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Functional Grammar

Functional Grammar

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Material process
 A process of doing, physical action.
 There are two types of material process:
happening and doing. Happening material
process is characterized by the absence of goal,
while doing material process is characterized
with the presence of goal.
 Participants in material process involves: actor
(the doer), goal (affected participant),
beneficiary (client and recipient), and range.
Material process (continued)
‘doing’ ‘happening’
(transitive) (intransitive)
John is cooking pizza John is cooking
actor process goal actor process
 doing: actor – process – goal
- creative (making goal): create, make, build, develop, etc.
- dispositive (affecting goal): send, throw, strew, pour, disolve, etc.
 happening: actor – process
- move, fall, rise, come, go, soften, harden, melt, etc.
Material process (continued)
1. Material process in passive
The pizza is being cooked by John
goal process actor
Agentless passive
The pizza is being cooked
goal process
2. Material process with dispositive –recipient
- give, hand, throw, deliver, send, etc.
John sent Mac a table
actor process recipient goal
John sent a table to Mac
actor process goal recipient
Material process (continued)
3. Material process with dispositive – client
- buy, make, get, do, cook, bake, etc.
John baked Mac pizza
actor process client goal
John baked pizza for Mac
actor process goal client
4. Material process with range:
- range can be an extension of process and a scope of process
- range is not an entity.
John play guitar
sang a song
actor process range (extension of
process
John climbed the hill
actor process range (scope of
process
CONTENT of COMMUNICATION 1
TYPES PARTICIP-
ANT
PROCESS PARTICIP
-ANT
PARTICI
PANT
ATTRI
-BUTE
CIRCUM
STAN
1.Agent/
Actor
DOING (intransV) (leave)
2.Agent/
Creator
DOING (transV) (hit, kick
Make, build, write,…
play, sing,…
Affected/
Goal/
Range
Locative/
Goal
3.Force DOING (intrans) (destroy, Affected
4.Affected HAPPENING (intranV)
(slip, collapse)
Locative
5.Agent
initiator
CAUSING (transV) (open,
boil, ring, …)
Affected/
medium
MATERIAL 6.Affected/
Medium
ANTI-CAUSING
-The door opened. The bell
rang, The water boiled
7.Affected CAUSING (pseudo-intrans)
(break, read, translate, wash,
Manner
8.Affected CAUSING (passive) (Agent)
9.Affected CAUSING (get-passive)
10.Agent CAUSING (analytical c.)
(make, turn, have…)
Affected Resulting
11.Agent TRANSFERRING (transV)
(give, send, lend,
Recipient/
Beneficiary
Affected
Behavioral process
 Process of behaving
 2 types: verbal behavior and mental behavior
 Verbal behavior: talk, chat, converse, speak, call,
discuss, abuse, flatter, etc. The participants:
behaver, receiver, verbiage.
 Mental behavior: look at, watch, listen to,
experience, survey, smile, laugh, cry, memorize,
concentrate, mediate, etc. The participants
include behaver, and phenomenon.

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Functional Grammar

  • 1. Material process  A process of doing, physical action.  There are two types of material process: happening and doing. Happening material process is characterized by the absence of goal, while doing material process is characterized with the presence of goal.  Participants in material process involves: actor (the doer), goal (affected participant), beneficiary (client and recipient), and range.
  • 2. Material process (continued) ‘doing’ ‘happening’ (transitive) (intransitive) John is cooking pizza John is cooking actor process goal actor process  doing: actor – process – goal - creative (making goal): create, make, build, develop, etc. - dispositive (affecting goal): send, throw, strew, pour, disolve, etc.  happening: actor – process - move, fall, rise, come, go, soften, harden, melt, etc.
  • 3. Material process (continued) 1. Material process in passive The pizza is being cooked by John goal process actor Agentless passive The pizza is being cooked goal process 2. Material process with dispositive –recipient - give, hand, throw, deliver, send, etc. John sent Mac a table actor process recipient goal John sent a table to Mac actor process goal recipient
  • 4. Material process (continued) 3. Material process with dispositive – client - buy, make, get, do, cook, bake, etc. John baked Mac pizza actor process client goal John baked pizza for Mac actor process goal client 4. Material process with range: - range can be an extension of process and a scope of process - range is not an entity. John play guitar sang a song actor process range (extension of process John climbed the hill actor process range (scope of process
  • 5. CONTENT of COMMUNICATION 1 TYPES PARTICIP- ANT PROCESS PARTICIP -ANT PARTICI PANT ATTRI -BUTE CIRCUM STAN 1.Agent/ Actor DOING (intransV) (leave) 2.Agent/ Creator DOING (transV) (hit, kick Make, build, write,… play, sing,… Affected/ Goal/ Range Locative/ Goal 3.Force DOING (intrans) (destroy, Affected 4.Affected HAPPENING (intranV) (slip, collapse) Locative 5.Agent initiator CAUSING (transV) (open, boil, ring, …) Affected/ medium MATERIAL 6.Affected/ Medium ANTI-CAUSING -The door opened. The bell rang, The water boiled 7.Affected CAUSING (pseudo-intrans) (break, read, translate, wash, Manner 8.Affected CAUSING (passive) (Agent) 9.Affected CAUSING (get-passive) 10.Agent CAUSING (analytical c.) (make, turn, have…) Affected Resulting 11.Agent TRANSFERRING (transV) (give, send, lend, Recipient/ Beneficiary Affected
  • 6. Behavioral process  Process of behaving  2 types: verbal behavior and mental behavior  Verbal behavior: talk, chat, converse, speak, call, discuss, abuse, flatter, etc. The participants: behaver, receiver, verbiage.  Mental behavior: look at, watch, listen to, experience, survey, smile, laugh, cry, memorize, concentrate, mediate, etc. The participants include behaver, and phenomenon.
  • 7. For example: John They Talked chatted to her each other about the test about the game behaver process receiver verbiage He looked at studied the carving the opera behaver process phenomenon
  • 8. Mental Process  A process of sensing: perception, cognition, and affection.  Perception: perceive, see, notice, obserbe, feel, smell, taste, hear, etc.  Cognition: assume, believe, conclude, consider, discover, doubt, etc.  Affection: enjoy, relish, regret, like, fear, dread. Favor, love, prefer, etc.  Participants: senser and phenomenon  Three types of phenomena: micro (thing), macro (thing with embedded process), meta (an idea)
  • 9. Mental process (continued) John likes saw wondered pizza (micro) him selecting a shirt (macro) why he was chosen (meta) senser process phenomenon To test: 1. at the moment of speaking: simple - No one sees him. - * No one is seeing him 2. bi-directional: - I fear that man / that man frightens me - I like it / It pleases me - I don’t understand it / It puzzles me - grieve / sadden, belive / convince, forget / escape, recall / remind 3. Mental process does not work with a question: ‘What di he do?’ -* What did he do? He liked the man.
  • 10. CONTENT of COMMUNICATION 2-3 TYPES PARTICIPANT PROCESS PARTICIP -ANT ATTRI -BUTE CIRCUMS TAN BEHAVIORAL 12.Experiencer/ Senser (Volitional) BEHAVIORAL (watch…) Phenomenon 13.Experiencer (non-volitional) PERCEPTION (see, hear,…) Phenomenon 14.Experiencer/ Senser COGNITION (know, doubt,..) Phenomenon MENTAL 15.Experiencer (Recipient) AFFECTIVITY (be pleased) Phenomenon 16.Phenomenon AFFECTIVITY (please, love, hate) Experiencer (Recipient) Degree 17.Experiencer DESIDERATION (wish, want,.) Phenomenon (Unreal)
  • 11. Verbal process  A process of saying  Participants: sayer, verbiage, receiver John asked told said him them a question a story he’s sick sayer process receiver verbiage
  • 12. Existential process  A process of projecting that something exists  Participant: existent  For example: There is a book onthe table process existent circumstance Ebola existed in Ethiopia existent process circumstance
  • 13. CONTENT of COMMUNICATION 5-6 TYPES PARTICIP- ANT PROCESS PARTICIP -ANT PARTICIP- ANT ATTRI -BUTE CIRCUM STAN VERBAL 22.Sayer VERBAL (say, repeat, tell, report) Said 23.Sayer VERBAL (say, tell, repeat, report) Recipient Said (clause) EXISTENTIAL 24.THERE EXISTENTIAL (be) (stand, lie, stretch, hang, remain) (occur, follow, appear, emerge, loom) Existent Locative ----------------------- METEREOLOGICAL 25.THERE --------------- IT EXISTENTIAL (be) (stand, lie, stretch, hang, remain) (occur, follow, appear, emerge, loom) ----------------------------- Rains, is cloudy… Existent Current Att.
