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Coevolving Organisational and Technical Boundaries

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A shared language of the organisation design patterns and plays will enable all organisations optimise for their own needs rather than just copying the Spotify model.

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Coevolving Organisational and Technical Boundaries

  1. 1. ntcoding Coevolving Organisational and Technical Boundaries Nick Tune
  2. 2. ntcoding Why is the way we design agile organisations akin to football (soccer) in the 1800s?
  3. 3. ntcoding
  4. 4. ntcoding
  5. 5. ntcoding credit: Sky Sports, Opta Stats
  6. 6. ntcoding credit: mightyleeds.co.uk
  7. 7. ntcoding Help Me! I’ve caught The Spotify Model disease
  8. 8. ntcoding
  9. 9. ntcoding STUCK IN THE DARK AGES • Functional silos • Meme copying • Buying “agile” / “digital transformation” software • Outsourcing all the things
  10. 10. ntcoding Website Website Website Digital Enterprise IT Business APIs Data APIs DATA Rules, BPM, ESB Back Office Apps
  11. 11. ntcoding VERTICAL SLICES NO SILVER BULLET UI API UI API UI API
  12. 12. ntcoding TOP SOURCES OF PRODUCT IDEAS DIRECT CUSTOMER FEEDBACK 80 % TEAM BRAINSTORMING 64 % SALES TEAM 53 % EXECUTIVE ORDER 51 % % respondents who agreed. Source: Alpha UX Product Management Insights 2017
  13. 13. ntcoding CONTINUOUS DISCOVERY & DELIVERY Discovery Track Delivery TrackCross-functional Product Team
  14. 14. “ ntcoding …the organization that can most effectively accumulate new knowledge and leverage that insight to make better decisions wins — Barry O’Reilly 
 (@barryoreilly)
  15. 15. ntcoding How do we design winning organisations for continuous discovery and delivery in continuously changing climates?
  16. 16. ntcoding CONTINUOUS ORGANISATION DESIGN 1 2 3 4 5 Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership Acknowledgements: Simon Wardley, Wardley Maps - Business mission - User needs - Subdomains - Business processes - User journeys - Value streams - Teams - Aligned autonomy - Optimise for learning - Product disruption - New gov. legislation - Sociotechnical contexts - Sociotechnical architecture patterns
  17. 17. #1 PURPOSE What is the goal of the organisation design?
  18. 18. ntcoding CONTINUOUS ORGANISATION DESIGN Acknowledgements: Simon Wardley, Wardley Maps 1 2 3 4 5 Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership - Business mission - User needs - Subdomains - Business processes - User journeys - Value streams - Teams - Aligned autonomy - Optimise for learning - Product disruption - New gov. legislation - Sociotechnical contexts - Sociotechnical architecture patterns
  19. 19. ntcoding EXAMPLE: TV BROADCASTER We need to invest in interactive TV. Our competitors have a significant advantage. 45% of video viewing for 16 - 34 year olds is via non-linear channels.* *https://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/future-promising-television/1420692
  20. 20. #2 LANDSCAPE Modelling the existing components to produce options
  21. 21. ntcoding CONTINUOUS ORGANISATION DESIGN Acknowledgements: Simon Wardley, Wardley Maps 1 2 3 4 5 Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership - Business mission - User needs - Subdomains - Business processes - User journeys - Value streams - Software systems - Teams - Aligned autonomy - Optimise for learning - Product disruption - New gov. legislation - Sociotechnical contexts - Sociotechnical architecture patterns
  22. 22. ntcoding If functional silos are bad, what should we align teams with?
  23. 23. “ ntcoding An ideal product-mode team is an empowered, outcome-oriented, business-capability aligned, cross-functional… team — Sriram Narayan (@sriramnarayan)
  24. 24. ntcoding WHAT ACTUALLY IS A BUSINESS CAPABILITY?
  25. 25. ntcoding BUSINESS CAPABILITY CAVEATS • Ignore processes -> hide dependencies • Too big for a team -> sub-capabilities? • Heavily top down • Can inhibit flow
  26. 26. ntcoding Dependencies in software become handovers between teams - organisational bottlenecks
  27. 27. ntcoding We should align to business capability type boundaries. But finding those boundaries is the hard part.
