 institutions, 56 countries In ABNJ • 6 million species observations • 74,000 species, of which 17,000 are unique to ABNJ • 35,000 species live exclusively at a depth below 200m. WWW.IOBIS.ORG
  10. 10. High-level goals of OBIS Jointly with other IOC programmes: "OBIS will strive to develop a global ocean observing framework for monitoring the state of marine biological species diversity, populations and habitats, to assess risks and impacts on ecosystem services and to underpin an ecosystem approach for marine spatial planning and conservation policies for the protection and sustainable management of the ocean” 11
  11. 11. High-level goals of OBIS "OBIS will provide the infrastructure and knowledge base necessary to predict or early detect emerging issues such as marine invasive species, harmful algal blooms, shifts in abundance and species distribution ranges, extinction risks of species, regime shifts, and loss or degradation of marine habitats" 12
  12. 12. High-level goals of OBIS "OBIS will build the historical baseline, against which future change can be measured. It will close the data gap by growing in terms of geographic, taxonomic and temporal coverage, as well as expanding in capturing additional data types and information" 13
  13. 13. OBIS contributes to TMT: 1. National and regional technical centres (OBIS nodes) 2. Open Access to data and information 3. Standards and guidelines on best practices (Quality Assurance) 4. National/regional reporting/modeling tools 5. Training in data management, data transfer and data analysis, Regional training centres Transfer of Marine Technology IOC criteria and guidelines 16
  14. 14. 22 OBIS nodes (national, regional and thematic) 1. Argentina 2. Australia 3. Belgium: EurOBIS, AntOBIS 4. Brazil 5. Canada 6. Chile: SE Pacific 7. China 8. Greece: MedOBIS 9. India 10. Japan 11. Korea 12. New Zealand: SW Pacific 13. Oman: (Persian Gulf) 14. Philippines: FishBase, (SEAOBIS) 15. South-Africa: AfrOBIS 16. Ukraine: BlackSea OBIS 17. USA: US-OBIS, SEAMAP, ArCOD, MicrOBIS, Hexacorals, SeaMountsOnline 18. Venezuela: (Caribbean OBIS) (Regional nodes) (Thematic nodes) (Candidate nodes) 17
  15. 15. Species name (and classification) Position (single point, bounding box, transect line) Time Abundance (individuals, biomass) Depth Cruise, sampling gear, environmental parameters, … + Metadata on dataset (who, what, where, when, how, and citation) Open-Access to data: what data? 18
  16. 16. Sample and observation data from scientific cruises (long-term) national monitoring small-scale research projects continuous observations (CPR) scientific literature museum collections … Open-Access to data: Data sources 19
  17. 17. Benefit Sharing: data repatriation 102293 23016 9349 102745 182042 266302 1106458 1327640 419965 2104304 8951 52498 0 0 0 2178 5375 310673 25848 18823 442862 743579 2573860 105964 35316 121300 10936 613595 806219 967159 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Belgium S-Korea Japan Brazil Argentina Australia Canada USA New Zealand S-Africa India China France Germany Norway records not from nat. OBIS node records from nat. OBIS node 20
  18. 18. Benefit Sharing: data repatriation 4551 1929 790 9248 1961 6554 8900 23415 5459 11151 7853 3072 0 0 0 21 762 8620 1976 2477 13336 4391 12787 4469 2490 2221 1281 8187 4480 7983 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Belgium S-Korea Japan Brazil Argentina Australia Canada USA New Zealand S-Africa India China France Germany Norway taxa not from nat. OBIS node taxa from nat. OBIS node 21
  19. 19. Catodon (Meganeuron) krefftii Gray, 1865 (synonym) Catodon australis Wall, 1851 (synonym) Catodon colneti Gray, 1850 (synonym) Catodon macrocephalus Lacépède, 1804 (synonym) Cetus cylindricus Billberg, 1828 (synonym) Delphinus bayeri Risso, 1826 (synonym) Phiseter cylindricus Bonnaterre, 1789 (synonym) Phiseter mular Bonnaterre, 1789 (synonym) Phiseter trumpo Bonnaterre, 1789 (synonym) Physalus cylindricus Lacépède, 1804 (synonym) Physeter andersonii Borowski, 1780 (synonym) Physeter australasiensis Desmoulins, 1822 (synonym) Physeter australis Gray, 1846 (synonym) Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 (synonym) Physeter maximus G. Cuvier, 1798 (synonym) Physeter microps Linnaeus, 1758 (synonym) Physeter microps rectidentatus Kerr, 1792 (synonym) Physeter novaeangliae Borowski, 1780 (synonym) Physeter orthodon Lacépède, 1804 (synonym) Physeter tursio Linnaeus, 1758 (synonym) Physeterus sulcatus Lacépède, 1818 (synonym) Tursio vulgaris Fleming, 1822 (synonym) Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus, 1758 Standards and Best practices Tools for taxonomic quality control 22
  20. 20. Tools for geographic quality control Example dataset “Marine Turtles”: sightings and strandings of marine turtles around the coast of UK and Ireland” Outliers due to missing of minus sign. Corrections made after consultation data provider. -Water/Land positions - Outlier detection 23
  21. 21. Tools for quality control based on environmental/habitat parameter ranges Salinity range Temperature range Depth range 24
  22. 22. Information for national, regional and global reporting Increased Nr of reporting obligations for Member States • 2014: CBD 4th Global Biodiversity Outlook • 2014: GEF Transboundary Water Assessment • 2015: UN 1st World Ocean Assessment • 2018: 1st IPBES assessment 25
  23. 23. >800 papers have cited OBIS increment of 7 papers per month 26
  24. 24. Invasive species Source: OBIS, 2013 Ensis directus (razor shell) 27
  25. 25. Migratory Species Tracking OBIS-SEAMAP and OTN Images 28
  26. 26. Species distribution modeling (aquamaps) Flathead mullet (point data) 29
  27. 27. Species distribution modeling (aquamaps) Flathead mullet (native range) 30
  28. 28. Species distribution modeling (aquamaps) Flathead mullet (Year 2050 range) 31
  29. 29. Trends of pelagic North Sea species Regime shift Herring recovered after the fish ban 32
  30. 30. Trends in species’ Commonness
  31. 31. Trends in species’ Commonness Albatros top-ranked seabird because of tagging
  32. 32. Trends in species’ Commonness Fulmar ? Start or end of major surveys? OR Underlying trends?
