CHILDCARE AND GUIDANCE
LIANNE DIAS and Sonal Jani.
The term ‘behavior problem’ is used to designate a
deviation in behavior from the one expected or approved by
CAUSES OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEM:
•A genetic weakness or defect.
•Conflict between child’s basic drives and a forbidding environment,
i.e. faulty interpersonal reaction between the child and
•A consequence of inability or failure to meet cultural demands.
POINTS (OR MANTRAS) TO REMEMBER WHILE
DEALING WITH CHILDREN:
•What you consider as “problem behavior” may actually be a
normal characteristic of that particular age group.
•Behavior, if at all a problem, is so due to some environment.
•Correction therefore is required within the environment.
•Try to find the underlying cause of the behavior.
•When you approve of certain behavior and you want it repeated
often, rewards are required.
•When you disapprove of certain behavior and you don‟t want it
repeated, punishments are required.
•Threats, ridiculing, scolding and physical abuse are not effective
•If we do need to teach the child that certain behavior of his will
not be tolerated, it has to be done immediately after the act, not
after some time lapse.
•Disciplining children should be explanation- based not the fear-
•Praise/ reward the child when he does not make a mistake.
•Understand the difference between rewards and bribes.
•Respect the individuality of each child.
•Give positive and concrete commands.
•Be consistent in your approach towards children.
•Listen to your children.
•Every problem has to be handled with
care, concern, understanding and affection.
•„Preaching‟ what is right has never worked – children will not
understand why they are not being allowed to do what they want
to do. They can be made to understand through role plays and
stories, where the central character benefits out of the desired
•Children outgrow most problems; But if the problem persists
despite of efforts, don‟t hesitate to consult a counselor, for
MEANING: Fear is an unpleasant emotion caused by the threat
of danger, pain or harm. Fear stimuli occur suddenly and
unexpectedly, where the child does not get a chance to adjust to
1. Children experience fear when faced with something threatening. It
is a normal defense mechanism. It is harmful only when
exaggerated to cause anxiety.
2. by watching another child acting scared.
3. fear of being separated from his/her parents.
4. common fears are darkness, fear of being alone and dreams.
Small children cry, hide and try to escape from the scary situation. As
children grow, overt responses are curbed by social pressure and
indirect responses become visible as in nervous mannerisms like nail
1. Do not force the child to do something that is scary to him.
Convey that you understand the child.
2. Do not tease or ridicule the child. Do not say, “There is nothing to
be afraid of.” But say, “See, bobby is enjoying playing with the
3. Set up counter resources and skills that are helpful in meeting the
fearful situation. Give the child something that help him feel
stronger and having some power over the fear.
4. Promote familiarity with the feared object without forcing.
5. Allow child to observe others who show no fear in the feared
6. Directly recondition – praise/reinforce fearless behavior.
Let the child feel reassured that it is wise to be afraid of safety
hazards like speeding cars, fire, sharp instruments etc. he need not
feel ashamed of experiencing fear in legitimate situations.
ENURESIS (BED WETTING):
The uncontrolled or involuntary discharge of urine by children 3 years+. It is a
common developmental disorder.
IT CAN BE OF TWO TYPES:
•Primary: When child has not learnt to be dry ever.
•Secondary: It comes after a learnt dry period. 11/2 to 41/2 years is the critical
period for learning bladder control. If the child faces any emotional disturbance
during this time, learning control may be difficult.
Primary enuresis may show because of:
•Delayed maturation of nervous system or organic defect.
•Feeling of insecurity.
•Strict discipline/toilet training.
Secondary enuresis may be due to:
•Stress/anxiety caused by maternal separation.
•Birth of a sibling.
•Hospitalization of mother figure.
•Punishment at school.
1. Let sleep time begin as a relaxed activity. Make the child feel
2. Instill proper bladder training in the child. Let the child form a
habit of going to the toilet just before going to bed.
3. Don’t treat failures with scolding, shame or punishment.
4. Make the child feel wanted, not neglected.
5. Praise the child when accidents don’t occur.
6. Reduce stress in the child’s life. Create a happy, relaxed
atmosphere free from scolding and threats.
7. Avoid excitement and scary stories before bedtime.
8. Avoid giving liquids a few hours before bedtime.
9. Reassure the child that the problem is temporary and that this
isn’t an abnormality.
10. Don’t say, “Don’t wet the bed again tonight!” – Say, “I’m there if
you need me in the night!”
BRIGHT TIP: Remember bedwetting is not the child’s intentional act.
He needs your comforting and reassuring presence.