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Elements of Organic Farming
George Kuepper & Kate Atchley
Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture
Pest Insect,
& Disease
M...
Regarding Weeds
Pest Insects & Diseases
Well-designed organic systems have
higher ecological stability and lower
pest pre...
Organic System Effects On Pests
• Systemic Practices:
rotation, cover cropping, organic fertilization, adapted and
resista...
Putting It Together:
Setting the Foundation
B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l
A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s ...
Well-designed organic systems have
higher ecological stability and lower pest
pressure overall.
However, many pests requ...
Traditional Organic Pest Control Practices
Weeds
cultivation
organic mulches
mowing
grazing
weeder geese
handweeding...
Putting It Together:
Second Level of Mgt.
B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l
A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s t ...
Well-designed organic systems have
higher ecological stability and lower pest
pressure overall.
However, many pests requ...
Organic-Allowed Pesticides
(Insecticides, Miticides, Fungicides, Herbicides, etc.)
Mineral-based
 Coppers
 Sulfur
 DE
...
Putting It Together:
Third Level of Mgt.
B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l
A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s t e...
Organic Strategy For Weed & Pest
Management
I. Organic System Effects
II. Traditional Organic Practices
III. Allowed Pesti...
Integrated Pest Management
(IPM)
IPM is a systematic strategy for
managing pests which considers
prevention, avoidance, mo...
Insect/Arthropod Pests
Traditional Organic Insect/Arthropod
Control Practices
beneficial habitats
augmentation of
beneficials
physical barrier...
Pest I.D. is Critical
Cue in Kate
Flea Beatles
Ringo
Paul
Phytophthora
Septoria Blight
A Face Only a Mother Could Love!
A tomato hornworm—very pleased with itself!
Tomato Hornworm
Handpicking
Fall cultivation
Bacillus thuringiensis
Biological control
Bio-control for Hornworm
Polistes wasps
-predatory-
Braconid wasp
-parasitic-
Squash Bug
Timed planting
Sanitation
Barriers
Resistance/tolerance
Allowed chemicals??
Biological control
Squash Bug Parasite
Tachinid fly
Trichopoda pennipes
Stink Bugs
as tomato pests
Sanitation
Trap cropping
Allowed chemicals
Biological control
Buckwheat as a Trap Crop
Stink Bugs
as tomato pests
Sanitation
Trap cropping
Allowed chemicals
Biological control
Trissolcus basalis: a parasitic wasp
Corn Earworm/
Tomato Fruitworm
Resistant varieties
Natural oil ear treatment
Bt sprays
Biological control
Zea-Later
Used to inject natural oils with or
without allowed pesticides
Corn Earworm/
Tomato Fruitworm
Resistant varieties
Natural oil ear treatment
Bt sprays
Biological control
Trichogramma spp: parasitic wasps
Aphids aka: plant lice
Avoid excess nitrogen fertilization
Allowed pesticides
Biological control
Aphid Predators
Ladybird Beetle
Ladybird Beetle larva
Lacewing
Generalist Predators
Assassin Bug
Preying Mantis
Robber Fly
Garden Spider
Striped Blister Beetle
Pest on damn-near everything
Two tools for
blister beetle
management
Plant Diseases
Plant Disease Triangle
Nematode-Trapping Fungi
Reality Check!
• Some diseases are wind-borne or carried
by mobile insect vectors. Rotation has
little-to-no effect on suc...
Early blight
of tomato
Serenade®
Bacillus subtilis
Powdery Mildew
Problem on many crops
“Use of Baking Soda as a Fungicide”
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-
pub/summaries/summa...
Useful
Resource
http://web.pppmb.cals.cornell.edu/resourceguide/
Useful Resource
George Kuepper
The Kerr Center
P.O. Box 588
Poteau, OK 74953
918-647-9123
gkuepper@kerrcenter.com
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Elements of Organic Farming: Pest, Insect, & Disease Management

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George Kuepper/Kate Atchley
Oklahoma Beginning Farmer & Rancher Program 2013
Horticulture #3: July 13

Published in: Technology, Business
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Elements of Organic Farming: Pest, Insect, & Disease Management