  33. 33. Marine Genetic Resources Phylum level summary of the distribution of c. 11.7M DNA sequences across c. 190,000 marine species (Source Thomas Webb, unpublished data) 36
  34. 34. Marine Genetic Resources Number of GenBank sequences plotted against number of records in OBIS for approx. 80,000 species common to both databases (Source Thomas Webb, unpublished data) 37 Some of the uncommon species have many DNA sequences Some of the common species have few DNA sequences
  35. 35. Biological data for area based management OBIS provides scientific and technical support the development of MSP and other area-based management tools. 38
  36. 36. Benguela Upwelling System Areas identified to meet the EBSA criteria (May 2013, SCBD) 39 EBSA MAP REMOVED UPON REQUEST FROM CBD SECRETARIAT
  37. 37. 40
  38. 38. OBIS holds 1,000,000 species observations of 15,000 marine species in UNESCO’s 46 marine world heritage sites 41
  39. 39. Training in observations, data management and analysis 42 OceanTeacher Academy is a cornerstone of the IODE
  40. 40. OceanTeacher in numbers • 2009-2012: • > 700 onsite trainees • ~120 countries • 8 courses/year 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Courses 2009-2013 0 50 100 150 200 250 2009 2010 2011 2012 180 155 203 177 IODE trainees 0 200 400 600 800 1000 2009 2010 2011 2012 663 953 908 736 Trainee person days 43
  41. 41. Next step: Regional Training Centres 44
  42. 42. International cooperation IMOS EMODNET MarineGEO CBMP SAUPEOL GBIF IUCN GOBI FAO IPBES IODE GOOS GEO GEO BON GEO BON NEON LifeWatch EBONE UNEP CBD WoRMS SMEBD Future Earth SCOR SCAR MoL OHI ICSU UNESCO WCMC OBIS 45
  43. 43. International cooperation IMOS EMODNET MarineGEO CBMP SAUP EOLGBIF IUCN GOBI FAO IPBES IODE GOOS GEO GEO BON GEO BON NEON LifeWatch EBONE UNEP CBD WoRMS SMEBD Future Earth SCOR SCAR MoL OHI ICSU UNESCO WCMC OBIS • Through organization of meetings and scientific conferences and data analysis workshops. • Establish partnerships, cooperation agreements, participation in boards and networking activities 46
  44. 44. GBIF recognizes OBIS as its marine sister network 47
  45. 45. OBIS is recognized as a data core component of GEOSS 48
  46. 46. 49
  47. 47. UN-Biodiversity in ABNJ May 2013 workshop, technical experts recognized OBIS as an appropriate mechanism for data and information sharing in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction 51
  48. 48. Potential OBIS role in BBNJ Capacity Building Guidelines, standards and best practices Training in data collection, data management, QC and data analysis Data repatriation National reporting tools Support in development, hosting and maintenance of database infrastructure 52
  49. 49. Potential OBIS role in BBNJ One central global open access data portal, unlocking access to samples and data for Selection of marine sites to be protected Environmental Impact Studies Scientific advancement (e.g. determine the geographical origin of Marine Genetic Resources) Monitoring of changes to the ecosystem (incl. setting baselines) 53
  50. 50. OBIS is unique because It is truly global (in terms of data and network), It is part of UN through IOC-UNESCO, recognized by UNCLOS for Marine Science and Transfer of Marine Technology and; OBIS holds data from non commercial, non- target fishing species, which allows an holistic (ecosystem) approach to measure impacts of activities in ABNJ. 54
  51. 51. One Planet – One Ocean THANK YOU

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