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Vernacular Architecture of Himachal Pradesh - Kath kuni architecture

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Vernacular Architecture of Himachal Pradesh - Kath kuni architecture

  1. 1. STUDY OF HIMACHAL PRADESH VERNACULAR PRESENTED BY: MEGHA SANADYA (35) PALLAVI PRAKASH (43) SHIVANGI NISHAD (62) JATIN KAUR (29) KOMAL SINGH (33)
  2. 2. What is vernacular ? • The term vernacular is derived from the Latin vernaculus, meaning "domestic, native, indigenous"; from verna, meaning "native slave" or "home-born slave". Hence it means “native science of building”. • Vernacular architecture is based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions. • It refers to the type of architecture which is indigenous to a specific time or place which can not imported or copied from elsewhere. It is most often applied to residential buildings.
  3. 3. About Himachal… • Himachal Pradesh is predominantly a mountainous State located in North – West India. • The name was coined from Sanskrit Him means 'snow' and achal means 'land' or 'abode’ literally means "The Abode of Snow“. • The State has highly dissected mountain ranges interspersed with deep gorges and valleys. • The State have been divided into 3 Divisions, 69 Subdivisions.The 12 districts comprising 78 Development Blocks, 3226 Gram Panchayats and 20960 villages. • The state has a population of 68,64,602 persons with literacy rate of 82.80%.
  4. 4. Geography : • The land rises from plains at an altitude 350 meters from mean sea level on the southwest to an altitude of 6975 meters in the east towards theTibetan plateau. • It is located between Latitude 30⁰ 22.40 N to 33 ⁰ 12.20 N and Longitude 75 ⁰ 45.55 E to 79 ⁰ 04.20 E. • It covers an area of 55,673 square kilometers with density of 123 person per sq. km. • The urban area covers only 10.03% of the total area while the rural settlement sprawls over 89.97%.
  5. 5. Topography : Topographically, the state can be divided into three zones: • The Shiwaliks or Outer Himalayas: It covers the lower hills of Kangra, Hamirpur, Una, Bilaspur, lower parts of Mandi, Solan and Sirmour districts. Within this zone, altitude varies from 350 m to 1500 m. • Inner Himalayas or mid-mountains:Altitude varies from 1500 m to 4500 m above mean sea level and includes areas such as the upper parts of Pachhad and Renuka in Sirmaur district, Chachiot and Karsog tehsils of Mandi district and upper parts of Churah tehsil of Chamba district. • Alpine zone or the greater Himalayas: Has altitude above 4500 m above mean sea level and comprises areas of Kinnaur district, Pangi tehsil of Chamba district and area of Lahaul&Spiti district.
  6. 6. Influencing Factors : Factors influencing the vernacular architecture of any specific place are –  Climate:The structure of the building must sustain all the effects caused by the climate change, rainfall and winds thus the building topology of the particular area is unique.  Culture:The cultural background also helps in framing the vernacular of any specific area.The beliefs and rituals practice by the people, the local food and living style also plays a vital role.  Materials: Material used will depend upon the physical condition of that area.Vernacular is sustainable and doesn’t exhaust local resources. Only those resources are used which are found in abundance and are non- exhaustive.
  7. 7. Climate : • There is a huge variation in the climatic condition due to variation in altitude.The climate varies from:  hot and sub-humid tropical (350- 900m) in the southern low tracts  warm and temperate (900-1800m)  Cool and temperate (1900-2400m)  Cool glacial and alpine (2400- 4800m) in the northern and eastern high elevated mountain ranges. • The annual average rainfall is 1469mm.
  8. 8. Climate Influence : • Due to the cold climate, the southern slopes are preferred.The orientation of the houses is to maximize the penetration of the sun rays. • The path of the sun, controls the height of building, as the sun is needed for each dwelling unit. • The structure is a two storey building with anAttic. • Low Height of the rooms (2.1 – 2.4 m) which results in low surface to volume ratio reducing heat loss from surfaces.
  9. 9. Climate Influence : • Small window size and low ceiling height to prevent heat loss and keep the interiors warmer. • Terrace in all around the building should have proper slope for efficient drainage, in heavy rain fall and snow fall areas. low ceiling height Small windows slope for efficient drainage
  10. 10. Culture :
  11. 11. Culture :
  12. 12. Culture :
  13. 13. Culture :
  14. 14. Cultural Influence : • The major occupation – agriculture.Thus the house consist of many stores built for storage of grains. • Service Area forms a separate unit away from the living quarters. Generally, cow-shed and kitchen forms a separate unit. • The Indian calendar months of Baisakh, Poh, Magh and Phalgun are regarded as auspicious for the start of construction. • Ideally, the main aspect of the house should face east and the rising sun. • As a general rule the houses do not have a boundary wall.
