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Optical Measurement
MITESH KUMAR
Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Engg.
Haldia Institute Of Technology
Introduction of
Optical measurement is a measurement technique that relies on the use of optical
sensors to collect measurements.
There are advantages and disadvantages that must be weighed when using devices
capable of optical measurement.
Several different types of systems are available, including fully automated ones, as
well as systems that allow for more manual control for precision measurements.
High end systems can be quite costly and are found in labs and materials testing
facilities where exact measurements are critically important.
Optical Measurement
Details
The diagram in figure 1 left illustrates the
basics of optical measurement: lighting,
optics, XY Stage, and a Z axis that handles
the focus.
Lighting is used to illuminate the
workpiece or object to be measured. There
are three basic lighting schemes.
Backlight is used to light the part in
silhouette to measure outer profiles and
features such as through holes.
Direct lighting is integrated into the optical
beam path and lights the part from a direct
vertical angle.
A ring light is a light source that is
mounted around the optics and illuminates
the workpiece at indirect angles.
Optical Measurement
Details
The optical sensor has a set of lenses
through which the reflected light (or direct
light in the case of backlighting) passes.
The light is focused on a camera that
contains an optical chip, or CCD.
The CCD has a pixel array that is light-
sensitive.
The chip converts the light-intensity value for
each pixel into an electronic signal with a
corresponding value for each pixel. This is
called a “gray-scale value” and is a number
between 0 and 255.
The software takes the positions of these
edges on the optical sensor and compiles that
with the XYZ position of the measuring
machine to provide the coordinate locations.
An edge-finder system links a few of these
boundary points together to create edges or
contours of the part features.
Uses of optical measurement
• Here are the main terms used to describe light
or optical measurement:
1. Photometer (including lux meter)
2. Radiometer
3. Laser Power Meter
4. Optical Power Meter
Photometers
 Photometers can also refer to
something that’s usually called a
spectrometer or spectrophotometer.
This is a different instrument
altogether.
Spectroscopy uses the fact that light
bounced off a given element has a
unique signature (or spectrum).
This can be very useful in identifying
materials.
Radiometer
Technically speaking,
this can be any light
measurement device that
uses radiometric units to
measure power.
Laser Power Meter
This one is pretty well-defined.
Any device used to measure the
power of a laser can generally be
called a “laser power meter.”
Keep in mind that there can be
some overlap, as a laser power
meter can be considered a specific
type of radiometer (or photometer,
like the PD300-CIE).
Optical Power Meter
Optical power means light
power, so this could really refer to
all the devices mentioned so far in
this blog.
Nonetheless, the convention is
to use “optical power meter” to
refer specifically to the
measurement of power in fiber-
optic systems.
ADVANTAGE
• One advantage of optical measurement is that it
is non-invasive.
• No contact is required, beyond contact with the
stage of an optical measuring device.
• Probes do not touch the object being measured
and the device does not rely on destructive
measurement techniques.
• For many applications, there is a desire to keep
items being measured intact throughout the
process, and subsequently, optical measurement
can be highly appealing.
DISADVANTGES
The primary disadvantage to optical measurement is that automated systems
are not necessarily able to correct for errors that humans would be able to
address.
For example, if a flat part is being measured and there is a small burr along
one side, the machine will read the burr into the measurement, while a person
would note the burr and compensate during the measurement process.
 Computed numerically controlled (CNC) systems like those used for optical
measurement in settings like quality control can be very adaptable, but they
are usually not capable of making intuitive leaps like humans are.
Applications
o Optical measurement works for flat parts.
o These are difficult to measure with touch probes because
little contact area is available on the sides of flat parts.
o A distinct jump in the gray-scale value makes it easy for the
software to determine an edge.
o The same is true for 2-D profiles such as cross-sections of
extrusions.
o 3-D parts with small features, especially where tight
tolerances are involved, are good candidates for optical
measurement since contact in tight places is not required
with optics.
o Likewise, rubber or plastic parts that are easily deflected
and distorted are best measured with noncontact optics.
