The Digital Library from Information Superhighway to the Semiotic Web

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Martin R. Kalfatovic and Suzanne C. Pilsk. Smithsonian Libraries Staff Brown Bag. April 28, 2004. Washington, DC.

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  • Second introduction by Martin and Suzanne
  • The Digital Library from Information Superhighway to the Semiotic Web

    1. 1. The Digital Library from Information Superhighway to the Semiotic Web Suzanne C. Pilsk and Martin Kalfatovic Smithsonian Institution Libraries
    2. 3. The Scarecrow Dedicated Terminals vs. the Personal Computer
    3. 4. Dedicated Terminal <ul><li>Proprietary </li></ul><ul><li>Single function </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>The vendor’s dream machine </li></ul>
    4. 5. Dedicated Terminal
    5. 6. The Personal Computer <ul><li>Client/server paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-use </li></ul><ul><li>Open (as defined by Microsoft)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Can be expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Gates and Andy Groves’ dream machine </li></ul>
    6. 7. The Personal Computer
    7. 8. The Personal Computer
    8. 10. Munchkinland Early Internet Experiments
    9. 11. Finger <ul><li>Weather Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Checking the status of the Coke machine down the hall </li></ul>“ Finger” is a simple protocol used to retrieve information about users and return the information in a simple string
    10. 12. Anonymous FTP <ul><li>Transfer of large file sets that the user could reassemble </li></ul><ul><li>Mastering the art of spelling “A-N-O-N-Y-M-U-S” </li></ul>Though still useful for various technical operations, as an “end-user” Internet experience, Anonymous FTP’s life is at an end
    11. 13. Telnet <ul><li>Fast, even with a “slow” Internet connection (the remember 2400 baud modem?)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient (the telnet client was usually quite “lite”)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Blinking white letters on a black screen! </li></ul>
    12. 14. Gopher <ul><li>The first widely accepted Internet “publishing” tool </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian friendly (who doesn’t love a strict hierarchy of information?)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Acronym friendly </li></ul>
    13. 15. LC MARVEL <ul><li>L ibrary of C ongress </li></ul><ul><li>M achine </li></ul><ul><li>A ssisted </li></ul><ul><li>R ealization (of the)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>V irtual </li></ul><ul><li>E lectronic </li></ul><ul><li>L ibrary </li></ul>
    14. 16. SI Library Gopher: SILENUS ? <ul><li>S mithsonian </li></ul><ul><li>I nstitution </li></ul><ul><li>L ibraries </li></ul><ul><li>E lectronic </li></ul><ul><li>N ode (of)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>U seful </li></ul><ul><li>S tuff </li></ul>
    15. 18. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    16. 19. Rescue of the Tin Woodman
    17. 20. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    18. 21. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    19. 22. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    20. 23. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    21. 24. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    22. 25. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    23. 26. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    24. 27. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    25. 28. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    26. 29. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    27. 30. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    28. 31. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    29. 32. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    30. 33. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online <ul><li>Dewey to LC classification (ca. 1965)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Input of data into OCLC (1974)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>GEAC (1984)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>NOTIS – TELNET (1994)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Web access to the catalog (1996)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Horizon (1998-1999)‏ </li></ul>
    31. 34. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    32. 35. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    33. 36. Rescue of the Tin Woodman: Libraries Go Online
    34. 38. The Cowardly Lion Communication is King of the Jungle!
    35. 39. Communication is King <ul><li>Bulletin Boards : in the early days of the personal computer, one of the wonders of having a computer in your home was the ability to plug an acoustic coupler into the machine and snug your telephone handset into the device and connect to a bulletin board. Bulletin boards allowed communities to form around topics, buy and sell things </li></ul>
    36. 40. <ul><li>Email : the next step was direct communication with others in a nearly asynchronous manner. Soon the ubiquitous “@” became a regular part of our language. </li></ul>Communication is King
    37. 41. <ul><li>GEAC Mail : Many of our fist experiences with email were not the global email we’re used to today, but instead, in-house or system dependant “electronic messaging systems”. </li></ul>Communication is King
    38. 42. <ul><li>BITNet : BITNet hit the Smithsonian around 1988 and suddenly email went beyond the walls of the library (SI used that now primitive IBM system, PROFS, I still remember my BITNet email: libem071@sivm. </li></ul>Communication is King
    39. 43. <ul><li>Webmail : Now, with web accessible email, email systems are available on any web enabled PC, and of course, cell phones and PDAs </li></ul>Communication is King
    40. 44. <ul><li>Listservs : with “beyond the walls” email, the world of listserv where, again, communities could form simply by typing “sub me listserv x”. Communication became a “Push Technology” where people’s opinions, thoughts, questions, and even rants (remember “flame wars”?) came into our in box. </li></ul>Communication is King
