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Fiber Optic MeasurementFiber Optic Measurement
TechniqueTechnique
ByBy
Mitesh kumar
Third Year (B.Tech)
Applied Electronic & Instrumentation Engineering
Haldia Institute of Technology.
http://www.porta-http://www.porta-
optica.orgoptica.org
2
Testing and Measuring
• Testing a cabling infrastructure is important to:
 Identify faults or help in trouble shooting
 Determine the system quality and its compliance to Standard
 Allow recording performance of the cabling at time zero
• Testing FO cabling is an indirect process
 Measurement of link length and loss
 Compare with values calculated at design time
(workmanship quality)
 Compare with Standard defined values (link functionality)
3
Power budget
Calculation of theoretical insertion loss at 850nm
Components
Fiber 50/125 0.25 km at 3.5dB (1.0dB) 0.875
Connector 3 pcs. at 0.5dB 1.5
Splice 1 pcs. at 0.1dB 0.1___
Total attenuation 2.475
Connection Splice Connection Connection
70 m150 m30 m
PMD
PMD
4
LIGHT tracer
– red light source and launching fiber
Power meter
– measuring tools for light power loss
OTDR
– graphical display of channel/link losses, location, behavior
FO field testers (measuring tools)
5
Attenuation measurement
principles
OTDR
Backscatter measuring (OTDR)
Power measuring
ReceiverTransmitter
Receiver
Plug
Transmitter
Plug
OTDR
PlugPlug
6
Power meter measurement
Some basic rules
Light source
 Laser only for singlemode fiber. LED for multi- and singlemode fibers.
 PC to PC and APC to APC connectors on test equipment.
 Do not disconnect launch cord after reference.
 „heat up“ the source before using (10 min.)
Power Meter
• Detector is very large and is not measured
Mode filter
• For reliable measurements the use of a mode filter on the launch cord is essential.
Cleaning
 Each connector should be cleaned before testing/application.
7
Power measurement :
level setting
1. Reference measuring
Transmitter
Test cable 1
Adjust:
attenuation = 0 dB
Receiver
Test cable 2
850 nm
0.00dBm
nm850
0.00 dBm
nm850
8
Power measurement :
link evaluation
Transmitter
2. Measuring the system’s attenuation
Receiver
FO System
Total attenuation [dB]
850 nm
Ð 0.74dBm
nm850
Ð 0.74dBm
nm850
9
Error reduction :
the Mandrel wrap principle
50 µm mandrel ∅ 18 mm
for 3 mm jumpers
62.5 µm mandrel ∅ 20 mm
for 3 mm jumpers
9 µm N.A.
Test jumper length 1 m to 5 m
Mandrel
launch cord5 wraps
This “mode filter” causes high bend loss in
loosely coupled modes and low loss in
tightly coupled modes. Thus the mandrel
removes all loosely coupled modes
generated by an overfilled launch in a short
(cords) link used during the reference setting
10
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
(OTDR) block diagram
t
Measuring
delay
Receiver Evaluation
Impuls
generator
Light
source
Beam
splitter
optical signals
electric signals
FO
11
OTDR measuring :
principle of operation
OTDR
The reflected light pulse is detected by the OTDR.
The light pulse is partly reflected by an interfering effect.
OTDR
A light pulse propagates in an optical waveguide.
OTDR
12
Event dead zone in an OTD
13
Attenuation dead zone in an
OTDR
14
Measuring with OTDR
1) launching fiber 2) launching fiber
200 m - 500 m for MM 200 m – 500 m for MM
500 m - 1’000 m for SM 500 m - 1’000 m for SM
FO system under test
1) 2)
Testing set up
15
Errors detected by OTDR
Connection or mech./fusion splice
Fiber
Microbending
air gap
lateral off-set
different type of fiber
contamination
Fiber
Macrobending
16
Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer
Relativepower
Distance
17
An example of an OTDR
waveform
18
Dynamic ratio in an OTDR
19
Other FO measueremnts
• Chromatic Dispersion.
• Polarisation Mode Dispersion
Only for Singlemode application
Channel length > 2 km
20
EXFO Equipement
21
EXFO Equipement
• Broadband source (C+L) for
CD/PMD
• Videomicroscope
22
CD tool
23
CD result
http://www.porta-http://www.porta-
optica.orgoptica.org
24http://www.porta-http://www.porta-
optica.orgoptica.org
Reichle & De-Massari
References

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Fiber optics measurement Technique by mitesh kumar