  • 14. Relational process  Two types: attributive and identifying  Attributive relational process: - a process of giving attribute to a thing - participants: carrier and attribute - types of attributives: - appearance: be, seem, appear, sound, look, taste, smell, feel, etc. - phase: become, remain, turn, grow, run, come, keep, stay, etc. - measure: weight, cost, measure, number
  • 15. For example: He She They It is becomes grew costs at home an engineer wild Rp 5.000,- carrier process attribute With ‘have’ He Has a piano carrier process attribute
  • 16. For example (continued) To test: Ben is a farmer * A farmer is Ben Attributive with conflated procees and attribute: - matter, suffice, differ, dominate, smell, pong It It They matters suffices dominate carrier process/attribute
  • 17. Identifying relational process  A process of giving a value to athing  Participants: token and value  Types: - Be: is, am, are, was, were, been - Equality: equal, add up to, make, come out as/at, amount to, translate, render, paraphrase, reformulate, transliterate - Signification: signify, expound, code, encode, express, realize, spell, write, transcribe, read, mean, denote, connote, define, call, name
  • 18. Identifying relational process (continued) - Representation: symbolize, represent, stand for, refer to, imply, index, express, reflect, personify - Indication: indicate, suggest, betoken, connote, smack of, evoke, reveal - Role: play/act as, function, portray, typify, personify For example:
  • 19. Identifying relational process (continued) Ben This is reflects the farmer the crisis token process value To test: 1. reversable 2. Token takes subject in active 3. Token is more concrete than value The farmer The crisis is is reflected Ben by this value process token
  • 20. Circumstance  There are 8 types of circumstances: angle, extent, location, manner, cause, accompaniment, matter, and role.  Angle: - verbal source - who says? - for example: AccordingtoXian cookingiseasy Cir:angle
  • 21. Circumstances (continued) 2. Extent:- nominal group with quantifier + unit of measure (yards, laps, rounds, years …) + preposition - How far/ long/many rounds/times… Xian cooked the rice for 15 minutes Cir: extent 3. Location: - prepositional phrase, adveribial group - place and time - where and when - place: space –place or direction (source, passage, destination) Xian cooked the rice in the microwave Cir: location: place Xian cooked the rice in the morning Cir: location: time
  • 22. Circumstances (continued) 4. Manner: - means, quality, comparison a. means: how, what with? Xian cooked the rice with microwave Cir: manner: means b. Quality: adverbial group (in…way/manner) How? Xian cooked the rice quickly/ in the following way Cir: manner: quality c. comparison: like, unlike (+adverbials: like, likewise, similarly differently ) What … like? Xian cooked the rice Like Nan Cir: manner: comparison
  • 23. Circumstances (continued) Cause: reason, purpose, condition, concession, behalf a. Reason: through, because of, as a result of, due to, thanks to Why, how Xian cooked the pizza thanks to the microwave Cir: cause: reason b. purpose: for, in the hope of, for the purpose of what for? Xian prepared the table for his lecture Cir: cause: purpose c. condition: in the case of, in case What if? In the case of token we apply subject in the active Cir: cause: condition
  • 24. Circumstances (continued) d. concession: inspite of, despite Inspite of his cold Xian prepared his lecture Cir: cause: concession e. behalf: for, for the sake of, on behalf of who for? Xian spoke on behalf of his students Cir: cause: behalf 6. Accompaniment: with, without, beside, instead of Xian cooked pizza instead of rice Cir: accompaniment
  • 26. CONTENT of COMMUNICATION 4 TYPES PARTICIPANT PROCESS PARTICIP -ANT ATTRI -BUTE CIRCUMS TAN 18.Carrier -Carrier/ Experiencer (feel) -Neutral carrier (It is hot, cold…) RELATIONAL (-be), (be, keep, remain, look, feel, sound) (fall, become, get, grow) -Attribute -Current Attribute -Resulting Attribute RELATIONAL 19.Carrier/ Identifier -Token/Identified -Value/Identified IDENTIFYING (BE) -Identified -Value/ Identifier -Token/ Identifier 20.Carrier RELATIONAL (BE) Circum- stantial 21.Carrier/Possessed -Carrier/Possessor POSSESSION (BE, have,…) -Possessor/ Attribute -Possessed Attribute
  • 27. 3.What are 3 ways of interpreting clause structure? 3 strands of MEANING encoded in the CLAUSE (or SIMPLE SENTENCE) that forms the basis of a FUNCTIONAL interpretation of GRAMMAR are 1.REPRESENTATIONAL Meaning/Function/Structure: Clause as REPRESENTATION: TRANSITIVITY structures 2.INTERPERSONAL Meaning/Function/Structure Clause as EXCHANGE: MOOD structures 3.TEXTUAL Meaning/Function/Structure Clause as MESSAGE: THEMATIC structures, Information structures (New-Given) 27
  • 28. 3.THREE WAYS OF INTERPRETING CLAUSE STRUCTURE The basic unit for the expression of REPRESENTATIONAL MEANING and INTERPERSONAL MEANING is the CLAUSE = SIMPLE SENTENCE. The CLAUSE is also the unit whose elements can be reordered in certain ways to facilitate the creation of TEXTUAL MEANING. Each type of meaning is expressed by its own structure; the three types of structure combining to produce one single realization in words.
  • 29. Three kinds of meaning and structure derive from the consideration of a clause as: 3.1.The linguistic representation of our experience of the world (We use language to talk about our experience of the world, including the worlds in our own minds, to describe events and states and the entities involved in them) The clause as REPRESENTATION through TRANSITIVITY STRUCTURES (Cấu trúc Chuyển tác) Ex: Agent + DOING -Birds fly. Agent + DOING + Affected -John hit Helen.  The REPRESENTATIONAL/EXPERIENTIAL MEANING
  • 30. 3.2.A communicative exchange between persons (We also use language to interact with other people, to establish and maintain relations with them, to influence their behavior, to express our own viewpoint on things in the world, and to elicit or change theirs) The clause as EXCHANGE through MOOD STRUCTURES (Cấu trúc Thức) The INTERPERSONAL MEANING
  • 31. 3.2.The INTERPERSONAL MEANING  The clause as EXCHANGE (Cú như là sự Trao đổi): MOOD STRUCTURES When a speaker interacts with others to exchange information or to influence their behavior and get things done, he adopts for himself a certain role (“questioner”,...) and, in doing so, assigns a complementary role (“informant”,...), to his addressee. The clause is the major grammatical unit used by the speakers to ask questions, make statements and issue directives. The Clause structure = MOOD element (Phần Thức) + RESIDUE (Phần dư) (carries the syntactic burden of the exchange) (the unchanged part of the structure)
  • 32. MOOD ELEMENT The exchange of information is typically carried out by the INDICATIVE MOOD or CLAUSE TYPE. +Within the indicative mood, making a statement is associated with the DECLARATIVE MOOD, +asking a question with the INTERROGATIVE MOOD The issuing of directives is carried out by the IMPERATIVE MOOD The Mood structures are characterized by the presence or absence of a SUBJECT element and by the relative positions of the SUBJECT and the FINITE relating the content of the clause to the speech event and specifying TENSE (time reference), MODALITY (attitude of the speaker), PERSON, NUMBER (finiteness)
  • 33. Ex: Declarative Janice will give Chris the address tomorrow. Subject + Finite Predicator Oi Od Adjunct Mood element + Residue Interrogative Will Janice give Chris the address tomorrow ? Finite + Subject Predicator Oi Od Adjunct Mood element + Residue
  • 34. Hệ thống THỨC MOOD system MOOD System declarative Subject ^ Finite Indicative polar + Subject Major + Finite interrogative Predicator Finite ^ Subject CLAUSE imperative Wh + pred ^ (com/adj) Minor no predicator CÚ – CÚ CHÍNH (có Vị ngữ) có: + Thức Chỉ định (gồm Chủ ngữ + Hữu thức/Hữu định) loại:  Thức Chỉ định Tuyên bố (Chủ ngữ + Hữu thức) hoặc Thức Chỉ định Nghi vấn (Hữu thức + Chủ ngữ): Nghi vấn Có/Không Phân cực Khẳng định/Phủ định hoặc không phân cực có từ kèm Wh- + Thức Cầu khiến (gồm Vị ngữ); - CÚ PHỤ (không có Vị ngữ)
  • 35. Một số ví dụ về các loại Cấu trúc THỨC TIẾNG ANH Examples of MOOD structure S=Subject, F=Finite, P=Predicator, C=Complement, Adj=Adjunct Mood structure in indicative declarative We sang a song S F / P C Mood Residue Indicative:declarative; proposition We will sing this song for you S F P C Adj. Mood Residue Indicative:declarative; proposal
  • 36. Mood structure in Wh interrogative How long must we sing this song? Wh/Adj. F S P C Re- Mood -sidue Indicative: wh interrogative; proposition What will we Sing? Wh/C F S P Re- Mood -sidue Indicative: wh interrogative; proposition
  • 37. Mood structure in polar interrogative Is this the bear? F S C Mood Residue Indicative: polar interrogative; proposition Mood structure in imperative Be patient! P C Residue Imperative; proposal
  • 38. Mood structure in embedded clause and projection They belived that they had won the match S F / P C Mood Residue Indicative:declarative; proposition Mood structure in tag question You don’t understand do you? S F P F S Mood Residue Mood tag Indicative:declarative; proposition
  • 39. 3.3.An organized message or text (In using language, we organize our messages in ways which indicate how they fit in with the other messages around them and with the wider context in which we are talking or writing) The clause as MESSAGE through THEMATIC STRUCTURES (Cấu trúc Đề -Thuyết)  The TEXTUAL MEANING
  • 40. 3.3.The TEXTUAL MEANING  The clause as MESSAGE (Cú như là Thông điệp): THEMATIC STRUCTURES The speaker organizes the informational content of the clause to establish whatever point of departure is desired for the message (THEME = the initial element of the clause, It may coincide with Agent or set the scene by coinciding with an initial expression of time, place,…) The Clause structure = THEME + RHEME Ex:  Janice will give Chris the address tomorrow.  Theme + Rheme