    41. 45. <ul><li>BLOGS : and now, here we are again. How many of you have participated in some sort of BLOG? Once again we see the concept of the bulletin boards rising in the form of the BLOG. </li></ul>Communication is King
    42. 47. Deadly Poppy Fields of Jargon From Smithsonian Libraries On Display: Seed Catalogs
    43. 48. Deadly Poppy Fields of Jargon <ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Surfing </li></ul><ul><li>Link </li></ul><ul><li>Link rot </li></ul><ul><li>Burn </li></ul><ul><li>Web Master </li></ul><ul><li>Rip </li></ul><ul><li>Zip and Unzip </li></ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul><ul><li>Googling </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><li>24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><li>Taxomony </li></ul>
    44. 49. Taxomony <ul><li>Merriam Webster Online </li></ul><ul><li>1) The study of the general principles of scientific classification : systematics </li></ul><ul><li>2) Classification; especially : orderly classification of plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Webopedia </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy is the way it organizes its data into categories and subcategories, sometimes displayed in a site map </li></ul><ul><li>InformationWeek </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy-creation tools that scan documents and suggest logical categories based on common themes that occur across an organization's data </li></ul>
    45. 50. Taxonomy
    46. 51. Taxonomy
    47. 52. Taxonomy
    48. 53. Deadly Poppy Fields of Jargon <ul><li>Cataloging </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Thesauri </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Schemas </li></ul><ul><li>Ontologies </li></ul>
    49. 54. Dublin Core Metadata
    50. 55. Open Archives Initiative
    51. 56. <ul><li>Open = Not Supported </li></ul><ul><li>Archives = Means “Repository” </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative = Yet Not Ready </li></ul>Open Archives Initiative
    52. 58. MARC and METS and MODS
    53. 59. MARC
    54. 60. MARC XML
    55. 61. MODS
    56. 62. Oh My! http://mapageweb.umontreal.ca/turner/meta/english/indexacroeng.html
    57. 64. The Emerald City of Oz Building and Maintaining the Library Website
    58. 65. The Library Website <ul><li>Mosaic marries graphics, text, and the hyper text transfer protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Information becomes less linear and more relational </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians become graphic designers (ack!)‏ </li></ul>
    59. 66. The Library Website
    60. 67. The Library Website
    61. 68. The Library Website
    62. 69. The Library Website
    63. 70. The Library Website
    64. 71. The Library Website
    65. 72. The Library Website
    66. 73. The Library Website
    67. 74. The Library Website <ul><li>The “public site” </li></ul><ul><li>The “library staff site” </li></ul><ul><li>The “scholars’ portal” </li></ul><ul><li>The “Intranet site” </li></ul><ul><li>The “fully customizable with features that only I can find and find useful site” </li></ul>
    68. 76. The Search for the Wicked Witch Internet on Your Desk: A Long Hard Battle
    69. 77. Internet on Your Desk: A Long Hard Battle <ul><li>“ I don’t see why any one needs access to the internet at their offices or in the library because they can come to the central Smithsonian computer office and use it there. What would they be doing on this “internet”?” </li></ul>
    70. 78. Internet on Your Desk: A Long Hard Battle
    71. 80. The Discovery of Oz, the Terrible Taking Content Online
    72. 81. Taking Content Online <ul><li>The Library Catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Citation Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Full-text Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Collections </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Books </li></ul><ul><li>Online Exhibitions </li></ul>
    73. 82. Taking Content Online
    74. 83. Taking Content Online <ul><li>ASCII text </li></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><li>SGML </li></ul><ul><li>EAD </li></ul><ul><li>XHTML </li></ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul>
    75. 84. The Discovery of Oz, the Terrible You see Scarecrow, you always had content, you just need acronyms!
    76. 85. Library Science vs. Rocket Science <ul><li>Case Study: “Sewing Machines: Historical Trade Literature in Smithsonian Collections” - inches and centimeter mix up leads to confusion </li></ul>
    77. 86. Library Science vs. Rocket Science <ul><li>Case Study: NASA Mars Climate Orbiter (1999) - The peer review preliminary findings indicate that one team used English units (e.g., inches, feet and pounds) while the other used metric units for a key spacecraft operation. </li></ul>
    78. 88. The Magic Art of the Great Humbug The Changing Position Title
    79. 89. The Changing Position Title <ul><li>Deck Attendant </li></ul><ul><li>Collections Improvement Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>ILL Technician </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Information Access Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Projects Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Head, New Media Office </li></ul>
    80. 90. The Changing Position Title <ul><li>Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloger </li></ul><ul><li>Information Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata Specialist </li></ul>
    81. 91. <ul><li>Cybrarian </li></ul><ul><li>Webmaster </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata Mistress </li></ul>The Changing Position Title
    82. 93. Where’s Toto? Building the Digital Yellow Brick Road
    83. 95. The Digital Library from Information Superhighway to the Semiotic Web Suzanne C. Pilsk and Martin Kalfatovic Smithsonian Institution Libraries

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