Now  
T h
y uo
a n k
! !

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Optical measurent Mitesh kumar

  • 1. Optical Measurement MITESH KUMAR Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Engg. Haldia Institute Of Technology
  • 2. Introduction of Optical measurement is a measurement technique that relies on the use of optical sensors to collect measurements. There are advantages and disadvantages that must be weighed when using devices capable of optical measurement. Several different types of systems are available, including fully automated ones, as well as systems that allow for more manual control for precision measurements. High end systems can be quite costly and are found in labs and materials testing facilities where exact measurements are critically important.
  • 3. Optical Measurement Details The diagram in figure 1 left illustrates the basics of optical measurement: lighting, optics, XY Stage, and a Z axis that handles the focus. Lighting is used to illuminate the workpiece or object to be measured. There are three basic lighting schemes. Backlight is used to light the part in silhouette to measure outer profiles and features such as through holes. Direct lighting is integrated into the optical beam path and lights the part from a direct vertical angle. A ring light is a light source that is mounted around the optics and illuminates the workpiece at indirect angles.
  • 4. Optical Measurement Details The optical sensor has a set of lenses through which the reflected light (or direct light in the case of backlighting) passes. The light is focused on a camera that contains an optical chip, or CCD. The CCD has a pixel array that is light- sensitive. The chip converts the light-intensity value for each pixel into an electronic signal with a corresponding value for each pixel. This is called a “gray-scale value” and is a number between 0 and 255. The software takes the positions of these edges on the optical sensor and compiles that with the XYZ position of the measuring machine to provide the coordinate locations. An edge-finder system links a few of these boundary points together to create edges or contours of the part features.
  • 5. Uses of optical measurement • Here are the main terms used to describe light or optical measurement: 1. Photometer (including lux meter) 2. Radiometer 3. Laser Power Meter 4. Optical Power Meter
  • 6. Photometers  Photometers can also refer to something that’s usually called a spectrometer or spectrophotometer. This is a different instrument altogether. Spectroscopy uses the fact that light bounced off a given element has a unique signature (or spectrum). This can be very useful in identifying materials.
  • 7. Radiometer Technically speaking, this can be any light measurement device that uses radiometric units to measure power.
  • 8. Laser Power Meter This one is pretty well-defined. Any device used to measure the power of a laser can generally be called a “laser power meter.” Keep in mind that there can be some overlap, as a laser power meter can be considered a specific type of radiometer (or photometer, like the PD300-CIE).
  • 9. Optical Power Meter Optical power means light power, so this could really refer to all the devices mentioned so far in this blog. Nonetheless, the convention is to use “optical power meter” to refer specifically to the measurement of power in fiber- optic systems.
  • 10. ADVANTAGE • One advantage of optical measurement is that it is non-invasive. • No contact is required, beyond contact with the stage of an optical measuring device. • Probes do not touch the object being measured and the device does not rely on destructive measurement techniques. • For many applications, there is a desire to keep items being measured intact throughout the process, and subsequently, optical measurement can be highly appealing.
  • 11. DISADVANTGES The primary disadvantage to optical measurement is that automated systems are not necessarily able to correct for errors that humans would be able to address. For example, if a flat part is being measured and there is a small burr along one side, the machine will read the burr into the measurement, while a person would note the burr and compensate during the measurement process.  Computed numerically controlled (CNC) systems like those used for optical measurement in settings like quality control can be very adaptable, but they are usually not capable of making intuitive leaps like humans are.
  • 12. Applications o Optical measurement works for flat parts. o These are difficult to measure with touch probes because little contact area is available on the sides of flat parts. o A distinct jump in the gray-scale value makes it easy for the software to determine an edge. o The same is true for 2-D profiles such as cross-sections of extrusions. o 3-D parts with small features, especially where tight tolerances are involved, are good candidates for optical measurement since contact in tight places is not required with optics. o Likewise, rubber or plastic parts that are easily deflected and distorted are best measured with noncontact optics.
  • 13. Now   T h y uo a n k ! !