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Improving Operations Efficiency with Puppet

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Talk from Puppet Camp Paris 2015 by Nicolas Brousse and Julien Fabre, presenting a Continuous Delivery workflow used by the Operations Teams that allowed them to do over 10,000 puppet changes deployment in 2014.

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Improving Operations Efficiency with Puppet

  1. 1. Improving Operations Efficiency with Puppet April 17th, 2015 Nicolas Brousse | Sr. Director Of Operations Engineering | nicolas@tubemogul.com Julien Fabre | Site Reliability Engineer | julien.fabre@tubemogul.com
  2. 2. Who are we? TubeMogul ●  Enterprise software company for digital branding ●  Over 27 Billions Ads served in 2014 ●  Over 30 Billions Ad Auctions per day ●  Bid processed in less than 50 ms ●  Bid served in less than 80 ms (include network round trip) ●  5 PB of monthly video traffic served ●  1.1 EB of data stored Operations Engineering ●  Ensure the smooth day to day operation of the platform infrastructure ●  Provide a cost effective and cutting edge infrastructure ●  Team composed of SREs, SEs and DBAs ●  Managing over 2,500 servers (virtual and physical)
  3. 3. Our Infrastructure Public Cloud On Premises Multiple locations with a mix of Public Cloud and On Premises
  4. 4. ●  Java (a lot!) ●  MySQL ●  Couchbase ●  Vertica ●  Kafka ●  Storm ●  Zookeeper, Exhibitor ●  Hadoop, HBase, Hive ●  Terracotta ●  ElasticSearch, Kibana ●  LogStash ●  PHP, Python, Ruby, Go... ●  Apache httpd ●  Nagios ●  Ganglia Technology Hoarders ●  Graphite ●  Memcached ●  Puppet ●  HAproxy ●  OpenStack ●  Git and Gerrit ●  Gor ●  ActiveMQ ●  OpenLDAP ●  Redis ●  Blackbox ●  Jenkins, Sonar ●  Tomcat ●  Jetty (embedded) ●  AWS DynamoDB, EC2, S3...
  5. 5. ●  2008 - 2010: Use SVN, Bash scripts and custom templates. ●  2010: Managing about 250 instances. Start looking at Puppet. ●  2011: Started with Puppet 0.25 then upgraded to 2.7 by EOY on 400 servers with 2 contributors. ●  2012: 800 servers managed by Puppet. 4 contributors. ●  2013: 1,000 servers managed by Puppet. 6 contributors. ●  2014: 1,500 servers managed by Puppet. Workflow using Git, Gerrit and Jenkins. 9 contributors. Start migration to 3.7. ●  2015: 2,000 servers managed by Puppet. 13 contributors. Five Years Of Puppet!
  6. 6. ●  2000 nodes ●  225 unique nodes definition ●  1 puppetmaster ●  112 Puppet modules Puppet Stats
  7. 7. ●  Virtual and Physical Servers Configuration : Master mode ●  Building AWS AMI with Packer : Master mode ●  Local development environment with Vagrant : Master mode ●  OpenStack deployment : Masterless mode Where and how do we use Puppet ?
  8. 8. Code Review?
  9. 9. ●  Gerrit, an industry standard : Eclipse, Google, Chromium, OpenStack, WikiMedia, LibreOffice, Spotify, GlusterFS, etc... ●  Fine Grained Permissions Rules ●  Plugged to LDAP ●  Code Review per commit ●  Stream Events ●  Use GitBlit ●  Integrated with Jenkins and Jira ●  Managing about 600 Git repositories A Powerful Gerrit Integration
  10. 10. Gerrit in Action
  11. 11. ●  1 job per module ●  1 job for the manifests and hiera data ●  1 job for the Puppet fileserver ●  1 job to deploy Continuous Delivery with Jenkins Global Jenkins stats for the past year ●  ~10,000 Puppet deployment ●  Over 8,500 Production App Deployment
  12. 12. Team Awareness: HipChat Integration with Hubot
  13. 13. Infrastructure As Code ●  Follow standard development lifecycle ●  Repeatable and consistent server provisioning Continuous Delivery ●  Iterate quickly ●  Automated code review to improve code quality Reliability ●  Improve Production Stability ●  Enforce Better Security Practices Puppet Continuous Delivery Workflow: The Vision
  14. 14. The Workflow
  15. 15. The Workflow : Puppet code logic Puppet environments ●  Dedicated node manifests (*.pp) ●  Modules deployed by branch with Git submodules All the data in Hiera ●  Try to avoid params.pp class ●  Store everything : modules parameters, classes, keys, passwords, ...