  15. 15. Building Materials : DeodarWood • Easily available, one of the strongest Indian conifers. • Imparts stability to tall structures. • This wood is insect and termite resistant and even when untreated, can withstand long periods of weather corrosion. • Used in making posts, beams, window and door frames, shutters, roofs etc. • Soft wood, easy to work in absence of high tech tools. • Its properties were understood early and its texture and scent have been prized for ages.
  16. 16. Building Materials : Mud • Easy availability. • Good insulation. • Good binding properties. • Either mud is filled into the wooden forms and rammed into the place slowly building up the wall or sun dried mud blocks are used in the construction of the wall.
  17. 17. Building Materials : Stone • Hard Stone: Obtained from local quarries and used in building foundation and walls. • SlateTiles: Metamorphic rock. Used in roofs of buildings. Has high quartz content, frost resistant, absorbs heat and provides moisture barrier. Low maintenance, Invulnerable to rot and insects.
  18. 18. Natural Hazards : • The state experiences the fury of nature in various forms like cloudbursts, flash floods, landslides, snow avalanches, droughts, forest fires etc. • Floods are one of the most frequent natural disasters which the state experiences every year. • Himachal Pradesh falls under the seismic zones IV andV with very high risk earthquakes of magnitude 8 and greater.
  19. 19. Mitigating Earthquake • To counter the seismic forces, the traditional structures usually stand on a high solid plinth, made up of dry dressed stone masonry. The huge mass serves as a dampener pad to the earthquake forces and the dry construction allows for vibration and hence faster dissipation of the energy. • In higher levels layers of wood and stone cage are constructed with rubble in between. It is non rigid and allows the building to flex with seismic waves and quickly dissipate destructive energy of earthquake.
  20. 20. • Slope of the ground should not be more than 30º as far as possible even in rocky reaches to avoid instability problems.
  21. 21. Kath-Khuni Architecture : • The architectural style which develops from natural and cultural background of the place is famously known as kath-khuni architecture. • The origin of the term is explained by O.C Handa as ‘combination of two local terms: kath and kuni. The word kath is a dialectal variation of the Sanskrit word kashtth, which means wood, kuni is again a dialectical variation of the Sanskrit word kona, that is, an angle or armcorner. • The inherent stability, flexibility, and strength of indigenous kath-khuni (wood and stone) buildings make them appropriate for this earthquake- prone terrain. • The technique articulates local materials in systematic layers, which make it practical as well as aesthetically gratifying.
  22. 22. Kath-Khuni Architecture : • The widespread technique of kath-khuni construction can be found in buildings of various scales, from quite large darbargadhs and kots, to intricate and majestic temples, to modest houses and even small standalone structures like granaries. • A typical house in Himachal is usually two or three- storey high while a temple may rise much higher from a single storey to a tower with seven storeys.The method of construction and elements remain similar in most cases.The level of articulation and detailing is far more intricate and elaborate in temples.
  23. 23. Typical Components :
  24. 24. Settlement Pattern : • The vernacular architecture of hamlets in Himachal Pradesh also varies from region to region, depending upon the climatic factors and the availability of local materials. • Factors affecting the settlement has always been the slope of the settlement area, ridge and the valley. • Typically located along the contoured sunny slope amidst the back drop of hills and snow clad mountains. • The traditional settlements appear to have the ‘color of land’ and almost ecologically planned.
  25. 25. Settlement Pattern : • The traditional house is in the form of a hut, and a hamlet develops when there are more than one hut and a small temple, dedicated to the local deity is gradually added.Thus from a singular structure of a hut, a small settlement is developed. • Temple is the heart of most settlements and usually sited at the highest spot. The surrounding areas of the temple is mainly used during festivals and religious gathering by the inhabitants.
  26. 26. Traditional Houses : • The houses are oriented with their longest side facing the valley and their backs against the mountain, which makes them less susceptible to seismic forces. • The variations within the roofs: pure pent - a four-sided form rising to a single point; pure gable - a two-sided triangle that creates a pitched form like a tent; and pent-and-gable form lends the roof many ways of shedding snow and rain in many ways while maintaining the integrity of interior spaces. • The most common variation in vernacular houses is the addition of balconies on the fist and second levels of the house, which can be open or covered, either partially or completely.These balconies form a transitional space between the inside and the outside as well as between levels.
