OAC Presentation at CNI 09 Fall Forum

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Presentation of the OAC data model and protocol-less approach given at CNI.

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OAC Presentation at CNI 09 Fall Forum

  1. 1. <h#p://www.openannota.on.org/>
 Robert
Sanderson





–





rsanderson@lanl.gov
 











































azaroth42@gmail.com
 Herbert
Van
de
Sompel


–



herbertv@lanl.gov
 













































hvdsomp@gmail.com
 Digital
Library
Research
and
Prototyping
Team
 Los
Alamos
NaDonal
Laboratory,
USA
 This
research
was
funded
by
the
Andrew
W.
Mellon
FoundaDon.

Acknowledgements:
Tim
Cole,
 Bernhard
Haslhofer,
Jane
Hunter,
Ray
Larson,
Cliff
Lynch,
Michael
Nelson,
Doug
Reside
 Interoperable Annotation Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  2. 2. Overview •  The Collaboration and Project •  Interoperability: •  Status •  Basic Principles •  Current Data Model •  Protocol-less Approach •  Demo •  Summary Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  3. 3. The Collaboration •  Los Alamos National Labs (Data Modeling and Interoperability) •  Herbert Van de Sompel (PI) •  Robert Sanderson •  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign •  Tim Cole (PI) •  Allen Renear •  Carole Palmer •  Tom Habing •  University of Queensland •  Jane Hunter (PI) •  Anna Gerber •  Ron Chernich •  University of Maryland •  Neil Fraistat (PI) •  Douglas Reside •  George Mason University •  Dan Cohen •  Sean Takats Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  4. 4. The Project •  Aims •  Facilitate a Web-centric interoperable annotation environment •  Demonstrate the proposed environment for scholarly use-cases •  Seed adoption by deployment of high-visibility production systems •  Phase I •  Exploration of Existing Systems, Requirements and Use Case analysis •  Initial Interoperability Specification •  Integration of AXE and Zotero •  Mellon Foundation Funded •  Alerted to possibility through JSTOR (unfunded partner) •  14 Months for Phase I •  Hope to proceed to Phases II and III Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  5. 5. Advisory Board •  Members •  Maristella Agosti (University of Padua) •  Geoffrey Bilder (CrossRef) •  John Bradley (King's College London) •  Gregory Crane (Tufts University) •  Paul Eggert (Australian Scholarly Editions Centre) •  Julia Flanders (Brown University) •  Cliff Lynch (Chair) (Coalition for Networked Information) •  Cathy Marshall (Microsoft Research) •  Martin Mueller (Northwestern University) •  Geoffrey Rockwell (University of Alberta) •  David Ruddy (Cornell University Library) •  Joyce Rudinsky (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) •  Mackenzie Smith (MIT Libraries) •  Amanda Ward (Nature Publishing Group) •  John Wilbanks (Science Commons) Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  6. 6. Technical Group •  Open List •  Anyone can join and discuss •  Discussions visible, not behind closed doors committee •  http://groups.google.com/group/oac-tech •  Current Members: •  Bruce D'Arcus (University of Ohio) •  Anna Gerber (University of Queensland) •  Tom Habing (UIUC) •  Bernhard Haslhofer (University of Vienna) •  Michael Nelson (Old Dominion University) •  Rob Sanderson (LANL) •  Ed Summers (Library of Congress) •  Herbert Van de Sompel (LANL) •  Please join, or have your techie join! Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  7. 7. Interoperability: Status •  Requirements and Use Cases •  Gathered from scholars, mainly humanities •  Gathered from scholarly literature •  Initial Design •  First part of Phase I, Thread I (LANL) •  Discussed in f2f at UC Berkeley (Collaborators plus invited experts) •  Feedback •  Difficulty of defining what an 'annotation' actually is •  Model too generic! •  Risk of Everything being an Annotation •  Reaction •  We (Rob and Herbert) tend to agree We Want Your Feedback! Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  8. 8. Interoperability: Basic Principles •  Effort focuses on Interoperability to allow annotation sharing •  This is what we were funded to do! •  Many MANY non-interoperable annotation systems already •  Existing interoperability mechanisms (eg Annotea) need updating •  Interoperability approach is based on the Architecture of the Web •  Communication is increasingly online •  Resources of interest are increasingly online •  Maximize chance of adoption by not being domain-centric •  Semantic Web principles and Linked Data guidelines important •  Entities within the model must be identified by HTTP URIs •  … when possible •  From Linked Data guidelines •  Globally unique identifiers without central system overhead •  Locator as well as Identifier: can retrieve representation Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  9. 9. Current Data Model •  Alpha Data Model •  Not set in stone, please provide feedback! •  Not published as a specification, just guidelines and 'current thinking' •  Implemented as demonstrator, not production system •  Informed by previous work and expert contributions •  4th internal iteration of model •  Guided by Requirements and Use Cases •  Will build up in steps with appropriate justification •  Conflicting requirements possible (e.g. simple yet powerful and flexible) •  Helps to ensure adoption and understanding by minimizing unnecessary or unused features •  Keeps specification authors in touch with real users and needs Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  10. 10. Data Model: Step 1 Requirement: Users must be able to create an annotation with some content about a target resource Principle: An annotation is an event at a moment in time, initiated by an agent, with a source of content and a target. There is an implicit or explicit relationship between the source and target expressed by the annotation. Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  11. 11. Step 1: Baseline Model The intuitive model is that we have a Source of Content (S-1), which annotates a Target resource (T-1). We add an Annotation node (A-1) that represents the annotation event. The Source of Content must have some relationship to the Target. By default, it should be somehow 'about' the Target for it to be considered an Annotation. Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  12. 12. Step 1: Baseline Model As entities in the baseline model, both Content and Target are resources on the web. Thus they can be of any type, format, language (or not language at all), location, … http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fgg2tpUVbXQ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hubble_ultra_deep_field.jpg Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  13. 13. Step 1b: Properties and Relationships Properties and relationships can now be attached to the Annotation. This diagram shows the other information from the initial use case: who created the annotation (U-1), when they created it (datetime) and the relationship (called a predicate, P-1) between Content and Target. Diagram Style Note: •  Entities are circles •  Values are ovals with data type •  Relationships/Properties are named lines Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  14. 14. Step 1b: Properties and Relationships oac:annotates
 hSp:// public.lanl.gov/
 rsanderson
 2009-12-03 09:30:00 oac:
 annotates
 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  15. 15. Step 1b: Properties and Relationships oac:annotates
 hSp:// public.lanl.gov/
 rsanderson
 2009-12-03 12:06:00 oac:
 annotates
