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Seeing a Butterfly & Knowing What It Is: BHL: Past > Present > Future

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Seeing a Butterfly & Knowing What It Is: BHL: Past > Present > Future. Martin R. Kalfatovic. 2019 BHL Annual Meeting. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 30 April 2019.

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Seeing a Butterfly & Knowing What It Is: BHL: Past > Present > Future

  1. 1. Free & Open Access to Biodiversity Literature Seeing a Butterfly & Knowing What It Is Martin R. Kalfatovic @UDCMRK & @BHLProgDirector 30 April 2019 | Ithaca, NY BHL: Past>Present>Future
  2. 2. BHL: Past>Present>Future 2018
  3. 3. A dark Vanessa with a crimson band Wheels in the low sun, settles on the sand And shows its ink-blue wingtips flecked with white. And through the flowing shade and ebbing light A man, unheedful of the butterfly – Some neighbor’s gardener, I guess – goes by Trundling an empty barrow up the lane. Vladimir Nabokov, Pale Fire (1962)
  4. 4. Past: 2018 Activities
  5. 5. BHL: Past>Present>Future Partnerships
  6. 6. BHL is a Global Consortium 20 MEMBERS AS OF MAY 2019 22 AFFILIATES 80+ WORLDWIDE PARTNERS
  7. 7. MEMBERS • American Museum of Natural History Library • BHL Australia • BHL México • Cornell University Library • Field Museum of Natural History Library • Harvard University Botany Libraries • Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Ernst Mayr Library • Library of Congress • The LuEsther T. Mertz Library, The New York Botanical Garden • Missouri Botanical Garden, Peter H. Raven Library • Museum für Naturkunde Berlin • Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle • National Library Board, Singapore • Natural History Museum Library, London • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Library, Art & Archives • Smithsonian Libraries • United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library • University Library, University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign • University of Toronto Libraries • Yale University
  8. 8. AFFILIATES • Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Library and Archives • Auckland War Memorial Museum • BHL Africa • BHL China • BHL Egypt • BHL SciELO (Brazil) • Bibliothèque cantonale et universitaire - Lausanne • California Academy of Sciences Library • Canadian Museum of Nature • Chicago Botanic Garden, Lenhardt Library • Internet Archive • Lloyd Library & Museum • Los Angeles County Arboretum & Botanic Garden • Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Library (MBLWHOI Library) • Mendel Museum • Narodni Museum (National Museum, Prague) • Natural History Museum Los Angeles County • Naturalis Biodiversity Center • Oak Spring Garden Foundation • Smithsonian Institution Archives • United States Geological Survey Libraries Program • University Library Johann Christian Senckenberg
  9. 9. BHL: Past>Present>Future Content
  10. 10. Page Growth by Year: 2006-2018
  11. 11. Name Growth by Year: 2006-2019/Q2
  12. 12. BHL: Past>Present>Future Governance & Secretariat
  13. 13. Executive Committee BHL GOVERNANCE BHL Members’ Council IMMEDIATE PAST-CHAIR Dr. Nancy E. Gwinn Smithsonian Libraries CHAIR Constance Rinaldo Harvard, Ernst Mayr Library, MCZ VICE-CHAIR Jane Smith Natural History Museum, London SECRETARY Doug Holland Missouri Botanical Garden
  14. 14. Secretariat BHL GOVERNANCE PROGRAM DIRECTOR Martin R. Kalfatovic Program Manager Collections Manager Bianca Crowley Outreach & Communication Manager Grace CostantinoCarolyn Sheffield
  15. 15.  2019.03 Catalogue of Life Global Team Meeting (Champaign) | 25 people  2019.03 Plant Humanities (DC)  2018.12 Plant Humanities (DC)  2018.10 Global Summit of Research Museums (Berlin) | 100 people  2018.07 Botany 2018 (Rochester) | 50 people  2018.06 2nd Annual Digital Data in Biodiversity Research Conference (Berkeley)  2018.06 I Annotate 2018 (San Francisco) | 100 people  2018.05 EuropeanaTech (Rotterdam) Presentations & Meetings
  16. 16. Presentations & Meetings  2018.02 FEDLINK Great Escape Tour (DC) | 20 people  2018.03 2018 BHL Annual Meeting (Los Angeles) | 35 people  2018.03 2018 BHL Annual Meeting Reception (Los Angeles) | 35 people  2018.04 National Library Week Open House (DC) | 60 people  2018.06 Smithsonian Libraries Intern Open House (DC) | 50 people  2018.06 eBooks at the Smithsonian (DC) | 20 people  2018.06 Special Libraries Association Annual Meeting (Baltimore) | 38 people  2018.07 IVLP China Group Tour (DC) | 12 people  2018.08 TDWG + SPNHC 2018 Joint Meeting (Dunedin) | 100 people  2018.09 American Libraries Association Visiting Staff Tour (DC) | 10 people  2018.10 Smithsonian Coast to Coast (San Diego) | 100 people
  17. 17. Continuing Education Grace Costantino Completed program at the University of Denver for a graduate certificate in Communication Management with a concentration in Marketing Communication. The skills obtained from that program have been instrumental in many of the strategies and initiatives launched for BHL, including the BHL Members' Dashboards.