  • 41. 3.3.1.Classification of Theme (1) Theme is divided into three parts in agreement with Halliday’s view, and multiple Theme includes textual Theme and interpersonal Theme as well as experiential Theme. 1) Simple Theme: Simple Theme refers to the Theme only consisting of one structural element, such as a word, a phrase, or a group and it cannot be divided in the internal structure. Ex: 2) Clause Theme: a clause serves as Theme here, either main clause or subordinate clause. In addition, the internal structure of the clause Theme can be divided into another Theme and Rheme. Ex: The duke has given my aunt that teapot. Theme Rheme What I’m going to do now is to whisk these all together. Clause Theme Rheme
  • 42. 3.3.2. Multiple Theme: a clause serves as Theme here, either main clause or subordinate clause. In addition, the internal structure of the clause Theme can be divided into another Theme and Rheme. -If Theme includes two or more structural elements, it is called multiple Theme, including textual Theme, interpersonal Theme and experiential Theme (topical Theme) in order. Furthermore, every clause must have one, and only one, “experiential” element to act as the Theme (Eggins: 1994:277). Ex: Textual Interpersonal Experiential/Topical -Well, -But, -And, -certainly, -my God, Harriet, -surely, -oddly, -sanity -we -the course -he -is a precarious state. -ve’ been dealt a bad hand! -doesn’t start till next week. -was right. THEME RHEME
  • 43. (1) INTERPERSONAL THEMES (ĐỀ NGỮ LIÊN NHÂN) INTERPERSONAL (i) modal/comment Adjunct [‘modal Theme’]:These express the speaker/writer’s judgment on or attitude to the content of the message (see Table below). (ii) vocative:This is any item, typically (but not necessarily) a personal name, being used to address. (iii) finite verbal operator [in yes/no interrogative]: -These are the small set of finite auxiliary verbs construing primary tense or modality; + (primary tense) am, is, are, was, were, do, does, did, have, has, had, shall, will, … + (modality) can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, ought, need, dare,… — including their negatives aren’t, can’t, etc. -They are the unmarked Theme of yes/ no interrogatives (See Table below)
  • 44. Type Meaning Examples I probability how likely? probably, possibly, certainly, perhaps, maybe usuality how often? usually, sometimes, always, (n)ever, often, seldom typicality how typical? occasionally, generally, regularly, for the most part obviousness how obvious? of course, surely, obviously, clearly II opinion I think in my opinion, personally, to my mind admission I admit frankly, to be honest, to tell you the truth persuasion I assure you honestly, really, believe me, seriously entreaty I request you please, kindly presumption I presume evidently, apparently, no doubt, presumably desirability how desirable? (un)fortunately, to my delight/distress, regrettably, hopefully reservation how reliable? at first, tentatively, provisionally, looking back on it validation how valid? broadly speaking, in general, on the whole, strictly speaking, in principle evaluation how sensible? (un)wisely, understandably, mistakenly, foolishly prediction how expected? to my surprise, surprisingly, as expected, by chance (1) MODAL ADJUNCTS (PHỤ NGỮ TÌNH THÁI)
  • 45. (2) TEXTUAL THEMES (ĐỀ NGỮ LIÊN KẾT NGÔN BẢN) TEXTUAL (i) continuative: A continuative is one of a small set of words that signal a move in the discourse: a response, in dialogue, or a new move to the next point if the same speaker is continuing. The usual continuatives are yes, no, well, oh, now. (ii) conjunction [‘structural Theme’]: A conjunction is a word or group that either links (paratactic) or binds (hypotactic) the clause in which it occurs structurally to another clause. Semantically, it sets up a relationship of expansion or projection. Among the commonest are:(paratactic) and, or, nor, either, neither, but, yet, so, then, for (hypotactic) when, while, before, after, until, because, if, although, unless, since, that, whether, to, by, with, despite, as, even if, in case, supposing (that), assuming (that), given that, provided (that), so that, to, as to, in order to, in the event that, in spite of, the fact that,.. (iii) conjunctive Adjunct (‘discourse Adjunct’). These are adverbial groups or prepositional phrases that relate the clause to the preceding text (see Table below): they cover roughly the same semantic space as conjunctions.
  • 46. Type Meaning Examples I Appositive (đồng vị) ‘i.e., e.g.’ that is, in other words, for instance Corrective (chỉnh sửa) ‘rather’ or rather, at least, to be precise Dismissive (bác bỏ) ‘in any case’ in any case, anyway, leaving that aside Summative (tóm tắt) ‘in short’ briefly, to sum up, in conclusion Verificative (khẳng định) ‘actually’ actually, in fact, as a matter of fact II Additive (bổ sung thuận) ‘and’ also, moreover, in addition, besides Adversative ( bs nghịch) ‘but’ on the other hand, however, conversely Variative (đa dạng) ‘instead’ instead, alternatively III Temporal (thời gian) ‘then’ meanwhile, before that, later on, next, soon, finally Comparative (so sánh) ‘likewise’ likewise, in the same way Causal (nguyên nhân) ‘so’ therefore, for this reason, as a result, with this in mind Conditional (điều kiện) ‘(if ...) then’ in that case, under the circumstances, otherwise (2) CONJUNCTIVE ADJUNCTS (ĐỀ NGỮ LIÊN KẾT NGÔN BẢN)
  • 47. 3.3.3.ĐỀ NGỮ TRONG CÚ PHỨC a/.As soon as she had pressed the doorbell – it let out a musical jingle – Philippa sensed that the house was empty. b/.Resisting the temptation to peer through the letter-box, she decided to try next door. c/.At least they would know whether Ducton still lived at 41 or where he had gone. When Khi Philippa Philippa Reached lái đến number 41 số 41 She cô ta Stopped. dừng lại. Theme Rheme Structural Topical Theme Rheme Theme Rheme
  • 48. Example of combination analysis of mood and theme of English clauses We sang a song S F / P C Mood Residue Theme: Top Unmarked Rheme How long must we sing this song? Wh/Adj. F S P C Re- Mood -sidue Theme: Int/Top Marked Rheme
  • 49. Example of combination analysis of mood and theme of English clauses What will we Sing? Wh/C F S P Re- Mood -sidue Theme: Int/Top Marked Rheme Be patient! P C Residue Top Marked Theme Well Darling I will take a rest for a while Con Voc S F P C Adj Re- Mood -sidue Theme Text Int Top Unm Rheme
  • 50. Janice will give Chris the address tomorrow. Experiential Agent Process Recipient Affected Circumstance Interpersonal Subject Finite+ Predicator Indirect Object Direct Object Adjunct Textual Theme Given Rheme  New New New New 50
  • 51. 4.What are linguistic units and their classes? *Sentence/Clause  Group/Phrase  Word  Morpheme Ex: The effects of the accident are very serious. Unit Boundary marker Example A.Clause: the effects of the accidents are very serious B.Group: the effects //of the accidents / are //very serious C.Word: a space /the /effects/ of/ the/ accidents/ are/ very/ serious/ D.Morpheme : + {EFFECT}+{PLURAL}, realized by the morphs EFFECT and – S 51
  • 52. A.Classes of Clause: 1.Finite clause, Non-finite clause, Verbless clause. 2.Finite clause: Independent clause, Dependent clause 3.Finite dependent clause: 3.1.Circumstantial clause 3.2.Relative clause 3.3.Nominal embedded clause 3.3.1.THAT-clause 3.3.2.Nominal relative clause + dependent wh-interrogative 3.3.3.Dependent wh-interrogative 3.3.4.Dependent exclamative clause 3.4.Comparative clause 3.5.Supplementive units 3.6.Verbless clause/Minor clause/Moodless clause 3.7.Abbreviated clause 52
  • 53. A.1.CLASSES OF CLAUSES (CÚ): A.Finite Clauses (Tensed forms): - I had a farm in Africa, at the foot of the Ngong hills  vs Non-finite Clauses (Infinitive, ING-, ED-) (Non-tensed forms): - I , advised by your mother, warn you to go home quickly and not to run destroying anything along the path. B.Independent Clauses: -They locked up the house different clause types: declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamative. vs Dependent Clauses: - before they went on holiday.
  • 54. C.Finite dependent clauses consist of 7 kinds and 3 important sub- types of Nominal clause. C1.Circumstantial clauses: -As soon as she got home, Ann switched on the TV. C2.Relative clauses: -Paul took one of the red apples that his wife had bought this morning. C3.Nominal clauses function as S, O, C in clause structure, are Embedded as constituents of the Superodinate clauses or Matrix clauses:Superordinate (without embedded constituent): He saw  vs Embedded Clauses: that the bottles were empty. C3.1.He saw that the bottles were empty. (THAT-clause) C3.2.What I don’t understand is why you have come here. (Nominal relative clause + dependent wh-interrogative) C3.3.I’ll ask where the nearest Underground station is. (dependent wh- interrogative) C3.4.She said how comfortable it was. (dependent exclamative clause)
  • 55. C4.Comparative clauses: The results are much better than we expected. C5.Supplementive units are not integrated into the main clause, as embedded units are, but add supplementary information. They are subordinate but not embedded. They are set off from the main clause by commas, or by a dash, and have their own intonation contour: -Built of cypress, brick and glass, the house exhibits many of the significant contributions that Wright made to contemporary architecture. -The large size doesn’t seem to be available. Which is a pity. C6.Verbless clauses or Minor / Moodless Clauses (without Subject+Finite): -Take traveller’s cheques abroad, whenever possible (=whenever it is possible). -How about a nice glass of beer? -Hands off. -Into the shelter, everybody! -Out of sight, out of mind. C7.Abbreviated Clauses (with Subject+Finite operator alone and the rest of the clause ellipted because it is known): -I won’t, -can you, -must you?