  28. 28. ntcoding WHERE TO PLACE TEAM BOUNDARIES? 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Business process step User journey “Business capability” Should we align teams with user journeys, business sub- capabilities, business process steps, or something else?
  29. 29. ntcoding DESIGN INFLUENCE FACTORS • Business value / customer priority • Rate of change / cohesion • User experience consistency • Technical debt / technical constraints • Team size/location
  30. 30. ntcoding Look at the landscape from different perspectives to generate useful design options.
  31. 31. ntcoding SOFTWARE SYSTEMS & TEAMS UI Catalog & Rights Scheduling Rules UI Rules Based in Berlin Based in Cologne Hell Outsourced ESB
  32. 32. ntcoding DOMAIN-DRIVEN DESIGN Find the cohesion in your problem domain if you want teams to be autonomous
  33. 33. ntcoding STRATEGIC DOMAIN MODELLING ResubmitReview Renegotiate Case Management
  34. 34. ntcoding DDD HEURISTICS • Linguistic boundaries • Domain expert localisation • Data cohesion
  35. 35. ntcoding UI Review API UI Resubmit API UI Renegotiate API Case ManagementBack Office UI
  36. 36. “ ntcoding when the deviation between task and social interdependence increases, the deviation between optimal and actual integration of activities (coordination) increases. — Abdelghani Es-Sajjade, Terry Wilkins Design, Perception and Behavior in the Innovation Era: Revisiting the Concept of Interdependence
  37. 37. “ ntcoding …we suggest social interdependence theory for examining how design shapes behavior and how behavior in turn may influence design jorgdesign.springeropen.com
  38. 38. ntcoding Model the landscape as a system of work to analyse flow
  39. 39. ntcoding VALUE STREAM MAPS
  40. 40. ntcoding OTHER RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUES • Wardley value chain mapping • User journey mapping • Event storming • C4 software architecture diagramming
  41. 41. #3 CLIMATE Anticipating future challenges and opportunities
  42. 42. ntcoding CONTINUOUS ORGANISATION DESIGN Acknowledgements: Simon Wardley, Wardley Maps 1 2 3 4 5 Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership - Business mission - User needs - Subdomains - Business processes - User journeys - Value streams - Teams - Aligned autonomy - Optimise for learning - Product disruption - New gov. legislation - Sociotechnical contexts - Sociotechnical architecture patterns
  43. 43. ntcoding PRODUCT EVOLUTION Products/features evolve from new and shiny to table stakes. Organisation design should adapt accordingly.
  44. 44. ntcoding PRODUCT INNOVATION PORTFOLIO
  45. 45. ntcoding PIVOT OF THE CENTURY? Slack started life as an internal chat system. It is now the entire business, worth $5bn. techcrunch.com/2017/07/26/slack-is-raising-a-250-million- round-at-5-billion-valuation/
  46. 46. #4 DOCTRINE Effective organisation design fundamentals
  47. 47. ntcoding CONTINUOUS ORGANISATION DESIGN Acknowledgements: Simon Wardley, Wardley Maps 1 2 3 4 5 Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership - Business mission - User needs - Subdomains - Business processes - User journeys - Value streams - Teams - Aligned autonomy - Optimise for learning - Product disruption - New gov. legislation - Sociotechnical contexts - Sociotechnical architecture patterns
  48. 48. ntcoding ALIGNED AUTONOMY Design organisations so teams have high-levels of autonomy but also high levels of alignment so they act in each other’s best interests.