  18. 18. Presentations & Meetings  2018.03 2018 BHL Annual Meeting (Los Angeles) | Presentation | 35 people  2018.04 Field Museum training (Virtual) | Workshop | 6 people  2018.05 California Academy of Sciences training (Virtual) | Workshop | 1 people  2018.07 Oak Spring Garden Foundation + Chicago Botanic Garden training (Virtual) | Workshop | 6 people  2018.07 Museum für Naturkunde + UB Johann Christian Senckenberg (Virtual) | Workshop | 5 people
  19. 19. Other Highlights Attentive contribution to BHL routine operations and behind the scenes work keeping the BHL wheels greased Implemented an improved alternative BHL Staff call schedule in an attempt to offer more ad hoc training opportunities and alleviate workload on Secretariat staff. Lead 6 conference calls on time and on task with an average of 16 BHL Staff as well as 3 fruitful discussions with several Partners during the ad hoc sessions. Independently identified bug in BHL Reporting Statistics and clearly articulated the need to resolve the issue with the Technical Team. As a result BHL collection stats are now more accurate and reporting documentation has been updated.
  20. 20. Workshops & Orientations  2018.02 Orientation to California Academy of Sciences | 4 people  2018.03 Orientation to University Library Johann Christian Senckenberg | 8 people  2018.05 Orientation to Museum fur Naturkunde Berlin | 4 people  2018.05 Orientation to Lloyd Library and Museum | 3 people  2018.08 Orientation to Auckland War Memorial Museum | 3 people  2018.12 Orientation to Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County | 5 people
  21. 21. FEDERAL SHUTDOWN
  22. 22. BHL: Past>Present>Future Technical Development
  23. 23. Technical Advisory Group 2018 Technical Development Martin R. Kalfatovic BHL Program Director Carolyn Sheffield BHL Program Manager Mike Lichtenberg BHL Developer Joel Richard Smithsonian Libraries Susan Lynch The New York Botanical Garden
  24. 24. BHL Server Architecture
  25. 25. BHL Dark Storage (Smithsonian) • Year 1 (2016) BHL: 109 TB • Year 2 (2017) BHL: 122 TB • Year 3 (2018) BHL: 135 TB • Year 4 (2019) BHL: 148 TB • Year 5 (2020) BHL: 162 TB
  26. 26. New Service: Full Text Search Search across the text of all 55+ million pages in BHL! Search results display hits for search terms within both the bibliographic information + the full text of books in BHL. Filter search results by content type, publication date, subject, language, and author with new faceted browsing. Use “search inside” to search for terms within a book you are viewing.
  27. 27. Improved Service: Updated APIs The BHL Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of REST-like web services that can be invoked via HTTP queries (GET/POST requests) or SOAP. Responses can be received in one of three formats: JSON, XML, or XML wrapped in a SOAP envelope.