  27. 27. Typology of Houses : • The character of a Himachal vernacular, the story unit is basically a cuboid . • The smallest houses are two or three layers stacked in two or three levels (ground, first and second floor) • The size of the house increases by placing cuboids side by side and then extending up three levels. • Each house is determined by capacity. The capacity is not only the size of the family but also the family’s socio – economic status. SINGLE CUBOID VARIANTS TRIPLE CUBOID VARIANTS DOUBLE CUBOID VARIANTS
  28. 28. Levels of house – • A gaushala on the ground level offers both sustenance and insulation. Sometimes a secondary mezzanine level in the gaushala serves to get the fodder of the ground and closer to the next floor, offering further insulation. Ladders and trapdoors allow people access to the gaushala space during cold weather. • The middle level of the house is used to store practical items. If the house is large enough, it includes an indoor granary.This middle zone acts as a buffer between the living areas upstairs and the smells of cattle downstairs. • The top level usually houses cooking and living spaces and, sometimes, formal spaces to entertain and welcome guests. • Other transitional spaces in vernacular houses include the plinth at the ground floor and balconies on the upper floors. • The stone used in the walls are chiseled and well dressed.The walls are constructed with stacking wooden framed on each other. • The rooms on the upper floor are made of beautifully carved local wood.
  29. 29. • The powerful historical leaders of the villages build grand houses that reflected their status in the community. These structures were known as darbargadhs. • The darbargadhs was built using kat khuni construction techniques with much larger spaces. • Darbargadhs have enclosed groups of stacked cuboids, still following the conventional orientation of facing the valley and the mountain but also including enclosed courtyards or narrow street like open to sky spaces and towering cuboids at the highest point, for significant yet personal local deities. • The entrance for the people of these princely houses is separate from that of their animals. • The balconies of Darbargadhs are very elaborate, enclosed and carved with local flora, fauna and deities. • The structure comprises of excluded spaces and a unique layout. • They contain all elements of a vernacular house with added attraction of an interior temple. DARBARGADHS OF KHANET VILLAGE AND KOTKHAI VILLAGE Darbargadhs :
  30. 30. Palaces : • The major palaces of the state are located in jubbal, rampur bushair, naggar, chamba and kumarsain. • Kumarsain palace is about 100 km beyond shimla is about 100 years old • It incorporates various styles of hill architecture such as traditional, features from Hindu temples, Buddhist monasteries and even from Islamic structures of the plains. • A pergola roof to highlight main entrance coexists with domical roof tops over the main halls. • Palace is built in local materials and roof forms have to be perforce sloping – so as to ward off climatic elements.
  31. 31. Granary : Two main types of granaries: Independent (freestanding) buildings Granaries within the houses The size and the scale of the granary is in direct correlation to the volume of the content to be stored. In Himachal Pradesh houses, the prime criteria in creating spaces is personal security and comfort for daily living. Granaries on the other hand are for food security and the storage of work from the past, for life in the future. Granaries, with their associated local small temples, are the intersection between houses that guarantee the communities’ habitation and large temples that possess the communities’ shared beliefs. In socio-economic terms, the granary is the content and container of the community. A granary is a storehouse for grain or animal feed. In ancient or primitive granaries, pottery is the most common use of storage in these buildings. Granaries are often built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals.
  32. 32. These are independent free standing wooden granaries with stone tile roof. These wooden granaries with stone plinths and roofs in Sundagaon are a part of a cluster of family buildings. The communal wood and stone granary is a cluster of three independent Kath-Khuni storage buildings and three small folk temples in old Jubbal. TYPES OF INDEPENDENT GRANARIES INDICATION OF STORAGE AREAS, AUKTA GRANARY, OLD JUBBAL VILLAGE GROUND FLOOR PLAN FIRST FLOOR PLAN CROSS SECTION The blue colour indicates where the storage spaces are throughout the building plans and sections.
  33. 33. TEMPLES Himachal Pradesh, amid the Himalayan mountain range, is a land of the Gods, Hindu temples, of many types. from the rock hewn ancient forms brought from the plains of India, are found in this spectacular land of the Himalayas. The temple is where the past intersects with the present through belief, historical time. It is an explanatory workshop of the greatest craftspeople and artists as well as sincere efforts of the ordinary local people. The wooden temple here refers to the type of temple where wood is used as the primary material of construction for the structure. Stone is used only in temple’s foundations and roofs as slabs and slate stone shingles similar to the independent granaries.
  34. 34. Construction practices FOUNDATION AND PLINTH Stone plinth is filled up to a meter from the ground level. The trench is relative to height of structure. • For a two-storey house, depth is 0.6-1 meter. • In case of tower temple, its as deep as 3 meters.