 http://twitter.com/azaroth42/status/6312196800 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  16. 16. Data Model: Step 2 Requirement: The model must support systems which only support a user- entered string as the content of the annotation. Principle: Annotations must allow for content and target of any media type and format. Fab4 Client: http://bodoni.lib.liv.ac.uk/fab4/ (Extensive functionality, but only string content) Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  17. 17. Step 2: String Content To allow for this common case, we can assign a unique non resolvable URI called a URN. This is an exception to the HTTP URIs for everything principle. (We will come back to this later) The text is captured in the oac:body property. We define a Note class which can be used with either a protocol or non protocol URI, as a hint to the client to not bother dereferencing the URI and instead look in oac:body. Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  18. 18. Step 2: String Content urn:uuid:1234‐567…
 "The
Hubble
Deep
 Field
image
is
very
 impressive!"
 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  19. 19. Data Model: Step 3 Requirement: The model must enable the user to select a part of the resource as the target for their annotation, not just the entire resource. Pliny Client: http://pliny.cch.kcl.ac.uk/ Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/raindog/75675947/ Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  20. 20. Step 3: Segments of Resources W3C Media Fragment URIs allow us to create a URI that identifies a segment of a resource for common cases. e.g: http://…/foo.jpg#xywh=160,120,320,240 … identifies a 320 by 240 box, at 160,120 in the image foo.jpg Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  21. 21. Step 3: Segments of Resources http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hubble_ultra_deep_field.jpg http://twitter.com/azaroth42/status/6312261983 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hubble_ultra_deep_field.jpg#xywh=400,80,100,100 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  22. 22. Data Model: Step 4 Requirement: It is important to be able to express non-rectangular regions of a resource for situations where a rectangle cannot unambiguously delineate the region of interest. Principle: Content and Target must be able to be arbitrary parts or segments of a resource. http://dme.arcs.ac.at/image-annotation-frontend/ Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  23. 23. Step 4: Complex Segments In this case, we use a Context node (C-1) with a Segment Description (SD-1). This can be of any format, and will be dependent on the properties of the Target. A description for a segment of an image might be an SVG path, an XPath for XML, a speaker in an audio track. Work exists on this topic for common cases, such as in MPEG-7. Segments of complex objects such as databases, datasets, or other non- traditional media will require more research. Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  24. 24. Step 4: Complex Segments http://twitter.com/azaroth42/status/6312304007 SVG
 http://annotation.lanl.gov/docs/0.1/examples/4.svg Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  25. 25. Data Model: Step 5 Requirement: The annotation should be able to have more than one target resource or segment, when the annotation concerns multiple resources or creates a relationship between resources. Principle: The model must support multiple contents and targets of annotation. Pseudo multiple targets in Adobe Acrobat Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  26. 26. Step 5: Number of Targets This is modeled in a very predictable way. Note that the relationship from the Content applies to all of the Targets. Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  27. 27. Step 5: Number of Targets oac:annotates
 oac:
 annotates
 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  28. 28. Step 5b: Number of Content Sources Although somewhat exotic, multiple content sources also can be modeled. Use Cases: •  Same comment expressed in different formats (txt, MathML) •  Same comment expressed in different media (txt, mp3) •  Same comment later translated to different language, format, media, locations Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  29. 29. Step 5b: Number of Content Sources oac:annotates
 MP3
 oac:
 annotates
 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  30. 30. Data Model: Step 6 Requirement: The annotation should be robust across time with respect to changing resources, such that the annotation is applied correctly to the version of the resource which was originally annotated. This will prevent misinterpretation of the annotation and take steps towards the digital preservation of the resources involved as well as the annotation. Please also come to hear about Memento tomorrow morning! Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  31. 31. Step 6: Robust Annotations in Time http://news.bbc.co.uk/ http://twitter.com/azaroth42/status/6314856966 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  32. 32. Step 6: Robust Annotations in Time Solution 1: The created timestamp for the Annotation should be used as the date/time of the version of the content and target resources. Unless the version is specified explicitly. 2009-12-01 12:00:00 But what about "Sad story yesterday …" sort of annotations? Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  33. 33. Step 6: Robust Annotations in Time Solution 2: Solution 3: The Context node can record the Annotate an appropriate archived copy of timestamp of when the annotation applies the resource (e.g. in Internet Archive), to the target, if not at the creation time of and relate it back to the original to enable the annotation. Storing other information appropriate discovery and rendering. such as digests is also possible. Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  34. 34. Data Model: Step 7 Requirement: A description of the annotation must be made available for dissemination in an interoperable method, following the Web Architecture and Linked Data guidelines. http://code.google.com/apis/sidewiki/docs/2.0/developers_guide_protocol.html http://www.w3.org/2001/Annotea/User/Protocol.html Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  35. 35. Step 7: Annotation "Transcription" We follow the same conventions as Linked Data (and OAI-ORE) and introduce a 'transcription' of the annotation as a resource on the web. This can be retrieved using HTTP and includes all of the data and metadata concerning the annotation and other objects in the model. http://annotation.lanl.gov/docs/0.1/examples/7.rdf Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  36. 36. Alpha Data Model Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  37. 37. Background for Data Model Background Research: •  Annotea •  LEMO •  DiLAS •  Fab4 •  Pliny •  Google SideWiki •  Flickr Annotations •  Richard Newman's Tag Model •  … plus 3 extensions •  Common Tag Model •  Henry Story's Tag Model •  Many online web annotation systems We believe that our data model covers everything that we have seen as well as the requirements and use cases expressed. Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  38. 38. Protocol-less Approach Existing systems are tightly coupled: •  The client sends the annotation to the server to store •  The server sends the annotation to clients on request Annotea is a REST protocol, Google Sidewiki uses ATOM plus extensions, most are proprietary. We believe this is a hindrance to interoperability … any protocol that ties servers and clients together is a hindrance to interoperability from the Linked Data perspective. We recommend no protocol, as opposed to not recommending a protocol. . . o O (This from key players in OAI-PMH and SRU… have they totally lost it??) Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  39. 39. Protocol-less Approach Existing systems are tightly coupled: Google
 Google
 •  The client sends the annotation to the server to store Interface
 Interface
 •  The server sends the annotation to clients on request Annotea is a REST protocol, Google Sidewiki uses ATOM plus Google
 Google
 extensions, most are proprietary. Protocol
 Protocol
 We believe this is a hindrance to interoperability … any protocol Google
 that ties servers and clients together is a hindrance to interoperability from the Linked Data perspective. SideWiki
 We recommend no protocol, as opposed to not recommending Google
 a protocol. Protocol
 Google
 Interface
 Interoperable Annotation 