  28. 28. Augmented Content: Transcription Transcriptions in BHL have been moved to production (21 November 2018). Those in the initial test phase have been adding transcriptions visible in the BHL UI. Once we have a somewhat sizable mass of transcriptions available, we will begin promoting on social media, most likely in early 2019. We’ll keep you all in the loop on those plans so that you might cross-promote during that time should you so choose. Some existing examples: • Harvard MCZ • NYBG • SIA • Museum Victoria
  29. 29. BHL Blog Migration
  30. 30. BHL Wiki Migraines
  31. 31. BHL Wiki Migraines Migrations
  32. 32. BHL Metadata Model Refresh
  33. 33. BHL: Past>Present>Future Financial
  34. 34. 2018 Donations  205 Donors  US$13,597.5 (total)  US$2.00 (low)  US$1,500 (high)  US$ 63.33 (average)  24 Countries  30 US States
  35. 35. 2018 Donations That’s 1 full Member and 3.5 Affiliates
  36. 36. 2018 Donations Global Distribution
  37. 37. 2018 Donations Global Distribution
  38. 38. 2018 Donations Global Distribution
  39. 39. 2018 Donations U.S. Distribution
  40. 40. 2018 Donations U.S. Distribution
  41. 41. 2018 Dues Spending Income Income + Carryover $292,212.66 Member Dues $196,637.91 Affiliate Dues $24,977.00 Donations $9,566.00 Carryover $60,914.45 Outreach Revenue $117.30
  42. 42. 2018 Dues Spending Secretariat BHL Program Director (50%) (S&B) $0.00 BHL Program Manager (S&B) $0.00 Collections Coordinator (S&B) $0.00 Community Manger (S&B) $0.00 Global Coordinator Funding $0.00 Travel & other expenses (includes Exec Comm) $17,994.30 Other equipment (computers, etc.) $0.00 Gemini, Wiki, Flickr, & Metrics Subscriptions $1,639.31 Persistent Identifiers TOTAL $19,633.61
  43. 43. 2018 Dues Spending Technical Development BHL Tech Director (S&B) $0.00 Data Analyst (S&B) $0.00 Travel $0.00 Equipment $3,034.19 Contract Programmer $164,800.00 TOTAL $167,834.19
  44. 44. 2018 Dues Spending Digitization & Indirect Internet Archive $9,050.00 Indirect Costs $950.00 Scanning support (FedEx, other transportation) $448.35 Macaw support $0.00 Cluster Storage Support $0.00 Smithsonian Storage Costs $0.00 TOTAL $10,448.35
  45. 45. 2018 Dues Spending Meetings & Conferences BHL Members travel $5,772.38 BHL Meeting cost $8,405.32 TOTAL $14,177.70
  46. 46. 2018 Dues Spending Outreach Outreach materials and printing costs $5,916.92 Non-travel conference costs $0.00 TOTAL $5,916.92
  47. 47. 2018 Dues Spending Contingency Contingency $28,500.00
  48. 48. 2018 Dues Spending Bottom Line TOTAL SPENDING $246,510.77 INCOME $292,212.66 BALANCE $45,701.89
  49. 49. BHL: Past>Present>Future 2019
  50. 50. A score of small butterflies, all of one kind, were settled on a damp patch of sand, their wings erect and closed, showing their pale undersides with dark dots and tiny orange- rimmed peacock spots along the hind-wing margins; one of Pnin’s shed rubbers disturbed some of them … revealing the celestial hue of their upper surface... “Pity Vladimir Vladimirovich is not here,” remarked Chateau. “He would have told us all about these enchanting insects.” Vladimir Nabokov Pnin (1957)
  51. 51. Present: 2019 Activities
  52. 52. BHL: Past>Present>Future Partnerships
  53. 53. BHL remains a Global Consortium ?? MEMBERS AS OF DECEMBER 2019 ?? AFFILIATES ??+ WORLDWIDE PARTNERS
  54. 54. Remaining Global Partners BY DECEMBER 2019 Transition to new partnership roles BHL China BHL Egypt BHL SciELO
  55. 55. BHL collaborates with and contributes content to a variety of partners… GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS
  56. 56. BHL: Past>Present>Future Content