  35. 35. Construction practices WALLS  The walls are constructed with alternate courses of dry masonry & wood without any cement mortar.  Wall courses: • Two wooden wall beams are laid longitudinally parallel to each other with a gap in between. • The space b/w two members is filled with rubble stone & edge is secured with kadil(wooden nail).
  36. 36. Construction practices WALL PUNCHERS • Windows are provided in walls with solid plank shutters on 4 sides & are usually very small. • The same window has floral carvings on outer face with small opening.
  37. 37. Construction practices ROOFING • Roof is constructed out of wooden beams followed by purlins & rafters, topped with slates or wooden shingles. • Slate stones also weighs down the structure against strong winds.
  38. 38. Construction practices FLOORING • Ground floor is raised above the stone plinth & finished with adobe(clay). It functions as an insulating at the same time remains warmer than stone finished surface
  39. 39. Constructing a house : PLANING • Ground floor: Cattle shed and storage area are provided. • First Floor: Living Area along with kitchen. • Low Height of the rooms (2.1 – 2.4 m), keeps interiors warmer from heat released by individuals, also low surface to volume ratio reducing heat loss from surfaces. • Plinth area is 5m x (13.8+0.45)m • Inner walls thickness is 4 inch and outer wall thickness is 9 inch.
  40. 40. Constructing a house : WALLS • Made of alternate courses of dry stone masonry and wood without any cementing mortar. • This Kath-khuni style of layering and inter locking timber and stone provides strength, stability and flexibility (Earthquake resistant). • These heavy walls allow a very good thermal insulation by providing high time-lag of more than 8 hours. This makes the interior of the house cooler in summer and warm in winter for maximum part of the year
  41. 41. Constructing a house : WALLS • Above the plinth walls are strong with alternating stone layer, as the wall rises up it is only the wood frame that is stacked above another wood frame. This distributes mass optimally. • Interiors of wall are finished with mud plaster and lined with wood on account of its good insulation and binding properties. • Resist sliding or overturning during land movement. • Dry masonry construction allow stones to undulate within a flexible wooden frame work to allow energy of earthquake to disperse. • Tapering in buildings as they rise which prevents toppling during earthquake
  42. 42. Constructing a house : FLOORING • In the ground level mud & cow-dung were used for flooring above the plinth made of random rubble masonry. The upper floors are made of timber planks and timber-joists. ROOFING • Pitched roof with locally available timber. Slate used for roof covering. Below the roof a ceiling is constructed with timber. This attic is used as a storage space and abode of the god. • The light-weight roof construction and the air between the roofing and attic-floor provided a very good thermal insulation against the passage of heat. • Low pitched roof provides a good solution to drain off the rain-water from the dwellings
  43. 43. Constructing a house : BALCONY • It provide a good sun-space or solarium. • Sunny courtyard to perform various activities during day time. • Kitchen made of mud, placed at center which helps in keeping the indoor warm.
  44. 44. Vernacular of Kullu : INTRODUCTION • In Kullu, elements of nature shape the spatial order and man has to adapt himself to these forces. • Over the ages it has evolved unique traditions of art and architecture with foreign influences. • In the post independence period it has been marked by almost complete break from traditional and colonial style of architecture.
  45. 45. Vernacular of Kullu : GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES • Altitude : 1,278 m • Latitude : 31° 20‘N to 32° 25'N • Longitude : 76° 56‘E to 77° 52'E • Climate : Cold • Maximum Temperature : 38.8° C • Minimum Temperature : 5.2° C • Average rainfall : 80 cm
  46. 46. Vernacular of Kullu : LOCAL MATERIALS • Availability of forests implies high preference to wood for construction purposes. • Due to the Beas river passing through the district, mud is available easily. • Since it is hilly area, stone is available in abundance. CLIMATIC INFLUENCE • Low ceiling height for warmer interiors. • Small size windows to prevent heat loss. • Sloping roofs for efficient drainage in heavy rainfall and snowfall areas. • Use of wood mainly for building purposes to keep the living warmer and comfortable.
  47. 47. Vernacular of Kullu : ARCHITECTURE OF HOUSES • Double storey houses with pitched roof, oriented towards South to reduce heat loss. • Linear arrangement of rooms, connected by a verandah or balcony on both the floors. • Timber and stone are used widely as both have high thermal capacity and low conductivity. • Inner walls thickness is 4 inch and outer walls thickness is 9 inch.