  • 56. B.Classes of Group/Phrase: 1.Endocentric group: Nominal G, Verbal G, Adjectival G, Adverbial G. 2.Exocentric group: Prepositional Phrase C.Classes of Word: 1.Noun 2.Verb 3.Adjective 4.Adverb 5.Article 6.Pronoun 7.Auxiliary 8.Modal 8.Preposition 9.Conjunction D.Classes of Morpheme: 1.Free/Bound 2.Root/Affixes 3.Derivational/Inflectional Morpheme 56
  • 57. 5.What are syntactic elements of groups? Nominal Group, Adjectival Group, Adverbial Group, Prepositional P: 3 primary functions: - Determiner (d) - Modifier (m): Pre-modifier - Head (h) - Post-modifier (m), Qualifier (q) - Complement (c) of Adj, N: good at maths, across the road. Verbal Group: 3 primary functions: - Verb (v) - Auxiliary (x) - Operator (o) 57
  • 58. THE SKELETON OF THE MESSAGE: Introduction to clause structure CHAPTER 2 58
  • 59. Chapter 2 1.What are syntactic elements of the clause? 1.Subject 2.Predicator 3.Object 4.Complement 5.Adjunct 2.What are their semantic, cognitive and syntactic features? What are their realizations? 1.Subject 2.Predicator 3.Object 4.Complement 5.Adjunct 3.What are basic clause patterns/structures? 59
  • 60. 5.What are the syntactic elements in linguistic structure? STRUCTURE refers to the relationship that exist between the small units that make up a larger unit. Linguistic structures are described in terms of the SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS of their various elements and the SYNTACTIC FORMS and RELATIONSHIPS which express them. (1) S - Subject (2) P - Predicator (3.1) Od - Direct Object/ C - Complement (3.2) Oi - Indirect Object/ C – Complement (3.3) Oprep - Object of Preposition (3.4) Cs - Subject Complement (3.5) Co - Object Complement (3.6) Cloc - Locative/Goal Complement (4) A/Adj - Adjunct : Circumstantial Adjunct, Stance Adjunct (Disjunct), Connective Adjunct 60
  • 61. 5.Syntactic elements of clauses 1.Subject (S) -Jupiter is the largest planet. SPCs 2.Predicator (P) -The election campaign has ended. SP 3.1.Direct Object (Od) -Ted has bought a new motorbike. SPOd 3.2.Indirect Object (Oi) -They sent their friends postcards. SPOiOd 3.3.Prepositional Object (Op)-You must allow for price increases. SPOp 3.4.Subject Complement (Cs) -He is powerless to make any changes. SPCs 3.5.Object Complement (Co) -We consider the situation alarming. SPOdCo 3.6.Locative/Goal Complement (Cloc) -We flew to Moscow. SPCloc 4.1.Circumstantial Adjunct (A) -The news reached us on Tuesday. SPOdA 4.2.Stance Adjunct (A) -Unfortunately, we could not reach York in61
  • 62. 1.Subject: 1 primary element of the clause 1.1.Semantic features a) Agent/actor (material process: action): Helen hit him. b) Force (material process: happening): A sudden storm blew up. c) Affected (mat.pro: causing): The man was attacked by the tiger. d) Recipient (mat.pro:transferring): Helen received a letter from her friend. e) Beneficiary (material process: transferring): Mary was given a car. f) Senser/experiencer (mental process): Peter loved her. g) Sayer (verbal process): They told the truth. h) Receiver (verbal process): The girl was reported to be kidnapped. i) Verbiage/Said (v.process): The truth was told clearly by many people. j) Identifier (relational process): The man is the teacher of the school. k) Carrier (rel.process): Students were very worried about the exam. l) Possessor (relational process): My friend had many cars. m) Existant (existential process): There are many animals in the forest. 62
  • 63. 1.2.Syntactic features (Position): a) Before Predicator (finite verb) in declarative clause and Wh-question (Wh-=Subj.): -Who hit him? -Helen hit him.. b) After finite operator (Aux) in Yes/No questions and Wh-questions: -Are you pleased with the result? -Did everyone leave early? -When did Sylvia get back? c) End of Tag questions (after finite operator): -Helen was happy, wasn’t she? d) Pseudo-Subject (THERE) stands at the initial position before finite verb, Notional (True) Subject lies after finite verb (BE, STAND…) in Existential clause: - There was a terrible attack in the city. 63
  • 64. 1.3.Realizations: a) NP/NG: - That man is crazy. b) Dummy IT (in expressions of time, weather, distance): - It’s hot. c) Anticipatory IT + extraposed subject: - It was impossible for everyone to escape. – It is easy to forget your keys. d) Unstressed THERE: - There was only one fine day last week, wasn’t there. e) PP:- By plane costs more than by train. f) Adj Head/AdjG: -The handicapped are given special facilities in public places. g) Embedded clauses: - What he said shocked me.-That he failed his driving test surprised everybody. h) Non-finite clauses: - To take such a risk was rather foolish. – For everyone to escape was impossible. – Him/his having to go back for the tickets was a nuisance. 64
  • 65. 2.Predicator: 2nd primary element of the clause 2.1.Semantic features a) Material process: motion: - Helen went away. b) Material process: happening: - A sudden storm blew up. c) Material process : causing: - The man was attacked by the tiger. d) Material process: transferring: - Helen sent a letter to her friend. e) Behavioral process: - Students laughed loudly. f) Mental process: - Peter loved her. - She knew that issue. g) Verbal process: - They told the truth. h) Relational process: - My friend had many cars. -The man is the teacher of the school. - Students felt unsure of their future. i) Existential process: - There are many animals in the forest. 65
  • 66. 2.2.Syntactic features (Position): a) After Subject in declarative clause and Wh-question (Wh- =Subj.): -Who hit him? -Helen hit him.. b) After finite operator (Aux) and Subject in Yes/No questions and Wh-questions: -Did everyone leave early? -When did Sylvia get back? c) After Modal verbs, Auxiliary verbs (Operators) 66
  • 67. 2.3.Realizations: a) VG/VP (finite): - I want you to go home early. b) VG/VP (non-finite): - I want you to go home early. c) V + tense, voice, aspect, mood, number, person d) Intransitive V (+A): - She left (silently). e) Intransitive V + Cloc: - They came home. f) Intransitive V (Copular V) + Cs: - I am a teacher. – I felt happy. g) Transitive V + Od: - I opened the door. h) Ergative V: - The door opened. i) Transitive V (prepositional V) + Op:-They allowed for salary increases. j) Transitive V + Range: - He lived a happy life. k) Transitive V + Od/i + Oi/d: - I sent her a book. l) Transitive V + Od + Cloc: - They brought her home. m) Transitive V + Od + Co: - They made me happy. – She voted him monitor of the class. 67
  • 68. 3.1.Object/Complement: 3.1.Semantic features a) Affected (Material process: causing): - He headed the ball into the net. b) Affected Locative (Material process:motion): -He swam the Channel. c) Instrument (Material process: happening): -The burglars used an acetylene lamp to break open the safe. d) Range (MP:happening): - He gave the door a push. e) Phenomenon (Mental process): - I felt a sudden pain in my arm. f) Recipient (MP:transferring): -The clerk handed him the envelope, -I’m giving reading magazines less importance lately. - I gave Helen a blow. g) Beneficiary (MP: transferring): -Phil has booked all his friends tickets for the show.- I gave Mary a house. h) Goal/Target (MP: transferring): - I sent Helen a book. i) Receiver (Verbal process): -They told the truth to their family. j) Verbiage/Said (V.process): -They told the truth to their family. k) Possessed (Relational process): -My friend had many cars. 68
  • 69. 3.2.Syntactic features (Position): a) After Predicator (finite verb) in declarative clause and Wh-question (Wh- =Subj.): -Who hit him? -Helen hit him. b) Direct Obj stands after Predicator, Indirect Object after Direct Object in normal position c) Object of preposition stands after Predicator (Prepositional Verbs) d) In initial position of the clause in inverted clause.  Direct Object  Untypical D.O. : -They have two cars. -It cost 10 pounds. -She lacks confidence.  Range: -She had a rest. -He gave a kick. -Helen did a dance.  Indirect Object  Affected Locative D.O.: -He swam the Channel. -He climbed Everest. -He rode a horse. (Adjunct: -He swam across the Channel. -He climbed up Everest. -He rode on a horse.) 69
  • 70. 3.3.Realizations: a) NP/NG: - We hired a caravan. – She sang a beautiful song. b) Anticipatory IT : - I find it strange that she left.- I find it difficult to hate you. c) PP: -The boss prefers before 10 for the meeting - By plane costs more than by train. I would prefer before noon for a meeting. d) Finite clauses: – You know (that) I’m right - I understood what he said e) Non-finite clauses: -They enjoyed travelling by train.- I want to be respected. -He hated telling lies. f) NG: -The clerk handed him the envelope. (Recip./NG), -Phil has booked all his friends tickets for the show. (Ben/NG) g) Nominal relative Clause: -You can lend the dictionary to whoever needs it. (Recip./nom. relative cl.) h) –ING Clause: -I’m giving reading magazines less importance lately. (Recip./-ing cl) i) PP: -Let’s give before lunch-time priority. (Recip./PP) j) PP in Prepositional Verbs: Jo looked after my cat. You can rely on Jane in an emergency. The other kids all laughed at Amy… k) Adj Head/AdjG: - Special facilities in public places are given to the handicapped 70