  16. 16. Puppet Code Hierarchy /etc/puppet ├── puppet.conf, hiera.yaml, *.conf ├── hiera └── environments ├── dev │ ├── manifests │ │ ├── nodes/*.pp │ │ └── site.pp │ └── modules │ ├── activemq │ ├── apache │ ├── apf │ ... │ └── zookeeper └── production ├── manifests │ ├── nodes/*.pp │ └── site.pp └── modules ├── activemq … └── zookeeper Git submodules, branch dev Git submodules, branch production
  17. 17. Hiera Configuration $ cat /etc/puppet/hiera.yaml --- :backends: - eyaml - yaml :yaml: :datadir: /etc/puppet/hiera :eyaml: :datadir: /etc/puppet/hiera :extension: 'yaml' :pkcs7_private_key: /var/lib/puppet/hiera_keys/private_key.pkcs7.pem :pkcs7_public_key: /var/lib/puppet/hiera_keys/public_key.pkcs7.pem :hierarchy: - fqdn/%{::fqdn} - "%{::zone}/%{::vpc}/%{::hostgroup}" - "%{::zone}/%{::vpc}/all" - "%{::zone}/%{::hostgroup}" - "%{::zone}/all" - hostname/%{::hostname} - hostgroup/%{::hostgroup} - environment/%{::environment} - common :merge_behavior: deeper
  18. 18. Hiera eyaml : github.com/TomPoulton/hiera-eyaml ●  Hiera backend ●  Easy to use ●  Powerful CLI : eyaml edit /etc/puppet/hiera/secrets.yaml Encrypt Your Secrets $ cat secret.yaml --- ec2::access_key_id: ENC[PKCS7,MIIBiQYJKoZIhvcNAQcDoIIBejCCAXYCAQAxggEhMII IBHQIBADAFMAACAQEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQAEggEAVIa28OwyaqI5N1TDCvVkBZz3YG+s +Hfzr0lqgcvRCIuJGpq28sQmmuBaQjWY38i86ZSFu0gM6saOHfG64OzVlurO7k/ l0CKeL0JfXNaVM4TUqMaN9dSkL5e2vsmpLKrMASawmarqbLYwllTrTe32H4NWxU1e +qWLeUMr9ciBnA3W1Azm4RIo+3bsvgvMfdks....=]
  19. 19. Encrypt Files Blackbox : github.com/StackExchange/blackbox ●  Use GPG to encrypt secret files ●  Easy to add/delete team members ●  No need to change your Puppet code ! # modules/${modules_name}/files/credentials.yaml.gpg file { ‘/etc/app/credentials.yaml’: ensure => ‘file’, owner => ‘root’, group => ‘root’, mode => ‘0644’, source => ‘puppet:///modules/${module_name}/credentials.yaml’ }
  20. 20. The Workflow
  21. 21. The Workflow : bottlenecks ●  Only Ops team members can commit (SRE, SE) ●  Review and validation is done only by a SRE ●  Jenkins will verify the code but will not validate the commit ●  Static Puppet environments ●  Rely a lot on server hostnames
  22. 22. Flexibility : R10K github.com/adrienthebo/r10k ! ●  Dynamic environments ●  No Git submodules anymore ! : - ) ●  Easy to reproduce any environment ●  Can use private and forge Puppet modules ●  Can use branches and tags ●  Based on Puppetfile Puppet Workflow Reloaded!