  48. 48. Vernacular of Kullu : TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE • Himachal Pradesh is a land of the Gods. • Hindu temples of many types are found in this spectacular land of the Himalayas. • This valley of Kullu has 368 temples. • There are three styles of temple architecture in the valley: Pagoda style Shikhara style Pahari style
  49. 49. Vernacular of Kullu : TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – SHIKHARA STYLE • It refers to the rising tower over the sanctum where the presiding deity is enshrined and is the most prominent and visible part of a Hindu temple of North India. • Bishweshwar temple (Bajaura), Shiv Temple (Naggar), Gauri Shankar Temple (Dashal), Shiv Temple (Jagatsukh) are built in this style. • Of these Bishweshwar temple, Bajaura is the largest stone temple in the valley.
  50. 50. Vernacular of Kullu : TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – PAGORA STYLE • These are rectangular stone and wood structures with successive roofs, placed one over the other making them in some cases look like multi-storey edifices. • Hadimba Temple (Manali) , Tripura Sundri Temple (Naggar) and Adi Brahma Temple (Khokhan) are examples of such architecture.
  51. 51. Vernacular of Kullu : TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE – PAHARI STYLE • Pahari style is a mixture of all other temple forms. • Bhuvneshwari Temple and Bijli Mahadev Temple in Kullu are excellent examples of this form of temple architecture.
  52. 52. Vernacular of Kullu : MONASTRIES PALACES
  53. 53. Vernacular of Kullu : CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES  Rammed earth technique  Adobe construction  In the former style, the mud is filled into the wooden forms and rammed into the place slowly building up the wall.  In the later style, sun dried mud blocks are used in the construction of the wall. The roof is kept flat and comprises a closely packed layer of sun twigs supported on wooden beams and joists and resting on the wooden columns.
  54. 54. Vernacular Architecture Of Kangra(HP) 6 0
  55. 55. Location of Kangra On Map 6 1
  56. 56. Location 6 2 • Kangra is located at 32.1°N 76.27°E. • It has an average elevation of 733 metres (2404 ft.) Climate • Humid, sub-tropical zone. • Annual rainfall is between 900–2350mm. • Winter temp. ranges from 0 to 20 °C. • In Summers hot (ranges from 25 to 38 °C) and dry.
  57. 57. Economy 6 3 • The Economy of Kangra District consists mostly of agriculture and farming. • Tea cultivation plays a vital in the economy. • Industries like water packaging, construction materials, and potato chips.
  58. 58. Verandah TYPICAL HOUSE IN KANGRA - 1 Pitch Roof with Slate Covering Courtyard 6 4
  59. 59. TYPICAL HOUSE IN KANGRA - 2 6 5
  60. 60. Building Materials Mud, Stone & Sun-Dried Bricks 6 6 • Easy availability. • Good insulation. • Good binding properties. • Mud mortar is used as the joining material. Sun dried mud Bricks are used in the construction of the wall. • Hard Stone: Obtained from local quarries and used in building foundation and walls. • Slate Tiles: Metamorphic rock. Used in roofs of buildings. Has high quartz content, frost resistant, absorbs heat and provides moisture barrier.
  61. 61. Sheesham & Bamboo Wood 6 7 • Easily available, one of the strongest. • Imparts stability to tall structures. • This wood is insect and termite resistant and even when untreated, can withstand long periods of weather corrosion. • Used in making posts, beams, window and door frames, shutters, roofs etc.(Sheesham). • Soft wood, easy to work in absence of high tech tools. • Its properties were understood early and its texture and scent have been prized for ages.
  62. 62. Traditional Builders 6 8 • Traditional Artisans are employed. There knowledge is transferred orally from master artisan to apprentice. Mostly people procure materials from their surroundings and build houses with the help of relatives and neighbors. This has fostered an empirical knowledge of construction material, tools and technology and all of these are reflected in traditional building techniques.
  63. 63. Planning Techniques 6 9 • Factors that govern the planning are • climatic conditions, • cultural influences, • topography(heights), • More: orientation, traffic movement, available usable spaces, sources of water supply, natural drains and paths.
  64. 64. Climate Influence • Due to the composite climate, The orientation of the houses should be such that, penetration of the sun rays max in winter & min. in summer. • The path of the sun, controls the height of building, as the sun is needed for each dwelling unit. 7 0
  65. 65. • Small window size and low ceiling height to prevent heat loss and keep the interiors warmer. • Site susceptible to high winds, storms, floods and landslides should be avoided. • Roof in all around the building should have proper slope for efficient drainage, in heavy rain fall. 7 1
  66. 66. Cultural influence 7 2 • The house which constitutes many stores has been built for storage of grains which formed the back bone of the agrarian family. • Generally cow-shed and kitchen forms a separate unit. • The Indian calendar months of Baisakh, Poh, Magh and Phalgun are regarded as auspicious for the start of construction. • Ideally, the main aspect of the house should face east and the rising sun. • As a general rule the houses do not have a boundary wall.
