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bhonga vernacular architecture of gujarat


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bhonga is a type of settlement in kucth region of gujarat.
it is the vernacular architecture of that area.

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bhonga vernacular architecture of gujarat

  2. 2. Introduction Kutch district (also spelled as Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. Covering an area of 45,652 km²,it is the largest district of India. The population of Kutch is 21 Lakh, literacy rate is 59.79%. People of this region are of very low or low income class. It is also earthquake prone area.
  3. 3. Divided in tw0 major parts  Rann of kuchchh – wet and dry region without any settlements. Salt flat lands in summer and flooded in rainy season.  Kuchchh – Dry area with settlement both traditional and modern. Topography -Whole Kutch region is flat with grasslands, not much vegetation.
  4. 4. History Ruins of Indus valley civilization are found in some regions of Kutch. Massive stone fortification, Harappan pottery, two script bearing seals, one of steatite and other of copper were also found; terracotta sealing was also found.
  5. 5. Traditional rural house in Kutch region of India (Bhonga)
  6. 6. What is Bhonga? The Bhonga is a traditional construction type in the Kutch district of the Gujarat state in India, which has a very high earthquake risk. A Bhonga consists of a single cylindrically shaped room. The Bhonga has a conical roof supported by cylindrical walls. Bhonga construction has existed for several hundred years. This type of house is quite durable and appropriate for prevalent desert conditions.
  7. 7. Typical construction drawings and materials. Building materials  Masonry wall is made of adobe blocks and plaster is also from mud covered by cow dunk, lime etc.  Roof is made of bamboo/wooden framework covered with thatch. window Vertical wooden post Wooden rafter Vertical wooden post (optional) Plan Door opening Adobe/Earthen walls Inner diameter ranges from 3 to 6m. A A
  8. 8. Typical construction drawings
  9. 9. Typical construction drawings Structural variant for the roof- supported by a central pillar
  10. 10. Factors influencing Bhunga design. Climate Culture Calamities
  11. 11. Climate The thick walls, made of mud, keep the interior cool when the temperature rises to 40+ degrees Celsius in summer and warm when it drops below 5 degrees in winter.
  12. 12. Culture Culture is revealed in the decoration of the Bunga (outside as well as inside). Painting on exterior walls Glass designing on interior walls
  13. 13. Calamities It performed very well in the recent M7.6 Bhuj earthquake in 2001. Very few Bhongas experienced significant damage in the epicentre region, and the damage that did occur can be mainly attributed to poor quality of the construction materials or improper maintenance of the structure. It has also been observed that the failure of Bhongas in the last earthquake caused very few injuries to the occupants due to the type of collapse. Gravity load Over vertical wooden Post outside
  14. 14. Understanding settlement
  15. 15. Settlement design Contains – 1. Plinth 2. Circular closed space 3. Open gathering space Room for men Veranda for men Gathering space Women and children Kitchen Storage or another room
  16. 16. Settlement design Plinth(otla) – • Define the domain of the home and the place for outdoor activities. • Water does not enter in house in rainy season. • About 500mm high. Rooms are not attached to avoid cracks because cracks may cause serious damage during earthquake.
  17. 17. Settlement design
  18. 18. Settlement design Ludia region, Kutch
  19. 19. Settlement design Ludia region, Kutch
  20. 20. Building technique ConstructionTechniques generally used “COB”. In these methods a large Lump is roughly moulded into the shape of a huge elongated egg. The usual size is anything between 12 to 18 inches. 30-40cm long and 6 inches in diameter. A row of these cobs of mud are laid nearly side by side. Preferably somewhat pressed together. Then another row of cobs is laid on top.
  21. 21. Building technique When three or four courses have been laid, one above the other, the sides are smoothened over so that the holes and cracks disappear. Placing wooden beam Setting kingpost on wooden joist Placing the rafters Filling bamboo rafters Setting the thatched roof Securing the roof with rope
  22. 22. Urban form Keeping building typology in mind people are using modern materials and construction techniques , making it more compact. Local resorts are of same building typology.
  23. 23. Urban form Providing multiple floors and function to it. Modern houses
  24. 24. Conclusion The architecture of Kutch region relates to the socio-economic setup, the cultural identities and a good climatic responsiveness.A good number of climate responsive design features are revealed during the study of the traditional architecture including temperature control, enhancing natural ventilation, protection from natural calamities such as flood, earthquake etc. However certain features that lack in the traditional housing are mostly fire proneness and termite infestation due to usage of non- treated material and lack of damp proofing.
  25. 25. Thank you for your patience.