  • 71. 3.2.Complement: 3.2.1.Semantic features a) Identified (Relational process): -I am a student. b) Current Attribute (Relational process): -She is sad. c) Resulting Attribute (Relational process): -She became sad. -She turned pale. d) Resulting Attribute (Material process): -They made me sad. -They voted him president. e) Circumstantial Attribute (Material process): -They stayed home. -Helen went home. -They put it on the table. 71
  • 72. 3.3.2.Syntactic features (Position): a) After Predicator (finite verb: BE, BECOME) in declarative clause (Complement of Subject: Cs): -Helen is a teacher. -She is happy. -It became darker. b) After Predicator (finite verb: GO, STAY…) in declarative clause (Locative Complement of the verb: Cloc): - Helen went home. c) After Object of causative verbs (Complement of the Object): - They made me sad. -They voted me president. 72
  • 73. 3.3.3.Realizations: a) NP/NG: - My father is a doctor. b) AdjG: - He is happy. -The room is full of water. c) VG/Non-finite VG: - To love is to sacrifice. d) PP: -They flew to London. -She came back home. e) Finite/Non-finite clauses: - I am what you want. 73
  • 74. 4.Adjunct: 4.1.Semantic features a) Attendant Circumstance of PLACE: location (AT), source (FROM), path (THROUGH), direction (TOWARDS), goal (TO), extent (FOR), extent+goal (AS FAR AS), relative (HERE, THERE), distributive (AT INTERVALS, HERE AND THERE),… b) TIME: in the morning, after many years,… c) MANNER: manner, means, comparison, instrumentality,… d) INSTRUMENT: - He elbowed his way through the crowd. e) CONTINGENCY: cause, purpose, reason, concession, behalf, condition, f) ACCOMPANIMENT: (positive/negative)74
  • 75. g) MODALITY: possibility, probability, certainty h) DEGREE: emphasis (completely) , attenuation (hardly) i) ROLE: capacity j) MATTER: with reference to, … k) EVIDENCE: according to,… l) RANGE is a participant: the nominal concept that is implied by the process as its scope or RANGE: song in sing a song, games in play games, have an argument (a chat, a drink, a fight,…), give a push (a kick, a smile,…), take, do, ask, make… 4.2.Syntactic features (Position): a) In final position of the clause (Circumstantial Adjunct):They ran in a hurry. b) In initial position of the inverted clause (Circumstantial Adjunct): In a hurry, they left home. c) In initial position of the clause (Stance Adjunct): Evidently, they left home. Surely, she had proofs. d) In initial position of the clause (Connective Adjunct): However, she did not understand why I hated her. 75
  • 76. 4.3.Realizations: a) NP/NG: - I will meet you tomorrow/ this evening. b) AdvG: - She left calmly. -Probably, she did not believe in me. c) VG/Non-finite VG: - She left saying no words. d) PP: -They built many factories in Vietnam. -I live because of you. e) Dependent finite/non-finite/ Verbless clauses: -She came after I had gone. -Afraid to leave the house, she called me. 76
  • 77. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MESSAGE Complementation of the verb CHAPTER 3 77
  • 78. Module 9: Intransitive and copular patterns Module 10: Transitive patterns Module 11: Complementation by finite clauses Module 12: Complementation by non-finite clauses 78
  • 79. Chapter 3 1.What are basic structures/patterns of the clause? 1.SP 2.SPCloc 3.SPA 4.SPCs 5.SPOd 6.SPOp 7.SPOiOd 8.SPOdOp 9.SPOdOc 10.SPOdCloc 2.What are intransitive and copular patterns? 3.What are transitive patterns? 4.What are verb complementation patterns? 79
  • 80. 1.What are basic structures of the clause/sentence? 1.SP: - She left. 2.SPCloc: - They flew to London. 3.SPA: - I am working because of you. 4.SPCs: - Helen is a student. She felt sad. 5.SPOd: - Children should drink milk. 6.SPOp: - They allowed for salary increases. 7.SPOiOd: - They sent her a letter. 8.SPOdOp: - I explained that point to her. 9.SPOdOc - They made her sad. - She voted me monitor. 10.SPOdCloc: - I put the cup on the table. 80
  • 81. MODULE 9: INTRANSITIVE AND COPULAR PATTERNS 1. S + P (Intransitive Verb –Vi- One-place Verb)  P=V of behavior: laugh, smile, cry, blink, blush, cough, sneeze, sigh, tremble, yawn, wait, stay, die, collapse, faint, fall,..Ex: One soldier fainted.  P=V of weather: rain, snow, rise,..Ex: It rained. The sun rose.  P=V of occurrence: appear, disappear, go, come, arrive, depart, vanish, fade, happen,…Ex: Has everyone arrived?  P=Idiomatic Intransitive phrasal verbs: crop up, …Ex: A problem has cropped up. 81
  • 82. 2. S + P (Vi) + Locative/Goal/Direction/Temporal Complement (Cloc)  P=V: be, stand, live, lie, remain,…+Location in place or time  P=V: walk, run, stroll, crawl, fly +Movement + Manner of movement Ex: Do you want to leave or would you rather stay? (without Cloc) but We went home (with Cloc because the Location is not inferrable) 82
  • 83. 3. S + P (Vi) + A (Adjunt)  P=V: work, arrive, retire, stop + Circumstantial Adjunct S+P+A S+P 1a.Tom works in London. 1b.Does his sister Priscilla work? 2a.We arrived late. 2b.The guests are arriving. 3a.He retired last year. 3b.He has retired. 4a.We stopped at the Equator. 4b.The clock has stopped. 83
  • 84. 4. S + P (Copular Verbs) + Complement of the Subject (Cs)  P=Verbs of being (stative & introducing current or existing attributes): keep, remain, be (careful), seem (annoyed), look (cheerful), sound (familiar), smell (spicy). Ex: The reason is simple. Will you keep still. We have to remain optimistic about the future.  P=Verbs of becoming (dynamic & introducing resulting attributes): become (dangerous), get (stressed), turn (nasty), prove (unsatisfactory), go (wild): grow (+ gradual change), go (+ drastic changes). Ex: Her latest novel has become a best- seller. His face went white.  P=Verbs normally used with a Complement fall, come, run can function as copulas with specific adjectives as Cs: Ex: The child fell flat on its face. The label has come unstuck. 84
  • 85. MODULE 10: TRANSITIVE PATTERNS 5.1. S + P + Od  P=V (Monotransitive Verbs): carry (the luggage), know (the answer), feel (the heat of the flames), enjoy (the film), want (a copy) + Direct Object. Ex: She was wearing one of her father’s extra-large T-shirts. 85
  • 86. 5.1.S+P+O (clause) 4 main types of dependent complement clause: 1.THAT-clauses 2.Wh-clauses 3.TO-infinitive clauses 4.ING-clauses They complement monotransitive verbs 86
  • 87. 1.Meanings and Patterns of THAT-clause complements 1.1.V+THAT-clause: Ex: I think it’s beautiful.  Facts, beliefs, doubts, perceptions: *Verbs of cognition: think, know, believe, imagine, see, doubt, don’t know…Ex: I believe you are right. *Verbs of expectation: expect, hope, suppose, wish…Ex: I suppose (that) he must have lost his way.  Reports: Ex: Jo says she is ill. *Verbs of communicating: say, announce, answer, explain, mean, mention, report, admit, confess…  Proposals: Ex: The party suggests he call/ should call an election. *Verbs of propose, suggest, recommend, demand +subjunctive mood 87
  • 88. 1.2.Dropping or retaining the complementiser THAT 1.3.V+NG+THAT-clause: Ex: I told you I’d be late. *Verbs of communicating: tell, inform *Verbs of causing someone to think or believe: teach, persuade, convince, remind,… *Verbs of promise, warn… 88
  • 89. 1.4.SAY and TELL Note that SAY and TELL have different complementation patterns: • Say is mono-transitive, controlling a direct object (Say that number again; He said he was sorry), while tell is ditransitive, with two objects (Tell me your name, tell me you love me). • Say can take an added oblique object (What did you say to him?), but not an indirect object (*What did you say him?). • Quoted speech may realise the object of say, but not that of tell (Jill said ‘Hello’, but not *Jill told me ‘Hello’). 89
  • 90. 2.Meanings and Patterns of WH-clause complements 2.1.Indirect Interrogatives: V+WH-clause. Ex: Ask where the station is 2.2.Nominal Relatives: V+NG+WH-clauses. Ex: Give them what they want. 2.3.Non-finite variants: V+NG+Wh-+TO-Infinitive Clause. Ex: Ask (him) how to do it. 2.4.Indirect Exclamatives: V+(NG)+What+NG or How+AdjG. Ex: I said how nice it was. 90
  • 91. 5.S+P+O (Non-finite clause) 1.CATENATIVE COMPLEMENTS: a Catenative (chaining) Verb controls a non-finite complement and reflects how the verb can link recursively with other catenatives to form a chain: decide, try, persuade, help, Ex: We decided to try to rent a house near the sea. Here there is a chain of three verbs: decide, try and rent, with to try to rent a house near the sea functioning as the catenative complement of decide, and to rent a house near the sea functioning as the catenative complement of try. We can add further catenative verbs to produce an even longer chain of four catenatives, two of which, persuade and help, have a NG object. The final verb rent is not a catenative: 91
  • 92. i decide to try to persuade Bill to help us rent a house near the sea. ii try to persuade Bill to help us rent a house near the sea. iii persuade Bill to help us rent a house near the sea. iv help us rent a house near the sea. Further catenatives appear in the following section. A special type of catenative construction – as in He failed to appear Not all catenatives behave in the same way. Only the complements of a few catenatives such as want, like and prefer can be analysed as (untypical) objects. 92