  67. 67. Topography 7 3 • Area falls in the region of high to very high seismic hazard. • Unlike plains, here a new dimension or a height variation to the ground poses additional problem.
  68. 68. Planning 7 4 • Ground floor: Kitchen and Living area • First Floor: Generally Storage area. • Low Height of the rooms (2.1 – 2.5 m), keeps interiors warmer from heat released by individuals, also low surface to volume ratio reducing heat loss from surfaces. • Inner walls thickness is 6 inch and outer wall thickness is 12 inch(Adobe Bricks).
  69. 69. Plan Ground Floor Plan (Used as Living, Bedroom and Kitchen) 7 5 First Floor Plan (Used as StorageArea)
  70. 70. Flooring • In the ground level mud & cow-dung were used for flooring above the plinth made of random rubble masonry. • The upper floors are made of timber planks and timber-joists and bamboo. 7 6
  71. 71. Roofing • Pitched roof with locally available timber. Slate used for roof covering. Below the roof a ceiling is constructed with timber. This attic is used as a storage space. • The light-weight roof construction and the air between the roofing and attic- floor provided a very good thermal insulation against the passage of heat. • Low pitched roof provides a good solution to drain off the rain-water from the dwellings. 7 7
  72. 72. VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF DEVIDHAR VILLAGE
  73. 73. LOCATION Locality Name : Devidhar ( देवीधार ) Tehsil Name : Chauhara District : Shimla State : Himachal Pradesh Language : Pahari and Hindi, Punjabi Elevation / Altitude: 2086 meters. Above Seal level • Distance from Major Places: • Delhi To Devidarh: 454Km • Chandigarh To Devidarh: 210 Km • Manali To Devidarh: 156 Km • Shimla To Devidarh: 149 Km • Mandi To Devidarh: 54 KM • Sundernagar to Devidarh: 41 Km
  74. 74. ECONOMY In Devi Dhar village out of total population, 117 were engaged in work activities. 98.29 % of workers describe their work as Main Work (Employment or Earning more than 6 Months) while 1.71 % were involved in Marginal activity providing livelihood for less than 6 months. Of 117 workers engaged in Main Work, 63 were cultivators (owner or co-owner) while 28 were Agricultural labourer. CLIMATE Devidarh climate is very cool all over the year, winter is very harass due to cold wave, heavy snow fall occur during the month of December and January. Temperature varies from -7 to 30 degree over the year. Summer is the best time to visit and explore Devidarh.
  75. 75. TRADITIONAL BUILDERS & LOCAL MATERIALS: • The construction of houses is largely done by hand and by the resident himself, sometimes with the help of other residents from the same or nearby village while special artisans are employed for construction of temples or religious structures. • Usually the entire construction is carried out manually with limited tools and the use of power-driven technology is minimal and was introduced only recently. • It is the close interdependence between people, materials, making and environment that has created a lasting architectures specific to the needs, climate, place, and culture and that evokes a sensation that is special and spiritual, beyond the materiality.
  76. 76. LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIAL • The primary materials of construction are wood and stone for wall and plinth, topped by slate shingles. • Wood is predominantly from of Cedrus Deodara (Deodar/Devidar) an endemic species to Western Himalayas and one of the strongest of Indian conifers. • It has straight veins and grows upto 50 metres. Being very durable, it is used in structural work of all kinds. • These materials (stone, wood and slate) are locally available and possess specific properties that make them excellent choices for building construction from sustainability and performance perspectives. Himachal Pradesh is rich in timber that is especially strong and long-lasting and is therefore the predominant material of construction. Deodar is easily recognizable with its long trunk, spreading branches and dark green foliage. Cross-section of deodar tree
  77. 77. VERNACULAR OF DEVIDHAR The supervision of temple construction is headed by a master craftsman who is chosen by the village head with consensus of the residents; he is often identified as the vishwakarma, according to the Hindu belief system. Above are photographs from the temple construction site at Devidhar village.
  78. 78. INDEGENIOUS CONSTRUTION: KATH-KUNI • Typical construction begins with preparation of the ground; the trench is dug relative to the height of the structure, which is then filled with loose stone blocks which rise up to make the plinth. • The raised podium provides the stability to the house or tower and also protects the building from snow and ground water. • It is followed by construction of double-skin wall made with alternate courses of dry stone masonry and wood without any cementing mortar. It involves laying two wooden beams longitudinally parallel to each other with a gap in-between. • Loose in-fill material is packed as filler and the external and the internal skins of the walls are held together by cross braces or dovetail called maanvi. Kath-khuni wall is constructed by laying two wooden wall beams longitudinally parallel to each other. This defines the width of the wall. The edge members are lap jointed and secured by a kadil (wooden nail). This arrangement of alternating stone and wood add flexibility and has proved to be a good safeguard against frequent seismic tremors.