  23. 23. R10K $ cat Puppetfile forge "https://forgeapi.puppetlabs.com" # Forge modules mod 'pdxcat/collectd' mod 'puppetlabs/rabbitmq' mod 'arioch/redis' mod 'maestrodev/wget' mod 'puppetlabs/apt' mod 'puppetlabs/stdlib' # Tubemogul modules mod "hosts", :git => 'ssh://<gerrit_host>/puppet/modules/hosts', :branch => 'dev' mod "timezone", :git => 'ssh://<gerrit_host>/puppet/modules/timezone', :branch => 'dev' ...
  24. 24. Puppet Workflow Reloaded! Better code organization : Roles and Profiles ●  Represent the business logic : Roles o  Highest abstraction layer o  Use Profiles for implementation ●  Implement the applications : Profiles o  Remove potential code duplication o  Use modules and other Puppet resources
  25. 25. Roles/Profiles Pattern class role::logs { include profile::base include profile::logstash::server include profile::elasticsearch } class profile::logstash { $version = hiera('profile::logstash::server::version', '1.4.2') $es_host = hiera('profile::logstash::server::es_host', 'es01') $redis_host = hiera('profile::logstash::server::redis_host', 'redis01') class { 'logstash': package_url => "https://download.elasticsearch.org/logstash/.../logstash_${version}.deb", java_install => true, } logstash::configfile { 'input_redis': content => template('logstash/configfile/logstash.input_redis.conf.erb'), order => 10, } logstash::configfile { 'output_es': content => template('logstash/configfile/logstash.output_es.conf.erb'), order => 30, } }
  26. 26. Do not rely on hostname : nodeless approach ●  Facts to guide Puppet ●  No node myawesomeserver { } anymore ●  Enforce a cluster vision ●  site.pp gives the configuration logic Puppet Workflow Reloaded! # /etc/puppet/manifests/site.pp node default { if $::ec2_tag_tm_role { notify { "Using role : ${ec2_tag_tm_role}": } include "role::${::ec2_tag_tm_role}" } else { fail(‘No role found. Nothing to configure.’) } }
  27. 27. ●  Specify tags during the provisioning ●  Retrieve tags with AWS Ruby SDK and create facts ●  New hierarchy AWS EC2 tags $ facter -p | grep ec2_tag ec2_tag_cluster => rtb-bidder ec2_tag_nagios_host => mgmt01 ec2_tag_name => bidder ec2_tag_pupenv => production ec2_tag_tm_role => rtb::bidder :hierarchy: - "%{::zone}/%{::ec2_tag_vpc}/%{::ec2_tag_cluster}" - "%{::zone}/%{::ec2_tag_vpc}/all" - "%{::zone}/all" - vpc/%{::ec2_tag_vpc}/%{::ec2_tag_cluster} - vpc/%{::ec2_tag_vpc}/all - environment/%{::environment} - common
  28. 28. New merging and reviewing rules ●  Everyone can commit a Puppet code ●  Allow everyone to review a Puppet change (+1) ●  Allow SE and SRE to validate a Puppet change (+2) ●  Auto validation/merging in dev if at least 80% of test (+2)
  29. 29. Next improvements ●  Acceptance testing with Beaker and Docker ●  Full test provisioning with ServerSpec ●  PuppetDB to improve the reporting ●  Dedicated Puppet Masters
  30. 30. OpenSource Modules ●  tubemogul-aptly ●  tubemogul-blackbox ●  tubemogul-codedeploy ●  tubemogul-gor ●  tubemogul-packer ●  tubemogul-tmfile ●  tubemogul-storm ●  tubemogul-kafka
  31. 31. Nicolas Brousse Julien Fabre @orieg @julien_fabre

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