  • 93. 1.1.Meanings expressed by TO- Infinitive clausecomplements 1.1.1. Type 1: V+TO-Inf: Ex: I want to go 1.1.2.Type 2: V+NG+TO-Inf Clause with Subject: Ex: He wants us to go. 1.1.3.Type 3: V+NG+TO-Inf. Ex: We asked the taxi-driver to stop. 93
  • 94. 2.Meanings expressed by Bare Infinitive Clauses. 2.1.Type 4: V+NG+Bare-Inf. Ex: We let them go. 3.Meanings expressed by ING- Clauses. 3.1.Type 5: V+ING-Clause: Ex: I like listening to music. 3.2.Type 6: V+NG+ING-Clause: Ex: I saw them waiting. 3.3. Potential and factual meanings contrasted: TO-Inf and ING-clauses: Ex: I saw them waiting. 4.PAST PARTICIPIAL CLAUSES 4.1.Type 7: V+NG+EN-Clause. Ex: We will get it mended. 94
  • 95. 5.2.S + P + ((Implied) O)  P=Verbs used transitively and intransitively 1.V + Implied O (valency reduction): smoke (cigarettes), drive (a car), park (a car), drink (alcohol), save (money), wave (one’s hand),… 2.Causatives with intransitive counterpart constituting an ergative pair. Ex: He opened the door (SPOd). The door opened (SP). 3.Verbs with a reflexive meaning. Ex: He shaved (himself). 4.Verbs with a reciprocal meaning. Ex: Tom and Jo met (each other) at a concert 95
  • 96. 6. S + P + Prepositional Object  P=V = Prepositional Verbs: see + to (the plane tickets), deal + with (an emergency); Phrasal Prepositional Verbs: run out of (petrol), & multi-word combinations ending with a preposition: get rid of (old newspapers)+ Prepositional Object. Ex: The Prime Minister can’t account for the loss of votes.  account , allow, hope, long, look + for  bank, call, count, rely + on  admit, consent, keep, refer, resort + to  aim, get, hint, look + at  deal, reason + with  believe, confide + in  dispose, think, hear + of  look, take + after 96
  • 97. 7. S + P + Oi + Od  P=Ditransitive complementation Verb 7.1.P=Verbs of transfer (give, lend) and intended transfer (buy, get). Ex: I gave her a present. I got her a present.  give, hand, lend, offer, owe, pass, promise, read, send, show, teach, throw, write…. Ex: He showed the policeman his driving licence. He showed his driving licence to the policeman. Ex: I gave a present to her, I bought a present for her (PP = prepositional object)  Verbs of intended transfer: get, buy, book, bring, build, cash, cut, fetch, find, leave, spare, keep, make, pour, save Ex: They set him a trap. They set a trap for him. Book me a sleeper on the night train (….a sleeper for me) 97
  • 98. 7.P=Verbs (less prototypical 3-place verbs)  Type: explain, announce, confess, deliver, mention, return, say + NG + Presositional Object. Ex: He explained the problem to us.  Type: wish , allow, cost, refuse, light+ NG + NG: Ex: We wish you luck. 8. S + P + Od + PrepO P=Verbs: blame, thank + for; *prevent, protect + from; *accuse, convince, deprive, rob + of; *introduce, help, sentence + to; *charge, compare, supply + with; *blame, congratulate, compliment + on,… Ex: Who does it remind you of? What are you thanking me for? 98
  • 99. 9. S + P + Od + Co Current and Resulting Attributes. Ex: He got his shoes wet. 1.Verbs + Od + Current Attribute. Ex: He keeps the garden beautiful.  hold, keep; believe, consider, think, find, imagine, presume; want, like, prefer; 2.Verbs + Od + Resulting Attribute. Ex: They presumed her dead. They elected her Vice-President.  bake, drive, get, leave, make, paint, turn, wipe; appoint, elect, call, name, declare, report, certify… 3.Attribute of RESPECT. Ex: Churchill referred to him as an outstanding leader. 10. S + P + Od + Locative Complement: Ex: I put the dish in the microwave. Hold your head up! 99
  • 100. 2. What are NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE STRUCTURES? 2.1.English uses Finite operator to form Negative and Interrogative clause Structures. Finite operator  5 types: 1.Primary: – Positive: BE, HAVE – Negative: BE+NOT, HAVE+NOT, BEN’T 2.Modal: – Positive: CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD, SHALL, – Negative: CAN’T, WON’T, SHAN’T, MAY NOT, 3.DO operator: – Positive: DO – Negative: DON’T 4.Lexical-auxiliaries: primary verb functions as a normal operator: BE ABOUT TO, BE SURE TO, BE GOING TO, / HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO 5.Semi-modals: NEED/ NEEDN’T, DARE/ DAREN’T 100
  • 101. 2.2.Clause Negation: In clauses, Negation is usually made with the particle NOT, by negating the Finite operator IS NOT, CANNOT,… or a Non-finite verb in a dependent clause NOT WISHING to disturb them, DO operator DON’T be late, 2.3.NO-NEGATION vs NOT-NEGATION+ANY Another way of negating a clause is by using a non-verbal “nuclear” negative word: NOBODY, NOTHING, NO, NEVER. 2.4.LOCAL NEGATION: Groups, words and Non-finite clauses can be negated by NOT, without the entire finite clause being negated. - She was admitted into hospital not long ago. 101
  • 102. 3.How are linguistic units expanded? 3.1.COORDINATION - morphemes in a word: pro- and anti-terrorist - heads of nominal groups: books, papers and magazines 3.2.SUBORDINATION - Cs in a clause: He is quite brilliant (though totally unreliable). - adjuncts in a clause: We arrived (late (though not too late)) for the wedding. 3.3.EMBEDDING - Clause at S: [That he left so abruptly] doesn’t surprise me. - Clause at Od: I don’t know [why he left so abruptly] - Clause at C in a PP: I’m pleased about [Jane winning a prize] - Clause at M in NG: Thanks for the card [you sent me] 102
  • 103. CONCEPTUALISING PATTERNS OF EXPERIENCE Processes, participants, circumstances CLAUSE AS A GRAMMATICAL MEANS OF ENCODING PATTERNS OF EXPERIENCE CHAPTER 4 103
  • 104. MODULE 13 CONCEPTUALISING EXPERIENCES EXPRESSED AS SITUATION TYPES 13.1.PROCESSES, PARTICIPANTS, CIRCUMSTANCES 1.Semantically, a clause represents a pattern of experience, conceptualized as a SITUATION TYPE. 2.Situation types comprise 3 main types: MATERIAL, MENTAL and RELATIONAL and also 3 subsidiary types: BEHAVIORAL, VERBAL and EXISTENTIAL. 3.Each situation type consists of : - the PROCESS, the central part of the situation, realized by a VERB (doing, happening, experiencing, being and existing). - PARTICIPANTS ROLES representing persons, things, and abstract entities involved in the process (the nature and number of participants determined by the type of process); - ATTRIBUTES characterize, identify or locate the participants; - CIRCUMSTANCES of time, place, manner, condition,…attendant on the situation. 4.The valency of the verb specifies the number of participants = Vt-Vi analysis 104
  • 105. 13.1.THE PROCESS (PARTICIPANTS, CIRCUMSTANTIAL ROLES)  A fundamental property of language is to enable us to conceptualize and describe our experience, whether of the - actions and events, people and things of the external world, or - of the internal world of our thoughts, feelings, and perceptions through transitivity by the clause as the most significant grammatical unit.  The central part of a situation realized by the verb is called PROCESS by M.A.K.Halliday THE PROCESS can be analyzed as: DYNAMIC situation and processes involve something that occurs or happens; they can be tested by the question “What happened?” STATIVE situations and processes are conceived of as durative over time, and as existing rather than happening. 105
  • 106. 13.2. TYPES of PROCESS THREE MAIN TYPES of PROCESS (1) MATERIAL PROCESSES, processes of DOING (kick, run, paint), or HAPPENING (fall, melt, collapse,...) (2) MENTAL PROCESSES, processes of SENSING or EXPERIENCING (see, hear, know, feel, hate...) (3) RELATIONAL PROCESSES, processes of BEING or BECOMING in which a participant is characterized, or identified, or situated circumstantially (be, seem, stand, lie, become...) THREE SUBSIDIARY PROCESS (4) BEHAVIORAL PROCESSES (5) VERBAL PROCESSES (6) EXISTENTIAL PROCESSES 106
  • 107. 13.3.PARTICIPANTS: INHERENT participants are ACTUALIZED in Ted kicked the ball (2 participants), Mary gave the Red Cross a donation (3 participants) however UNACTUALIZED but UNDERSTOOD in Ted kicked hard (1 participant), Mary gave a donation (2 participants), Mary gave generously (1 participant). -Monovalent (1) participant process in The ice melted; -Bivalent (2) participant process in The postman rides a motorcycle; -Trivalent (3) participant process in Mary gave the Red Cross a donation. The semantic analysis into actualized and unactualized participants in paralleled by the syntactic analysis of verbs such as drive, eat,…as being either transitive (V+Obj) or intransitive (V-Obj). 107
  • 108. Module 14: Material processes of doing and happening 1 The first main category of processes, material processes, includes several kinds: ‘doing’, ‘happening’, ‘causing’ and ‘transferring’. Typically, the action of ‘doing’ is carried out by a volitional, controlling human participant: the Agent. A non-controlling inanimate agent is called Force, for instance an earthquake. 2 In processes of doing, the action either extends no further than the Agent itself, as in she resigned, or it extends to another participant, the Affected (the ball in Pelé kicked the ball). A special type of ‘doing’ is the process of transfer, in which an Agent transfers an Affected participant to a Recipient or is intended for a Beneficiary (give someone a present, make someone a cake, respectively). 3 In involuntary processes of happening, the Affected undergoes the happening (the roof fell in, the old man collapsed). 4 The order of elements in the semantic structures is iconic, that is, the linguistic ordering of the event reflects our conceptualization of the event. 108