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39
 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  40. 40. Protocol-less Approach Existing systems are tightly coupled: Google
 Google
 Google
 •  The client sends the annotation to the server to store Google
 Interface
 Interface
 Mail
 •  The Docs
 sends the annotation to clients on request server Annotea is a REST protocol, Google Sidewiki uses ATOM plus Google
 Google
 extensions, most are proprietary. Google
 Protocol
 Protocol
 Google
 DNS
 Wave
 We believe this is a hindrance to interoperability … any protocol Google
 that ties servers and clients together is a hindrance to interoperability from the Linked Data perspective. SideWiki
 Google
 Google
 HTTPS
 Chromium
 We recommend no protocol, as opposed to not recommending Google
 a protocol. OS
 Protocol
 Google
 Google
 Droid
 Google
 Interface
 Chrome
 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  41. 41. Protocol-less Approach Breaking This Apart Promotes Interoperability: •  The client sends the annotation somewhere to store (or multiple places) •  The server retrieves the annotation •  … using regular discovery/harvesting techniques (Pull) •  … on demand from the client (Pull on demand) •  … by being one of the places the client sends the annotation to (Push) •  The server is just one service that can send the annotation to clients on request Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  42. 42. Protocol-less Approach Breaking This Apart Promotes Interoperability: Preferred
 Preferred
 Interface
 Interface
 •  The client sends the annotation somewhere to store (or multiple places) •  The server retrieves the annotation •  … using regular discovery/harvesting Harvester
 Harvester
 techniques (Pull) •  … on demand from the client (Pull on demand) Blog

