The state of KOS in the Linked Data movement


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- The publishing, management, and interoperating of KOS for the Semantic Web.
Content: 1. Value vocabularies in the Linked Data Hub – CKAN The Data Hub
2. Semantic assets registries
2a. Asset Description Metadata Schema (ADMS)
2b. DCMI Application Profile for KOS Resource
3. Thesaurus data model (ISO 25964) and alignment with SKOS
(presented at ASIS&T 2012 Annual Conference)

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  • So long as the principles of URI naming, HTTP access, and linking predicates where possible are maintained, the approach qualifies as linked data. Source:
  • 1. There must be resolvable http:// (or https://) URIs.2. They must resolve…to RDF data in one of the popular RDF formats.3. The dataset must contain at least 1000 triples. 4. The dataset must be connected via RDF links to a dataset that is already in the diagram. This means, either your dataset must use URIs from the other dataset, or vice versam. (> 50 links)5. Access of the entire dataset must be possible via RDF crawling, via an RDF dump, or via a SPARQL endpoint.
  • <xyz/sch/c_4788> is a skos:Concept instance<xyz/sch/xl_en_123> is a skos-xl:Label instance
  • Modelling KOS with FRBR-- A case of ASIS&T ThesaurusThe Entities and Relationshipsthe thesaurus as a whole is a work (“W”)different versions (such as Version 1994 in English, Version 2005 in English, Version 2012 in French) are different expressions of this work (“E”)the printed edition of the 2010 English version and the SKOS Linked Data representation of the same version, are examples of manifestations (“M”).
  • From ISO 2788 to ISO 25964: the evolution of thesaurus standards towards interoperability and data modeling. Information Standards Quarterly (Winter 2012, v.24, no. 1), by Stella G. Dextre Clarke and Marcia Lei Zeng, Available at:
  • RationaleProvide general representation paradigmsTo date, varying implementations are found for label relations, concept relationships, arrays and groups.Example illustrations of varying mappings for same abstractions are presented in the slide stackJuttaLindenthal's presentation illustrates ways of dealing with features that are sometimes found in thesauri although not recommended in ISO 25964.Allow for maximal tooling, support and exchangeApplication specific extensions limit the use of the exchanged information to users knowing the application (profile)
  • The state of KOS in the Linked Data movement