  79. 79. Wall construction at Devidhar village, images shows the dry masonry construction with in-fill and lap jointed members at the corner.
  80. 80. INDEGENIOUS CONSTRUCTION: CANTILEVER BALCONY • The next space integral to the house is the cantilevered balcony, projecting either on one or all sides of the structure, which rests on the wooden beams fixed in the wood-and-stone walls. • A wooden roof frame tops off the structure and is covered with locally available slate tiles. • The basic structure of the balcony is secured in walls and details such as parapets, fascia boards and panels are incorporated later. • Balconies used to be open but with the passage of time, various forms of enclosures are now observed. • The supporting wooden posts also support the roof structure, in many cases are molded and richly carved. Corner detail: Wooden members are notched and lap jointed so that they intersect at the corner and further supported by cantilevered member fixed at one end in the wall.
  81. 81. WOOD CARVING • Wood carving is an integral part of kath-khuni built forms and is the oldest craft of Himachal and still thrives in a number of valleys. The quality of wood carving reflects high level of intricacy and skills, as well as a highly developed aesthetic sense that fluidly integrates and expresses motifs based in folk tradition and religious references. • The jhalars (wooden pendants) along the roof edge, motifs on panels and on walls and balconies, door frames and windows all are intricately carved. • Wood-carving is also seen in kath- khuni houses, though usually not as elaborate as that in temples in Himachal, rude carving on the door frames, balconies and ridge can be seen in many houses.
  82. 82. In temples, the exposed surfaces of wooden beams along the width and cross-section at the corners provide manifold options for creative woodworking details and carvings. The decorative motifs range from floral, animal, mythic characters, or narratives of epics as discrete elements or in a running freeze. The carvings may be done directly on the wooden beam or on a panel that is then fixed on to wooden beams. The end sections of wooden beams at the corner sometimes jut out and are finished in carvings, at other times they are finished as beautifully carved volutes. Wood-carving on the openings at temple at Devidhar and Summerkot. The wall punctures such as doors and windows are the most ornamental elements in hill architecture. The sizes of the openings are relatively small and are articulated within the horizontal tie beams.
  83. 83. WOOD JOINERY • Details follow regular geometric curves, other follow free toothing patterns. These wooden joints in all likelihood without the use of nails flex just enough to rock with the earthquake tremors but otherwise remain tightly locked together. • The various kinds of joints seen are the lap joints at balcony junctions, extension joints in the wall beams, ‘z’ joints in the floor boards, maanvi (double dovetailed joint) in the wall, splice joint with wedge in structural walls. All of these evolved out of a functional need and yet are highly expressive. Details of joinery. The joinery reflects sophisticated skills of indigenous craftsmen. The strength of these joints lies in the interlocking method of connection where the wood itself prevents movement.
  84. 84. VERNACULAR OF SOLAN
  85. 85. Vernacular of Solan : INTRODUCTION • Solan district is one of the twelve districts of Himachal Pradesh state (created on 1 September 1972) in northern India. The district occupies an area of 1936 km² and lies between Chandigarh and Shimla. • It is located 46 kilometres (29 mi) south of the state capital, Shimla. • The place is named after the Hindu goddess Shoolini devi. Every year in the month of June, a fair celebrating the goddess is held, featuring a 3-day mela at the central Thodo grounds. Solan was the capital of the erstwhile princely state, Bhagat. • It is known as the "Mushroom city of India" because of the vast mushroom farming in the area as well as the Directorate of Mushroom Research (DMR) situated at Chambaghat. • Solan is crowned as the "City of Red Gold", in reference to the bulk production of tomatoes in the area.
  86. 86. Vernacular of Solan : GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES • Altitude: 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) • Latitude: 30.92°N • Longitude: 77.12°E • Climate: Cool • Maximum Temperature:32 °C (90 °F) • Minimum Temperature: −4 °C (25 °F) • Average Rainfall: 1413mm • Solan Planning Area covers 3343.00 hectares = 33.43 km2 hectares of land(Largest city area in Himachal Pradesh). Location of Solan district in Himachal Pradesh
  87. 87. Vernacular of Solan : EVOLUTION FROM HISTORY: • The history of Solan goes back to the era of Pandavas. According to local folklore, Pandavas lived here during their exile. • In 1815 British won Baghal state (now Solan) from the Gurkhas, Gurkha fort or Arki Fort is still standing tall on a mountain near to Solan city and it is one of the popular historic tourist attractions of Solan. • The town has been a capital of the princely Baghat State. The word Baghat is derived from Bau or Bahu, meaning "many", and Ghat meaning "pass". • Initially the state headquarters of the Baghat State was located at Bhoch in the Bhuchali pargana, but the headquarters of the state was shifted to Solan after the construction of cantonment over here.