 •  … by being one of the places the client TwiSer
 sends the annotation to (Push) Web
Server
 •  The server is just one service that can send the annotation to clients on request Preferred
 Interface
 Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  43. 43. Protocol-less Approach Consequences: •  Multiple servers, aggregators or other applications can access the annotation •  The client can use whatever protocol is needed by the storage server(s) •  Annotations are regular web resources by necessity •  Access control is just like any other access control on the web •  Services can be used to extend information in annotation •  Add extra information for robustness over time •  Add extra information for robustness of segment location •  Text Mining, Data Mining services •  Graph/Relationship Mining across other annotations •  … •  Servers can replace URNs with real URIs •  Multiple servers can do this, and will deduplicate with original identifier •  Use well known owl:sameAs predicate for this Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  44. 44. Demonstration! Let's See This Working! (Or at least a screen capture of it working, given the poor network here) Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  45. 45. Demonstration! Let's See This Working! (Or at least a screen capture of it working, given the poor network here) Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  46. 46. Summary Collaboration: •  Up and working Data Model: •  Alpha version ready for feedback: •  Not a specification document •  Covers use cases, requirements and previous work •  Based on Linked Data and the Web Architecture •  Protocol-less interactions between distributed servers and clients Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC
  47. 47. Thank You  Thank You! Questions? Pointers: •  http://www.openannotation.org/ •  http://groups.google.com/group/oac-tech •  azaroth42@gmail.com ; hvdsomp@gmail.com •  This presentation being videoed, will be posted on CNI website •  http://www.slideshare.com/ … •  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n_7rgsQHuHA Interoperable Annotation 

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 Rob Sanderson, Herbert Van de Sompel CNI Fall Task Force Meeting, Dec 14-15, Washington DC

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