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• The Bhonga is a
traditional
construction type in
the Kutch district of
the Gujarat state in
India, which has a
very high...
Vernacular Design interventions
The platforms are closely
placed and the residual
spaces between them act
as pathways for
...
Architectural Elements
Cyllindrical walls and
thatched roofs
Mangalore tiles roof Shape of the plan
changes
Contemporary B...
For the design of wall decorations, the walls of the bhunga are covered with
a paste made of
donkey dung, earth and Fevico...
1.IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BHUNGA, RAW
MATERIALS THAT ARE EASILY AVAILABLE IN KUTCH.
2.The materials are such that the bhung...
Kutchh, BhungaConstruction
Foundation and Boundary walls
The components required for the
construction of walls and
foundat...
Roof Construction
Kutchh, Bhunga Construction
The components required for roof’s construction are:
•One horizontal beam (d...
Kutchh, Socio Cultural Character
RELIGION
HINDUS
JAINISM
ISLAM
LANGUAGES
KUTCHI
SINDHI
GUJARATI
Circular houses on a platf...
platform
3.5m
section
plan
Raised platform
Open space made for local gatherings
Street width=4m(approx.)
6m
Canopy of Bhun...
Arts and Crafts of Kutchh, Gujarat
10
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kutchh bhunga architecture