  1. 1. Elements of Organic Farming George Kuepper & Kate Atchley Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture Pest Insect, & Disease Management OKBFRP Horticulture Program, July 2013
  2. 2. Regarding Weeds Pest Insects & Diseases Well-designed organic systems have higher ecological stability and lower pest pressure overall. “1000 tiny hammers”
  3. 3. Organic System Effects On Pests • Systemic Practices: rotation, cover cropping, organic fertilization, adapted and resistant cultivars, composting and basic sanitation practices. “Nurturing the soil food web plus…” • Systemic Effects: innate and induced resistance/tolerance biocontrol of pests and diseases in the soil biocontrol of above ground pests life cycles of weeds and pests disrupted weed seedbank reduced beneficial shift in weed populations
  4. 4. Putting It Together: Setting the Foundation B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s t e m R o t a t i o n s , C o v e r C ro p s C o m p o s t , M a n u re O r g a n i c C u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s O f f - F a r m I n p u t s F e r t i l i z e r s — P e s t i c i d e s G o o d O r g a n i c C ro p
  5. 5. Well-designed organic systems have higher ecological stability and lower pest pressure overall. However, many pests require additional management (i.e. cultural practices) to ensure that they don’t get out of control. “More tiny hammers…” Regarding Weeds Pest Insects & Diseases
  6. 6. Traditional Organic Pest Control Practices Weeds cultivation organic mulches mowing grazing weeder geese handweeding flame weeding plastic mulch Insects & Disease beneficial habitats augmentation of beneficials physical barriers nonsynthetic lures, traps, repellents adjusting timing trap crops Hand-picking
  7. 7. Putting It Together: Second Level of Mgt. B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s t e m R o t a t i o n s , C o v e r C ro p s C o m p o s t , M a n u re O r g a n i c C u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s O f f - F a r m I n p u t s F e r t i l i z e r s — P e s t i c i d e s G o o d O r g a n i c C ro p
  8. 8. Well-designed organic systems have higher ecological stability and lower pest pressure overall. However, many pests require additional management (i.e. cultural practices) to ensure that they don’t get out of control. While organic management precludes most pesticides, many allowable materials are available. Regarding Weeds Pest Insects & Diseases
  9. 9. Organic-Allowed Pesticides (Insecticides, Miticides, Fungicides, Herbicides, etc.) Mineral-based  Coppers  Sulfur  DE  Baking soda Biologicals  Bt (Dipel®, etc.)  B. bassiana (Mycotrol®, etc.)  Bacillus subtilis (Serenade®, etc.)  Spinosad (Fire Ant bait, etc.) Botanicals  Pyrethrum (Pyganic®, etc.)  Neem (Bioneem®, neem oil, etc.)  Garlic Refined oils  Dormant oil  Superior oil Soaps  Insecticidal soap  Herbicidal soap
  10. 10. Putting It Together: Third Level of Mgt. B i o l o g i c a l l y H e a l t h y S o i l A S o u n d O r g a n i c S y s t e m R o t a t i o n s , C o v e r C ro p s C o m p o s t , M a n u re O r g a n i c C u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s O f f - F a r m I n p u t s P e s t i c i d e s G o o d O r g a n i c C ro p
  11. 11. Organic Strategy For Weed & Pest Management I. Organic System Effects II. Traditional Organic Practices III. Allowed Pesticides
  12. 12. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) IPM is a systematic strategy for managing pests which considers prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression. Where chemical pesticides are necessary, a preference is given to materials and methods which maximize public safety and reduce environmental risk. MASSACHUSETTS IPM COUNCIL'S DEFINITION OF IPM http://massnrc.org/ipm/what-is-ipm.html
  13. 13. Insect/Arthropod Pests
  14. 14. Traditional Organic Insect/Arthropod Control Practices beneficial habitats augmentation of beneficials physical barriers traps adjusting timing trap crops hand-picking/ vacuums flaming/fire
  15. 15. Pest I.D. is Critical
  16. 16. Cue in Kate
  17. 17. Flea Beatles Ringo Paul
  18. 18. Phytophthora
  19. 19. Septoria Blight
  20. 20. A Face Only a Mother Could Love! A tomato hornworm—very pleased with itself!
  21. 21. Tomato Hornworm Handpicking Fall cultivation Bacillus thuringiensis Biological control
  22. 22. Bio-control for Hornworm Polistes wasps -predatory- Braconid wasp -parasitic-
  23. 23. Squash Bug Timed planting Sanitation Barriers Resistance/tolerance Allowed chemicals?? Biological control
  24. 24. Squash Bug Parasite Tachinid fly Trichopoda pennipes
  25. 25. Stink Bugs as tomato pests Sanitation Trap cropping Allowed chemicals Biological control
  26. 26. Buckwheat as a Trap Crop
  27. 27. Stink Bugs as tomato pests Sanitation Trap cropping Allowed chemicals Biological control
  28. 28. Trissolcus basalis: a parasitic wasp
  29. 29. Corn Earworm/ Tomato Fruitworm Resistant varieties Natural oil ear treatment Bt sprays Biological control
  30. 30. Zea-Later Used to inject natural oils with or without allowed pesticides
  31. 31. Corn Earworm/ Tomato Fruitworm Resistant varieties Natural oil ear treatment Bt sprays Biological control
  32. 32. Trichogramma spp: parasitic wasps
  33. 33. Aphids aka: plant lice Avoid excess nitrogen fertilization Allowed pesticides Biological control
  34. 34. Aphid Predators Ladybird Beetle Ladybird Beetle larva Lacewing
  35. 35. Generalist Predators Assassin Bug Preying Mantis Robber Fly Garden Spider
  36. 36. Striped Blister Beetle Pest on damn-near everything
  37. 37. Two tools for blister beetle management
  38. 38. Plant Diseases
  39. 39. Plant Disease Triangle
  40. 40. Nematode-Trapping Fungi
  41. 41. Reality Check! • Some diseases are wind-borne or carried by mobile insect vectors. Rotation has little-to-no effect on such diseases. Asters yellows, on Black-eyed susan. Vectored by leaf- hoppers.
  42. 42. Early blight of tomato Serenade® Bacillus subtilis
  43. 43. Powdery Mildew Problem on many crops “Use of Baking Soda as a Fungicide” https://attra.ncat.org/attra- pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=126
  44. 44. Useful Resource http://web.pppmb.cals.cornell.edu/resourceguide/
  45. 45. Useful Resource
  46. 46. George Kuepper The Kerr Center P.O. Box 588 Poteau, OK 74953 918-647-9123 gkuepper@kerrcenter.com

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