  88. 88. Vernacular of Solan : CHRONOLOGICAL EVOLUTION FROM HISTORY: Establishment of a cantonment area at Solan by Britishers Establishing Solan brewery in 1855 due to availability of excellent quality mineral water. Shifting of the headquarters of Baghat State from Bhoch to Solan. Start of Kalka-Shimla rail line in 1902. Start transportation activity on Kalka-Solan-Shimla road. The urban local body i.e. Municipal Council Solan came into existence in 1950. Solan became an independent district on 1 September 1972, and the town of Solan became the district headquarters.
  89. 89. Vernacular of Solan : HERITAGE: • Solan became an independent district on 1 September 1972, and the town of Solan became the district headquarters. • Solan cantonment is still the best and the most well planned part of this area hence buildings are made in a planned manner. • The church in Solan cantonment is a heritage building with beautiful wooden and stone carvings, it has elegant sloping roofs plus arches reminiscent of the British architecture. • Some important heritage of Solan:  Shoolini devi temple The Church in Solan cantonment.  The Solan railway station, one of the Highest railway stations in the world.[7] S.E., PWD office which used to be a durbar hall of Baghat State. Jatoli Temple (5 km. far from Solan on Rajgarh Road). Mount Karol in Chambaghat, Solan. Mohan Shakti National Heritage Park (in Hart, 12 km from Solan)
  90. 90. Vernacular of Solan : LOCAL MATERIALS: • Solan Planning area contains Chil, Deodar, Ban and Kail, mainly deodar and pine trees in the city • Oak forests are also at higher elevations around moist locations.places like chil is the most predominant one for different species of vegetation. • Besides this natural or indigenous vegetation there is ornamental and alien plantation too. It consists of silver oak, jhakranda, bottle brush, weeping willows, kachnar and grasses. • Slate stone shingles are available in abundance.
  91. 91. Vernacular of Solan : TRADITIONAL HOUSE OF SOLAN: Factors that influence the traditional houses: Climatic response to the envioronment. Cultural pattern of the inhabitants. Adaptability of the house according to the social lifestyle. Locally available construction material. LOCATION: • Located in village Basal, Solan. • Built on a gentle hill slope with a water channel running beside. • Was built around 1923 and the main occupation of the family was to store grains • Belong to Agrarian family. South view Site of the village showing less population
  92. 92. Vernacular of Solan : LAYOUT OF THE HOUSE: • The house has been built such that the cow-shed and kitchen • form a separate unit, away from the living quarters. • The living quarters basically include bedrooms and stores for storage of grains. ELEVATION: • The sloping roof as seen in the traditional dwelling is a common feature in all the houses in the area as is compact planning of the house. • Since the climate is very pleasant they have added open spaces open spaces throughout the house egs. Balconies. PLAN ELEVATION the house includes compact planning so it can b seen that there is a opening infront of opening i.e. they have used cross ventilation as an element
  93. 93. Vernacular of Solan : ELEVATION: • In addition to the sloping roofs and open spaces the house is provided with large arcaded openings. SECTIONS: • The house which constitutes many stores has been built for storage of grains which formed the back bone of the agrarian family. • Boxes of various sizes can be found. ATTIC AS STORAGE SPACE: • An interesting part of the house is the attic which is used to store corn which forms the staple diet of the people. ELEVATION SECTION
  94. 94. Vernacular of Solan : ATTIC AS STORAGE SPACE: • The two windows on the sides ventilate and dry the corn at the same time protecting from the rain. • Although the main function of the attic is to insulate the house, it serves as an excellent storage space. • There are two objectives of adding an attic on the floor- 1. a floor above keeps the below floors cool. 2. The second objective is that it helps to store grains. The attic is provided with a jaali ventilator so that it keeps the room ventilated. The timber truss which covers the first floor roof is effective in insulating the house as well.
  95. 95. Vernacular of Solan : BUILDING MATERIALS: • All the building construction material used is locally available like the stone and sand of which the walls are made, the timber is also readily available. • The staircase used to reach the first floor of the house is made of timber, with stone slabs also introduced. BUILT FORM: • The built form of the house constitutes about 60% of the plot area. • The house in its totality forms a compact unit. • As a general rule the houses do not have a boundary wall. The house as seen from south side. The cow shed and north side elevation of the house.

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