Bombay.At first, Bombay was the major outlet for cottontextiles from Gujarat. Later, in the nineteenthcentury, the city functioned as a port throughwhich large quantities of raw materials such ascotton and opium would pass. Gradually, it alsobecame an important Administrative Centre inwestern India, and then, by the end of thenineteenth century, a major Industrial Centre.
Bombay. Work.The first cotton textile mill in Bombay wasestablished in 1854. By 1921, there were 85cotton mills with about 146,000 workers. Onlyabout one-fourth of Bombay’s inhabitantsbetween 1881 and 1931 were born in Bombay:the rest came from outside. Large numbersflowed in from the nearby district of Ratnagirito work in the Bombay mills.
Bombay. Reclamation.In 1864, the Back Bay Reclamation Companywon the right to reclaim the western foreshorefrom the tip of Malabar Hill to the end ofColaba. Reclamation often meant the leveling ofthe hills around Bombay. By the 1870s, although most of the privatecompanies closed down due to the mountingcost, the city had expanded to about 22 squaremiles.
Bombay. Reclamation.A successful reclamation project wasundertaken by the Bombay Port Trust, whichbuilt a dry dock between 1914 and 1918 and usedthe excavated earth to create the 22-acreBallard Estate. Subsequently, the famous MarineDrive of Bombay was developed.
Bombay. Trade.By 1845, the seven islands were coalesced into asingle landmass by the Hornby Vellard projectvia large scale land reclamation. On 16 April1853, Indias first passenger railway line wasestablished, connecting Bombay to theneighbouring town of Thane. Duringthe American Civil War (1861–1865), the citybecame the worlds chief cotton tradingmarket, resulting in a boom in the economy thatsubsequently enhanced the citys stature.
Bombay. Events.The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformedBombay into one of the largest seaports onthe Arabian Sea. In September 1896, Bombay washit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the deathtoll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. About850,000 people fled Bombay and the textileindustry was adversely affected. As the capital ofthe Bombay Presidency, it witnessed the Indianindependence movement, with the Quit IndiaMovement in 1942 and The Royal Indian NavyMutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.
Mumbai. The Metropolitan City. Mumbai, formerly known as, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million. Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbor. In 2009, Mumbai was named an Alpha world city. Mumbai is also the richest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West or Central Asia.