  • 109. 14.1.AGENT AND AFFECTED IN VOLUNTARY PROCESS OF “DOING” A.AGENTIVE Subject (doer) (tác nhân) of a voluntary process of DOING: They all left. B.AFFECTED / PATIENT/ GOAL participant (kẻ chịu đựng) in a voluntary process of DOING: Ted hit Bill. C.AFFECTED Subject in a passive clause: Bill was hit by Ted. D.EFFECTED (=RESULTING OBJECT) participants: Mary made an omelette. Write what you can, Fiona made a car, Dave wrote a letter. 14.2.Unwitting/ Inanimate Agent or FORCE (sức mạnh tự nhiên)): Lightning struck the oak tree. Anxiety can ruin your health. 14.3.Affected Subject of Involuntary processes of HAPPENING in Jordan slipped on the ice, The children have grown, The roof collapsed, The vase fell off the shelf. 109
  • 110. Module 15: Causative processes 1 In causative material processes some external Agent or Force causes something to happen. In the paradigm case, a responsible, purposeful human Agent directly causes an Affected to undergo the action named by the verb. The Affected, not the Agent, is the inherent participant that undergoes the process, as in I rang the bell. 2 When the Affected object of a transitive-causative clause is the same as the Affected subject of the corresponding intransitive clause, we have an ‘ergative pair’: He walked the dogs in the park. The dogs walked. Someone waved a flag. A flag waved. 3 A ‘pseudo-intransitive’ expresses the facility of a participant to undergo a process: Glass breaks easily. 110
  • 111. 15.1. Causative material processess and Ergative pairs (Transitive-causative structure):  Some external Agent or Force causes something to happen. The Affected, not the Agent, is the inherent participant that undergoes the process as in - Paul (Initiating Agent) opened (Process) the door (Affected) = It is the door that opens; - Pat boiled the water = It is the water that boils; - I rang the bell = It is the bell that rings.  When the Affected object of a transitive clause is the same as the Affected subject of an intransitive clause (the Anti-causative structure), we have an Ergative (khiến tác) pairs of Affected/ Ergative alternation realized in verbs: burn, break, burst, close, cook, fade, freeze, melt, run, stretch, tighten - The water boiled. Pat boiled the water. - X burned the cakes. The cakes burned. - Stand the lamp here! The lamp stands here. 111
  • 112.  Intransitive volitional activities WALK, JUMP, MARCH… - He walked the dogs in the park. The dogs walked. - He jumped the horse over the fence. The horse jumped over the fence. - The sergeant marched the soldiers. The soldiers marched.  An additional agent and an additional causative verb in the transitive clauses of ergative pairs: - The child got his sister to ring the bell. - Mary made Peter boil the water. 112
  • 113. 15.2.Analytical causatives with a resulting attribute based on the combinations with verbs such as MAKE, TURN: - This machine (Agent) will make (Process) your tasks (Affected) simple (Resulting Attribute). - The heat (Agent) has turned (Process) the milk (Affected) sour (Resulting Attribute). 15.3.Pseudo-intransitives: a further type of Affected Subject occurs with certain processes BREAK, READ, TRANSLATE, WASH, FASTEN, LOCK,…which are intrinsically transitive, but in this construction are contrued as intransitive, with an Affected subject. - Glass breaks easily. - This box doesn’t shut/ close/ lock/ fasten properly. - Colloquial language translates badly. - Some synthetic fibres won’t wash. Usually they dry-clean. 113
  • 114. Module 16: Processes of transfer 1 There are three participants in the processes of transfer: Agent, Affected and Recipient or Beneficiary. 2 The Recipient is a central participant in three-participant processes such as give. It encodes the one who receives the transferred material. 3 The Beneficiary is the optional, non-central participant in three- participant processes such as fetch. It represents the one for whom some service is done. 114
  • 115. 16.RECIPIENT (tiếp thể) and BENEFICIARY (lợi thể) in processes of TRANSFER: * The process (Action) expressed by the verbs GIVE, SEND, LEND, CHARGE, PAY, OFFER, and OWE extends not only to the Affected but to a third inherent participant, the RECIPIENT, as in: - Ed gave the cat a bit of tuna. - Bill’s father has lent us his car. - Have you paid the taxi-driver the right amount? * The RECIPIENT, a central participant in trivalent processes, usually receives the “goods’, permission or information. 115
  • 116. * The BENEFICIARY, by contrast is the optional, non-central, not inherent, participant in trivalent processess for whom some service is done. This often amounts to being the intended recipient. However, it is not necessarily the same as receiving the goods. - Nurse, could you fetch me a glass of water? - Yes, but soon I’ll bring you your orange juice. I’ll get you something to read, too. 116
  • 117. * Recipient and Beneficiary are semantically typically animate and human, syntactically are realized as Oi. Occasionally an inanimate Recipient and an inanimate Beneficiary is possible but unlikely. * Passivisation and Prepositional counterpart can be used to test them. * Recipient and Beneficiary can occur together in the same clause: She gave me a present for my daughter. * Recipient and Beneficiary may be involved in processes of an unbeneficial nature: They sent him a letter-bomb (him=recipient); They set him a trap (him =beneficiary) 117
  • 118. 17.1.MENTAL PROCESSES: • Mental processes comprise processes of PERCEPTION (SEE, HEAR, FEEL), of COGNITION (KNOW, UNDERSTAND, BELIEVE) and of AFFECTION and DESIDERATION (LIKE, FEAR; WANT, WISH); • There is always a conscious participant, the EXPERIENCER (SENSER), who perceives, knows, likes, ..There is usually a second participant, the PHENOMENON- that which is perceived, known, liked or wanted. Ex: - I (experiencer) don’t understand (process) his motives (phenomenon). - Most people (experiencer) are horrified (process) by the increase in violence (phenomenon) - His motives (phenomenon) elude (process) me (experiencer). - The increase in violence (phenomenon) horrifies (process) most people (experiencer). - We (experiencer) knew (process) that it would be difficult (phenomenon) 118
  • 119. 17.2.COGNITIVE PROCESSES: KNOWING, THINKING and BELIEVING: Ex: - I (experiencer) don’t know (cognitive process) anyone of that name (entity-phenomenon) - She (experiencer) has forgotten (process) to leave us a key (situation) 17.3. PERCEPTION PROCESSES: SEEING, HEARING and FEELING: *RECIPIENT EXPERIENCER+VOLITION PROCESS+PHENOMENON: - Tom (RE) saw (non-volition) a snake (P). - The child (RE) feels (non-volition) hot (P). 119
  • 120. 17.4.AFFECTIVE PROCESSES: LOVING and HATING: LIKE, LOVE, PLEASE, DELIGHT, DISLIKE, HATE and DETEST: Ex: -We both love dancing. -The ballet performance delighted the public. -They enjoy walking in the woods. -They love to walk in the woods. 17.5.DECIDERATIVE PROCESSES: WANTING and WISHING: WANT, DESIRE, WISH: Ex: - Do you want anything else. (thing) - If you want to stay overnight, just say so. (situation) - I wish Ted were here with us.(situation) 120
  • 121. Module 18: Relational processes of being and becoming 1 The third main category of processes, relational processes, expresses the notion of being, in a wide sense. In English there are two main patterns of ‘being’: the Attributive, as in Tom is a pilot, and the Identifying, as in Fred is the doorman. 2 The participant in the Attributive structure is the Carrier, the entity to which is ascribed an Attribute. The relations are of three kinds: attributive: Tom is keen, Tom is a pilot; circumstantial: The bus stop is over there; possessive: That car is mine. In possessive structures the participants are known as the Possessor and the Possessed. 121
  • 122. 3 The identifying pattern is reversible: it identifies one entity in terms of another. These are the Identified and the Identifier as in Fred is the doorman/The doorman is Fred. A different analysis assigns Value to the more general role (the doorman) and Token to the one that fills that role (Fred). 4 The process itself is encoded by linking verbs (mainly be and have) whose function is to carry tense and to relate the Carrier to its Attribute, the Identified to its Identifier and the Possessor to the Possessed. Others like lack and feel encode additional meanings. 122
  • 123. 18.RELATIONAL PROCESSES, processes of * BEING or * BECOMING in which a participant is characterized, or identified, or situated circumstantially (be, seem, stand, lie, become...). 18.1.TYPES of BEING: Relational processes cover various ways of being: being something, being in some place/at some time, or in a relation of possession: Ex: - Mont Blanc is a high mountain. (an instance of a type) - Mont Blanc is popular with climbers. (attribution) - Mont Blanc is the highest mountain in Europe. (Identification) - Mont Blanc is in the Alps. (circumstance: location) - Those gloves are yours. (possession) 123