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kutchh bhunga architecture

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kutchh bhunga architecture

  1. 1. • The Bhonga is a traditional construction type in the Kutch district of the Gujarat state in India, which has a very high earthquake risk. • A Bhonga consists of a single cylindrically shaped room. Architectural Style 1 elevation Bhungha locations Bhunghas are located in the gulf of Kutchh region. The circular highlighted areas denote the locations of Bhungha clusters. Bhungha Huts Plan Fig. 1: A typical Bhungha , Elevation Fig. 2: A circular Bhungha type (elevation), A rectangular Bhungha type (elevation) Fig. 2: Interior view of the Bungha, Otla in front of the Bhungha Fig. 1: A typical Bhungha , Section
  2. 2. Vernacular Design interventions The platforms are closely placed and the residual spaces between them act as pathways for movement . Thorny bushes envelop the settlement and act as fence or protective shield against the hot winds and dust storms. On arrival from the highway one only finds grass fence and the projected conical thatched roofs against the sky. Thatched roof contructed of straw and timber, he roofing materials are generally very light weight, and develops low inertia forces. A typical Bhunga cluster Deep overhang of the circular houses The platform acts as a plinth Architectural Characteristics 2 Architectural Style: Vernacular Kutchhi Architecture The circular mud house is an integration of exact geometry and property of materials for the climatic conditions to evolve a perfect architectural form of the house . The materials used are locally available and habitants themselves build the house. The circular plan efficiently compares the square plan where the perimeter to enclosed area ratio is lower than the circular house. The skill, brilliance and aesthetics in building the house is the cumulative traditional knowledge of successive generations added up to result in intelligent built forms. Due to circular shape of wall in plan, inertial forces developed in wall are resisted through shell action providing excellent resistance to lateral forces. • In addition, the thick walls required for thermal insulation have high in-plane stiffness which provides excellent performance under lateral loads. Fig. 1: Flow of air acc. to Bernoulli’s principle of pressure differences (Plan) Fig. 2: thick walls for thermal insulation, high plane stiffness which provides excellent performance under lateral loads. A diagram showing flow of wind acc. to Venturi Effect along the central shaft of a Modern Bhunga
  3. 3. Architectural Elements Cyllindrical walls and thatched roofs Mangalore tiles roof Shape of the plan changes Contemporary Bhunga huts with thatched roofs Modern Bhunga hutsAddition of the gathering area Evolution of the elevation and plan of The Bhunga 1 Evolution of the doors of the Bhungas 2 The Jaali acts both as an aesthetic element and shields from the direct sunlight 3 Interior view of the windows of Bhungas Exterior view of the windows of the Bhungas Windows and openings 4 3
  4. 4. For the design of wall decorations, the walls of the bhunga are covered with a paste made of donkey dung, earth and Fevicol (a glue). Decorative patterns are incorporated onto this surface. For colors, minerals are extracted from a dam near Khavda. These offer a range of five colors: ochre, red, brown, white and dark gray. The minerals are milled, mixed with water and used to paint the walls of the bhungas. Inside, the mural relief decorations are accompanied by functional elements such as niches and shelves. 3. Roof construction ranges from the simple to the very ornate. 4. functional elements such as niches and shelves Often the wall is decorated with small mirrors. These mirrors that decorate the walls inside the bhunga also serve to multiply the light. The design on the walls hence appears to be similar to refined embroidery on traditional textiles and garments. Interior and Exterior Decoration 2. Folk painting art on elevation of walls as exterior decoration The analogy between paintings on the walls and furniture and Embroidery on traditional clothes is stunning and it is interesting how communities distinguish themselves through different decorative patterns, used both in clothing and in wall ornamentations. 1. Lippan art on elevation of walls as exterior decoration 4
  5. 5. 1.IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BHUNGA, RAW MATERIALS THAT ARE EASILY AVAILABLE IN KUTCH. 2.The materials are such that the bhungas are well Earthquake resistant. 3.Modification to Building Recent Bhungas constructions have used wide variety of construction materials. These include the stone or burnt brick masonry either in mud mortar or in cement mortar. BHUNGA OUT OF CLAY AND REED Primary materials: Sikki leaves bamboo Manglore tiles Thatched roof OR Secondary material: THATCHED ROOF TRADITIONAL BHUNGA Secondary material: Mud stones water Conventional wall cement OR TIMBER DOORS, WINDOWS AND STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 1. Traditional roof consists of light-weight conical roof, while some recent constructions have used heavy Mangalore tiles on roofs. 2. Though essentially unchanged, a few homes have tiled roofs instead of thatch. Platform drains off water which gathers because of the impervious soil, even though the rainfall is meager. DOOR Primary material: Materials Used Primary materials: Mud bricks cow dung 5
  6. 6. Kutchh, BhungaConstruction Foundation and Boundary walls The components required for the construction of walls and foundations are: a) Clayey soil and rice husk for earth blocks. b) Cement mortar used for (foundations). c) Earth sourced from BANNI, cow dung and local earth for plaster. Earth and rubble stones for filling the platform -otla -Production stages of mud blocks are as follows: 1. A trench 30 cm deep and 45 cm wide is dug. The process of laying the blocks is locally called chanter. 2. Walls are raised on foundations, using cow dung plus local mud mortar, mixed with water to make the compound workable. 3. Lintels and doors and window frames are inserted where necessary. 4. A platform-otla-is then built using rubble stone and earth, up to a height of about 45 cm. (This is completed by a thin layer of mud, called Lipan, which is applied also on the walls of the Bhunga to protect them at the base. Building of Building of a sun dried earth blocks wall.) Wall Construction The mixture for the plaster layer, locally called gobar Lipan, is made with cow dung and local mud. Water is added to improve its workability. A first layer is applied on the outer surface of the wall, and smoothed using hands. It takes about a day to complete it, and then another layer is applied on the inner surface. These inner and outer layers are alternated, up to seven layers applied on both surfaces of the wall. The last layer of Lipan is done using earth sourced from Banni and cow Reinforced wall Mud brick wall Trench filled with stone Decorative walls 6
  7. 7. Roof Construction Kutchh, Bhunga Construction The components required for roof’s construction are: •One horizontal beam (diameter 15 to 18 cm). •A base for the vertical kingpost - patli - size 5x7x25 •A central kingpost (ranging from 180 to 270 cm, diameter 10 cm). •A cone - MANN - at the top of the kingpost (diameter 40 cm, 45 cm high). •Babool wood rafters forming the backbone of the roof – VALI – (having a diameter between 6 365 cm long) •Culms of split bamboo which constitute the secondary warping - KHAPATIS – (diameter 2 .5 cm, length 365 cm). •Rope - KATHI -, (1.25 cm thick. 30 kg of rope are required). •Straw - KHEEP – (for roofing). • Bhunga are never "designed" in the modern context. However, Bhunga architecture is a very unique aspect of traditional desert architecture of Kutch region in which the size, location and orientation of the Bhunga are planned for very good structural and functional results. • The entire construction process, which is carried out by the mason with very few unskilled laborers, can be completed within 30 days. • The construction of this type of housing takes place in a single phase. • Typically, the building is originally designed for its final constructed size. Advantages Otla Section of a bhunga 7
  8. 8. Kutchh, Socio Cultural Character RELIGION HINDUS JAINISM ISLAM LANGUAGES KUTCHI SINDHI GUJARATI Circular houses on a platform around the central street acting as a space for community interaction. Next to the Bhunga, but never set against it, there is usually a small rectangular building, called chowki, which presents small variations: the largest chowki are used as living spaces, and smaller as kitchens. Smaller units, about one and a half meter high, not very well shaped and devoid of roof are sometimes set against the Bhunga. These units are used as functional spaces for storage or bathrooms. plan elevation Communities of Kutchh Kutch district is inhabited by various groups and communities. One can find various nomadic, semi nomadic and artisan groups living in Kutch. Gujarati Ahirs comprise a comparatively large group in Kutch. Bhunga in clusters 8
  9. 9. platform 3.5m section plan Raised platform Open space made for local gatherings Street width=4m(approx.) 6m Canopy of Bhunga Outside wall THE FORM OF BHUNGA IS AN EXTROVERT FORM AS THE PEOPLE USE VARIOUSBRIGHT COLOURS AND DECORATIVE ITEMS WHICH IN TURN ATTRACT PEOPLE. THE FORM THESE PEOPLE USE I.E. THE CYLINDRICAL FORM WHICH HELPS IN VARIOUS REASONS FOR THE SURVIVAL OF BHUNGA ESPECIALLY IN DESERT AREA. VIBRANT COLORS ARE USED TO PAINT THE OUTSIDE AS WELL AS THE INSIDE OF THE BHUNGA. THESE ARE THE TRADITIONAL COLORS WHICH ARE BRIGHT, EARTHY AND COMPOSITE. THE MATERIALS USED BY THE KUTCHCHHI PEOPLE TO BUILT BHUNGA DEFINE THE TEXTURES. THE WALLS OF BHUNGA GETS WITH THE ROUGH AND HARD FINISH WITH FOLK ART OVER IT. THE STREET TO THE BUILDING RATIO IS MORE THAN 1 IN MOST OF THE CASES THUS BHUNGAS DOESN’T HELP IN SHADING THE STREETS AND THUS THE HOT, DRY AND ARID CLIMATE DOES BLOW UO THE STREETS TOO. STREET TO THE HOUSE RATIO Layout of Bunga Clusters Bhungas placed in cluster around a central street PROPORTIONS OF BHUNGA: Elevation plan COLORS AND TEXTURE 9
  10. 10. Arts and Crafts of Kutchh, Gujarat 10

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