  • 1. 1 Fiber Optic MeasurementFiber Optic Measurement TechniqueTechnique ByBy Mitesh kumar Third Year (B.Tech) Applied Electronic & Instrumentation Engineering Haldia Institute of Technology. http://www.porta-http://www.porta- optica.orgoptica.org
  • 2. 2 Testing and Measuring • Testing a cabling infrastructure is important to:  Identify faults or help in trouble shooting  Determine the system quality and its compliance to Standard  Allow recording performance of the cabling at time zero • Testing FO cabling is an indirect process  Measurement of link length and loss  Compare with values calculated at design time (workmanship quality)  Compare with Standard defined values (link functionality)
  • 3. 3 Power budget Calculation of theoretical insertion loss at 850nm Components Fiber 50/125 0.25 km at 3.5dB (1.0dB) 0.875 Connector 3 pcs. at 0.5dB 1.5 Splice 1 pcs. at 0.1dB 0.1___ Total attenuation 2.475 Connection Splice Connection Connection 70 m150 m30 m PMD PMD
  • 4. 4 LIGHT tracer – red light source and launching fiber Power meter – measuring tools for light power loss OTDR – graphical display of channel/link losses, location, behavior FO field testers (measuring tools)
  • 5. 5 Attenuation measurement principles OTDR Backscatter measuring (OTDR) Power measuring ReceiverTransmitter Receiver Plug Transmitter Plug OTDR PlugPlug
  • 6. 6 Power meter measurement Some basic rules Light source  Laser only for singlemode fiber. LED for multi- and singlemode fibers.  PC to PC and APC to APC connectors on test equipment.  Do not disconnect launch cord after reference.  „heat up“ the source before using (10 min.) Power Meter • Detector is very large and is not measured Mode filter • For reliable measurements the use of a mode filter on the launch cord is essential. Cleaning  Each connector should be cleaned before testing/application.
  • 7. 7 Power measurement : level setting 1. Reference measuring Transmitter Test cable 1 Adjust: attenuation = 0 dB Receiver Test cable 2 850 nm 0.00dBm nm850 0.00 dBm nm850
  • 8. 8 Power measurement : link evaluation Transmitter 2. Measuring the system’s attenuation Receiver FO System Total attenuation [dB] 850 nm Ð 0.74dBm nm850 Ð 0.74dBm nm850
  • 9. 9 Error reduction : the Mandrel wrap principle 50 µm mandrel ∅ 18 mm for 3 mm jumpers 62.5 µm mandrel ∅ 20 mm for 3 mm jumpers 9 µm N.A. Test jumper length 1 m to 5 m Mandrel launch cord5 wraps This “mode filter” causes high bend loss in loosely coupled modes and low loss in tightly coupled modes. Thus the mandrel removes all loosely coupled modes generated by an overfilled launch in a short (cords) link used during the reference setting
  • 10. 10 Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) block diagram t Measuring delay Receiver Evaluation Impuls generator Light source Beam splitter optical signals electric signals FO
  • 11. 11 OTDR measuring : principle of operation OTDR The reflected light pulse is detected by the OTDR. The light pulse is partly reflected by an interfering effect. OTDR A light pulse propagates in an optical waveguide. OTDR
  • 12. 12 Event dead zone in an OTD
  • 14. 14 Measuring with OTDR 1) launching fiber 2) launching fiber 200 m - 500 m for MM 200 m – 500 m for MM 500 m - 1’000 m for SM 500 m - 1’000 m for SM FO system under test 1) 2) Testing set up
  • 15. 15 Errors detected by OTDR Connection or mech./fusion splice Fiber Microbending air gap lateral off-set different type of fiber contamination Fiber Macrobending
  • 17. 17 An example of an OTDR waveform
  • 19. 19 Other FO measueremnts • Chromatic Dispersion. • Polarisation Mode Dispersion Only for Singlemode application Channel length > 2 km
  • 21. 21 EXFO Equipement • Broadband source (C+L) for CD/PMD • Videomicroscope

Editor's Notes

  1. The core is a thin filament made of glass or plastic, measured in micra (1 mm = 0,000001m), where the light passes through. The larger the diameter of the core, the more light it can conduct. Cladding is around the core. Since it has a refraction index lower than the core, it prevents the light from being refracted, hence allowing the light to reach the reception device. Jacket is around the cladding and provides physical and environmental protection for the fiber.
  2. The core is a thin filament made of glass or plastic, measured in micra (1 mm = 0,000001m), where the light passes through. The larger the diameter of the core, the more light it can conduct. Cladding is around the core. Since it has a refraction index lower than the core, it prevents the light from being refracted, hence allowing the light to reach the reception device. Jacket is around the cladding and provides physical and environmental protection for the fiber.
  3. MM fibers are typically used for small distances (a few kms) whereas SM fibers for long distance. SM fibers can carry a few Tbps by deploying DWDM technology in comparison to MM fibers that are typically used for providing access to clients (order of Gbps)
  4. MM fibers are typically used for small distances (a few kms) whereas SM fibers for long distance. SM fibers can carry a few Tbps by deploying DWDM technology in comparison to MM fibers that are typically used for providing access to clients (order of Gbps)