  49. 49. ntcoding GAMING CREATES ULTRA ALIGNED AUTONOMY
  50. 50. #5 LEADERSHIP Using the strategic organisation design playbook
  51. 51. ntcoding CONTINUOUS ORGANISATION DESIGN Acknowledgements: Simon Wardley, Wardley Maps 1 2 3 4 5 Purpose Landscape Climate Doctrine Leadership - Business mission - User needs - Subdomains - Business processes - User journeys - Value streams - Teams - Aligned autonomy - Optimise for learning - Product disruption - New gov. legislation - Sociotechnical contexts - Sociotechnical architecture patterns
  52. 52. ntcoding SOCIOTECHNICAL CONTEXTS • Building blocks of org design • Team, purpose, & technology • Align with user journey, capability, etc. • Autonomy boundaries* UI API
  53. 53. “ ntcoding The performance of a system is not the sum of its parts. It's the product of its interactions.
 — Russell Ackoff
  54. 54. ntcoding SOCIOTECHNICAL ARCHITECTURE PATTERNS We cannot remove all dependencies and have 100% autonomous teams. We must design strategically.
  55. 55. ntcoding OPTIMISE ORG DESIGN FOR? • Discovery • Execution / delivery speed • Efficiency • Design / UX • Technical Constraints • Transformation
  56. 56. ntcoding OPTIMISING FOR DISCOVERY
  57. 57. ntcoding ENTERPRISE DISCOVERY CONTEXT
  58. 58. ntcoding ORGANISATIONAL IMPLICATIONS • Optimise for speed of discovery • Discovery team will be short-lived • Combine people from different teams • New structure will emerge / teams will evolve
  59. 59. ntcoding TECHNICAL IMPLICATIONS • Service boundaries may change • Lower quality MVPs • May need to build temporary integrations
  60. 60. ntcoding OPTIMISING FOR TRANSFORMATION
  61. 61. ntcoding CULTURE BUBBLE agilitrix.com/2013/05/how-to-build-a-culture-bubble/
  62. 62. ntcoding CULTURE BUBBLE • People outside the bubble may feel unimportant • Integrating with teams outside bubble requires careful management • Frequently combined with Enterprise Discovery Context
  63. 63. ntcoding A shared language for organisation design will help us all benefit from each other’s experiences
  64. 64. ntcoding OPTIMISING FOR EFFICIENCY
  65. 65. ntcoding EXPERTISE CONTEXT Workflow agilitrix.com/2013/05/how-to-build-a-culture-bubble/
  66. 66. ntcoding EXPERTISE CONTEXT • Balance autonomy with duplicated effort • More to gain by reducing bottom line than increasing top • Candidate for new product/service • Consider buy instead of build
  67. 67. ntcoding COMPROMISING FOR DESIGN & UX
  68. 68. ntcoding CENTRALIZED PARTNERSHIP
  69. 69. ntcoding CENTRALIZED PARTNERSHIP • Balance speed, autonomy & UX cohesion • Must put in the effort to understand user journeys and types • User researchers shared by teams - coordination involved
  70. 70. ntcoding COMPROMISED BY TECHNICAL DEBT
  71. 71. ntcoding TIGHTLY-COUPLED PARTNERSHIP DownloadsSearch Catalogue Discovery
  72. 72. ntcoding TIGHTLY-COUPLED PARTNERSHIP • Higher coordination between partners • Try to avoid competing initiatives • Consider a temporary shared backlog • Consider micro-teams pattern • Prepare for boundary fluidity
  73. 73. ntcoding SOMETIMES PATTERNS CHOOSE YOU!
  74. 74. ntcoding OCTOPUS CONTEXT Privacy
  75. 75. ntcoding DOG FOOD CONTEXT!
  76. 76. ntcoding OTHER SOCIOTECHNICAL PATTERNS • Bubble Context • Tribe (OMG Spotify!) • External Partner Facade • OrgDesignPlaybook.com
  77. 77. #6 YOU CAN SHAPE THE FUTURE …of organisation design
  78. 78. ntcoding YOUR OPPORTUNITY • Explore patterns used in your company • Discover new patterns • Write blog posts about them • Talk at conferences and meetups • Share stories on OrgDesignPlaybook.com
  79. 79. ntcoding
  80. 80. ntcoding MORE… ntcoding.co.uk/workshops ntcoding.co.uk/blog OrgDesignPlaybook.com @ntcoding /in/ntcoding

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