  • 124. 18.2.THE ATTRIBUTE PATTERN: One-participant. The CARRIER represents an entity. Ascribed to the CARRIER is an ATTRIBUTE, characterizing the entity in some way. Ex: - Their eldest son (carrier) was (process) a musician (attribute). *The CURRENT ATTRIBUTE: the Attribute exists at the same time as the process described by the verbs BE, KEEP, REMAIN, SEEM. Ex: - We kept quiet. - He remained captain for years. *The RESULTING ATTRIBUTE exists as the result of the process with dynamic verbs of transition such as BECOME, GET, TURN, RUN. Ex: - We fell silent. - He became captain. 124
  • 125. 18.3.CIRCUMSTANTIAL RELATIONAL PROCESSES of BEING in which circumstantial element is essential to the situation, not peripheral to it. The Circumstance is encoded as ATTRIBUTE. Ex: - The museum is round the corner. - These flowers are for you. 125
  • 126. 18.4.POSSESSIVE RELATIONAL PROCESSES: BE, HAVE, OWN, POSSESS • POSSESSION covers a wide number of subtypes: - part-whole (in your left foot) - ownership (in our house) - kinship relations (in Jane’s sister) - unowned possession (in the dog’s basket) - mental quality (in her sense of humor) - physical quality (in his strength) - occupancy (in his office) - association with another person (in my friends and colleagues) 126
  • 127. • 2 PARTICIPANTS involved are POSSESSOR and the POSSESSED • Possession is expressed either by the ATTRIBUTE: Ex:- These keys (Possessed/Carrier) are (Process) my brother’s (Possessor/ Attribute) - This glove (Possessed/Carrier) isn’t (Process) mine (Possessor/Attribute) • or by the PROCESS itself: Ex: - The baby (Possessor/Carrier) has blue eyes. - His uncle (Possessor/Carrier) owns a yacht. - 127
  • 128. 18.5.THE IDENTIFYING PATTERN: known as IDENTIFIED and IDENTIFIER: Ex: - Mont Blanc (Identified) is the highest mountain in Europe (Identifier). -Mont Blanc (Identifier) is the highest mountain in Europe (Identified). *A concept complementary to Identifying processes is that of “REPRESENTATIONAL “ or “ROLES FILLED”. One participant, the TOKEN, is the entity that ‘represents” or “fills the role of the other, the VALUE as in: Ex: - My father-in-law (Token/Identified) is (=fulfils the role of) the club’s Secretary (Value/Identifier) - 128
  • 129. Module 19: Processes of saying, behaving and existing 1 Processes of saying and communicating are verbal processes. The participant who communicates is the Sayer, and is typically human, while what is communicated is the ‘Said’ and may be a reported statement, a reported question or a reported directive (order, request, etc.). A Recipient, the addressee, is required with tell, and a Target may also be present in some verbal processes. 2 Behavioural processes are half-way between material and mental processes, in that they have features of each. They include involuntary processes (cough) and volitional processes (watch, stare, listen). 3 Existential processes, rather than stating that things simply exist, tend to specify the quantification and/or the location of something: There are bits of paper everywhere. The single participant is the Existent, which may be an entity or an event. 129
  • 130. Module 19: Processes of saying, behaving and existing 19.1.VERBAL PROCESSES/ PROCESSES OF SAYING AND COMMUNICATING *The participant who communicates is the SAYER (human), while what is communicated is the SAID and may be a reported statement, a reported question, a reported directive (ORDER, REQUEST,…). A RECIPIENT, the addressee, is required with TELL, and a TAGET may also be present in some VERBAL PROCESSES. Ex: - She (Sayer) had to say (Verbal process) her name twice (Said) - Jim (Sayer) told (Verbal process) him (Recipient) what she knew (Said). 130
  • 131. 19.2.BEHAVIOURAL PROCESSES: COUGH, SNEEZE, LAUGH, SIGH.. • One-participant process • Involuntary • Very slight agency • Mental processes SEE, HEAR have Behavioural counterparts WATCH, LISTEN, which are dynamic and volitional, and have Agentive Subjects… Ex: - What are you thinking about? - I am enjoying the play enormously. 131
  • 132. 19.3.EXISTENTIAL PROCESSES OF EXISTING OR HAPPENING: BE, STAND,LIE, HANG, STRETCH, REMAIN, OCCUR, FOLLOW, APPEAR, EMERGE, … * The single participant is the EXISTENT, referring to a countable entity, an uncountable entity, or an event: Ex: - There’s a good film on at the Scala. - There’s roast lamb for lunch. - There was an explosion. 132
  • 133. Module 20: Expressing attendant circumstances 20.ATTENDANT CIRCUMSTANCES: 20.1.PLACE, TIME AND OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES 20.1.1.PLACE: location (AT), source (FROM), path (THROUGH), direction (TOWARDS), goal (TO), extent (FOR), extent+goal (AS FAR AS), relative (HERE, THERE), distributive (AT INTERVALS, HERE AND THERE),… 20.1.2.TIME: location (AT), source (FROM), path (THROUGH), direction (TOWARDS), goal (TO), extent (FOR), extent+goal (AS FAR AS), relative (HERE, THERE), distributive (AT INTERVALS, HERE AND THERE),… 20.1.3.MANNER: manner, means, comparison, instrumentality,… 20.1.4.INSTRUMENT: - He elbowed his way through the crowd. 20.1.5.CONTINGENCY: cause, purpose, reason, concession, behalf, condition, 133
  • 134. 20.1.6.ACCOMPANIMENT: (positive/negative) togetherness (with/without), (positive/negative) additionality (as well as, instead of) 20.1.7.MODALITY: possibility, probability, certainty 20.1.8.DEGREE: emphasis (completely) , attenuation (hardly) 20.1.9.ROLE: capacity 20.1.10.MATTER: with reference to, … 20.1.11.EVIDENCE: according to,… 20.2.RANGE is a participant: the nominal concept that is implied by the process as its scope or RANGE: song in sing a song, games in play games, have an argument (a chat, a drink, a fight,…), give a push (a kick, a smile,…), take, do, ask, make… 134
  • 135. Module 21: Conceptualising experiences from a different angle: Nominalisation and grammatical metaphor 1 The semantic structures described so far reflect the basic semantic-syntactic correspondences we use when encoding situations. They reflect the typical way of saying things. Agents carry out actions that affect other participants, Experiencers perceive Phenomena. Furthermore, processes have been realised by verbs, entities by nouns, and Attributes by (for instance) adjectives and possessives. These are the basic realisations which are found in the language of children and in much everyday spoken English. But any state of affairs can be conceptualised and expressed in more than one way. A more nominalised version encodes actions and states as nouns, which involves a complete restructuring of the clause. This has been called ‘grammatical metaphor’. Its most obvious characteristic is nominalisation. 135
  • 136. Module 21: Conceptualising experiences from a different angle: Nominalisation and grammatical metaphor 2 Thus, a process can be realised as an entity: government spending is one example. Similar transferred functions occur with attributes and circumstances. These alternative realisations of the semantic roles involve further adjustments in the correspondences between semantic roles and syntactic functions in the clause. 3 Grammatical metaphor is a feature of much written English and of spoken English in professional registers. 4 The ‘transitivity hypothesis’ offers an alternative view, in which transitivity is a matter of gradation from high to low. 136
  • 137. 1.In the semantic structures described so far as CONGRUENT REALIZATIONS: PROCESSES realised by Verbs ENTITIES realised by Nouns ATTRIBUTES realised by Adjectives 2.METAPHORICAL REALIZATIONS/ GRAMMATICAL METAPHORS PROCESS realised as THING: Take a deep breath. ATTRIBUTE realised as THING: Bigness is paid for by fewness. CIRCUMSTANCE realised as THING: August 12 found them in Rome. PROCESS and CIRCUMSTANCE as part of the THING: Dependent SITUATION as THING 3.Grammatical metaphor is a feature of much written English and of spoken English in professional registers. 137
  • 138. 21.1.BASIC REALIZATIONS AND METAPHORICAL REALIZATIONS: 138
  • 139. 21.2.NOMINALIZATION AS A FEATURE OF GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR: 21.2.1.PROCESS REALIZED AS ENTITY 21.2.2.ATTRIBUTE REALIZED AS ENTITY 21.2.3.CIRCUMSTANCE REALIZED AS ENTITY 21.2.4.DEPENDENT SITUATION AS ENTITY 139
  • 140. 21.3.HIGH AND LOW TRANSITIVITY: 140
  • 141. INTERACTION BETWEEN SPEAKER AND HEARER Linking speech acts and grammar CHAPTER 5 141
  • 142. Module 22: Speech acts and clause types Module 23: The declarative and interrogative clause types Module 24: The exclamative and imperative clause types Module 25: Indirect speech acts, clause types and discourse functions Module 26: Questions, clause types and discourse functions Module 27: Directives: getting people to carry out actions 142
  • 143. Module 22 †The following text is an email advertisement for computer software. It has no punctuation.Mark the clause boundaries by punctuation and identify the clause types, giving reasons for your analysis. Now suggest what type of speech acts are being performed. In business and personal life Paper is the communication medium & storage device Documents fill the space Communication takes time Corrections are inevitable Clarifications are unavoidable Inaccuracy costs money Mistakes cause losses and lost opportunites Efforts may be fruitless Results may be unattained 143
  • 144. Technology rises to the occasion The software solution is available For your daily private and business use [EDIFACT Prime takes you beyond the edge] Breakthroughs are your tools Perfection and harmony is your lifestyle Exchange the routine for simplicity and speed 144