    1. 1. The state of KOS in theLinked Data movement– the publishing, management, and interoperating of KOS for the Semantic Web Marcia Zeng ASIS&T 2012 Annual Meeting Oct. 2012, Baltimore
    2. 2. 1. Value vocabularies in the Linked Data Hub – CKAN The Data Hub2. Semantic assets registries  Asset Description Metadata Schema (ADMS)  DCMI Application Profile for KOS Resource3. Thesaurus data model and alignment with SKOS
    3. 3. 1. Value Vocabularies in The Data Hub of CKAN
    4. 4. The Data Hub of CKAN (3880 datasets) • Most notable: Linking Open Data (LOD) group, now has 327 dataset (2012-10) while the cloud showed 295 (2011-09) • Other groups see: • Including: • Library Linked Data Group: ( 57 datasets, mostly link to non-library datasets) • Bibliographic Data group(89 datasets) • Other groups cover almost every areas, big or small Available formats: CSV | RDF | XML | XBRL | SDMX | HTML+RDFa | otherLOD Cloud group327 datasets
    5. 5. Linking Open Data -- dataset cloud (as of 2011-09, dataset: 295) Including some value vocabularies: • lists, • dictionaries, • name authorities, • classification schemes, • subject headings, • thesauri, • ontologies • vocabulary registries
    6. 6. Searching the Data Hub, found over 300 datasets that are value vocabularies or contain a component of value vocabularies,Including manyvaluevocabularies: "Bioportal"• lists, found 245• dictionaries, "vocabularies" mostly ontologies of• name found 131 specific domains authorities,• classification Exclude 11 also tagged as schemes, structured 120 (various types)• subject vocabulary" headings,• thesauri,• ontologies• vocabulary registries
    7. 7. Linked Open Vocabularies– Subject Vocabularies, ValueLists
    8. 8. human-readableExample: a LCSH entryat
    9. 9. human-readable can beviewed/downloaded in these formats
    10. 10. machine-understandable Concept Preferred label Alternative labels
    11. 11. Broader andnarrowerconcepts Matched concepts in othervocabularies
    12. 12. Another way to express alternative labels (SKOS, not SKOSXL)
    13. 13. Concepts --------------------------  Labels SKOS (Core) - labels are properties of Concept SKOS + SKOSXL - Label is a Class
    14. 14.  DCMI Application Profile for KOS Resource  NKOS Task Group Asset Description Metadata Schema (ADMS)  EU-ISA Programme ADMS WG
    15. 15. Unlike many of the published works, almost all KOS resources need to be continuously developed to maintain their usability.In addition to micro-level updates, new versions with a significant amount of changes may be regularly released.The later versions of a KOS scheme are usually based on previous ones, fully or partially, while the authorship may also change.
    16. 16. KOS are usually not developed or used in isolation.Translation, reuse, mapping, re- alignments, and derivation of the whole KOS, or a segment are common.Formats: the content of a thesaurus or a classification scheme is usually stored in databases, with available outputs in multiple formats.
    17. 17. WWork EExpression Mmanifes-tations The Entities and Relationships
    18. 18. Started a FRBR-based general model for application profiles (@ DC2010)Did surveys of terminology registries Common attributes used in eight registriesAnalyzed use scenarios and user tasks according to FRBR + FRSAD modelsProposed a domain model for KOS Resource Description and Access
    19. 19. A proposeddomain modelfor KOSResourceDescriptionand Access
    20. 20. Final verification of attributes and relationshipsAlignment of the core attributes and relationships with DCMI termsTemplates for describing KOS resources in registriesTesting /DCMI_NKOS_Task_Group
    21. 21. - created by EUs Interoperability Solutions forEuropean Public Administrations (ISA) Programme ofthe European Commission- Working group includes 43 people of 20 EU MemberStates 2 from the US and Australia- Released April, 2012.- Namespace on W3C:
    22. 22. highly reusable metadata (e.g. xml schemata, generic data models) and/or reference data (e.g. code lists, taxonomies, dictionaries, thesau ri, ontologies, etc.)- ADMS is a metadata vocabulary to describesemantic interoperability assets.
    23. 23. The Asset Description Metadata Schema (ADMS)- a common way to describe semantic interoperabilityassets making it possible for everyone to search anddiscover them once shared through the forthcomingfederation of asset repositories.Visit ADMS home: Notable users since its publishing in April, 2012:  W3Cs TR (Technical reports) Space  PoolParty Thesaurus Manager  W3C’s Government Linked Data WG
    24. 24. ISO 25964: Thesauri and interoperability with othervocabulariesPart 1: Thesauri for information retrieval  Published Aug. 2011  Covers monolingual and multilingual thesauri Part 2: Interoperability with other vocabularies  To be published in 2012, in press now  Covers mapping between thesauri and other types of vocabulary 28
    25. 25. 29Dextre Clarke and Zeng, 2012.
    26. 26. 30
    27. 27. ISO 25964 data model <-&->SKOSThe ISO 25964 data model is broadly compatible with SKOSGreater compatibility awaits SKOS extension to allow for: - version history - compound equivalence among terms - use of concept group and of array - custom extensions - specific properties of concepts, terms, notes and thesaurus that are not covered in SKOS This and the following 6 slides are based on "Exchanging ISO 25964-1 thesauri data using RDF, SKOS and SKOS-XL" Presented by Johan De Smedt, NKOS Workshop 2012 at TPDL 31 nkos/nkos2012/programme2012.html
    28. 28. Purpose: Provide a reference framework facilitating integration and data exchange of ISO 25964 thesaurus data using RDF as a representation languageApproach: Minimal extensions are made, using SKOS, SKOS- XL and Dublin Core where possibleContributors: ISO TC46 WG 8 - 25964WG: • Stella Dextre Clarke, Jutta Lindenthal, Marcia Lei Zeng, Johan De Smedt, Douglas S. Tudhope, Leonard Will Antoine Isaac: Co-Editor of SKOS Primer and MADS/SKOS mapping
    29. 29. Methodology and Levels of representation compliance Always align with the specified SKOS and SKOS-XL semantics • SKOS and SKOS-XL semantics are a top level agreement for sharing KOS information oSKOS: Not requiring label relations Limited concept relationships oSKOS-XL Simple label relations Keep with the iso-25964 proposed extensions patterns • Compound and simple label relationships, thesaurus evolution, arrays, groups, notes and facets
    30. 30. Extracted from the table Full table at: cesSKOS/ISO-25964 SKOS/SKOS-XL/extension RemarkThesaurusConcept skos:Concept- status iso-thes:status Proposed extension- isPartOf (Thesaurus) skos:inScheme- notation skos:notation The datatype of the notation range is set to distinguish different types of notationsThesaurusConcept[ Has special attribute mapping topConcept=true] (see next 2 rows)- isPartOf (Thesaurus) skos:topConceptOf- isTopConceptOf Not explicitly mapped. sub-properties of(TopLevelRelationship) The relationship may be skos:narrowerTransitive derived (see remark) having the same domain as skos:topConceptOf
    31. 31. ExtractedISO-25964 SKOS/SKOS-XL/extension RemarkThesaurusTerm - rdf:PlainLiteral - preferred simple mapping - xl:Label - extended mapping to handle label relationshipsPreferredTerm iso-thes:PreferredTerm The restriction of xl:Label to the range of xl:prefLabel is only required for expressing label relations (see ConpoundEquivalence)(ThesaurusConcept) - skos:prefLabel hasPreferredLabel - xl:prefLabel (PreferredTerm)CustomTermAttribute requires xl:Label mapping The property name depends custom RDF property on the customAttributeType[customAttributeType]
    32. 32. Example: ThesaurusArray - view in ISO Data Model (example – not ordered ) ThesaurusConcept cups hasSubordinateArray ThesaurusArray hasMemberConcept <cups by form> HierarchicalRelationship (role=NT) ThesaurusConcept ThesaurusConcept tumblers stemware HierarchicalRelationship (role=NT) hasSubordinateArray hasMemberConcept ThesaurusArray <cups by function> HierarchicalRelationship (role=NT) ThesaurusConcept ThesaurusConcept coffee cups icecream cups HierarchicalRelationship (role=NT)images from wikipedia
    33. 33. Example: ThesaurusArray - view in extended SKOS (example – not ordered ) ThesaurusConcept cups hasSubordinateArray skos:member ThesaurusArray <cups by form> skos:narrower skos:Concept skos:Concept tumblers stemware skos:narrower hasSubordinateArray skos:member ThesaurusArray <cups by function> skos:narrower skos:Concept skos:Concept coffee cups icecream cups skos:narrowerimages from wikipedia
    34. 34. "Exchanging ISO 25964-1 thesauri data using RDF, SKOS and SKOS-XL"Presented by Johan De Smedt, NKOS Workshop 2012 at TPDL between ISO 25964 and SKOS/SKOS-XL models [PDF file] Data Hub. Linked Data Service- Vocabularies and authorities. NKOS Task Group wiki. home page.