  57. 57. 56+ MILLION PAGES TITLES VOLUMES 147,000+ 242,000+ 188+ MILLIONINSTANCES OF TAXONOMIC NAMES 790+IN-COPYRIGHT TITLES LICENSED FOR BHL AGREEMENTS WITH 350+ LICENSORS *Stats as of 17 March 2019
  58. 58. Content by Country: 2006-2019
  59. 59. Content by Country: 2006-2019
  60. 60. Content by City: 2006-2019
  61. 61. Content by City: 2006-2019
  62. 62. Copyright Moving Wall
  63. 63. Copyright Moving Wall U.S. Public Domain wall is now 1923 & moving
  64. 64. BHL: Past>Present>Future Governance & Secretariat
  65. 65. Executive Committee BHL GOVERNANCE BHL Members’ Council IMMEDIATE PAST-CHAIR CHAIR VICE-CHAIR SECRETARY
  66. 66. Where Chicago, IL, The Field Museum When May 2019 Why Making the Case for Natural History Collections Who BHL Poster: BHL and Specimen Collection Data: The Needle in the Festuca Stack
  67. 67. Where Leiden, Netherlands When October 2019 Why Better Data, Better Science, Better Policies Who TDWG, GBIF, DISSCO, CETAF, iDigBio
  68. 68. Constance Rinaldo. Introduction to the Symposium: Improving access to hidden scientific data in the Biodiversity Heritage Library Roderic Page. Text-mining BHL: towards new interfaces to the biodiversity literature Nicole Kearney. It’s Not Always FAIR: Choosing the Best Platform for Your Biodiversity Heritage Literature Dmitry Mozzherin. Finding scientific names in Biodiversity Heritage Library, or how to shrink Big Data Martin R. Kalfatovic. BHL and Specimen Collection Data: The needle in the Festuca stack Gretchen Stahlman. Facilitating Data Discovery in BHL Texts through Innovative Text Mining Strategies and Community Driven Initiatives Improving access to hidden scientific data in the Biodiversity Heritage Library
  69. 69. Secretariat BHL GOVERNANCE PROGRAM DIRECTOR Martin R. Kalfatovic Program Manager YOUR NAME HERE Collections Manager Bianca Crowley Outreach & Communication Manager Grace Costantino
  70. 70. Clone Carolyn ...
  71. 71. Feedback Management Plan  Improve BHL FAQ on BHL About Site to answer most commonly asked questions. Many are already addressed but more could be added.  Retain feedback web-form as is but include it as part of the BHL FAQ; as answers to the questions: A) “How can I submit feedback to the BHL?” B) “How can I submit a request for a book to be digitized?”  Redirect current “Feedback” link in BHL website header to BHL FAQ on About Site. Change the link to read “FAQ” instead.  Redirect “Report an Error” button in BHL book viewer to BHL FAQ on About Site. Change the alt text to read “FAQ” instead.  Feedback@biodiversitylibrary.org will continue to work as normal for BHL users and Staff. This email automatically forwards to the Gemini issue tracking system; generates one new Gemini ticket per email.  Goal to implement changes in June.  Future iteration of BHL website should include a flagging function (similar to the one on the Internet Archive website) that allows users to more easily indicate which materials contain metadata errors, missing pages, gaps in a series, etc.
  72. 72. Feedback Management Plan  Improve BHL FAQ on BHL About Site to answer most commonly asked questions. Many are already addressed but more could be added.  Retain feedback web-form as is but include it as part of the BHL FAQ; as answers to the questions: A) “How can I submit feedback to the BHL?” B) “How can I submit a request for a book to be digitized?”  Redirect current “Feedback” link in BHL website header to BHL FAQ on About Site. Change the link to read “FAQ” instead.  Redirect “Report an Error” button in BHL book viewer to BHL FAQ on About Site. Change the alt text to read “FAQ” instead.  Feedback@biodiversitylibrary.org will continue to work as normal for BHL users and Staff. This email automatically forwards to the Gemini issue tracking system; generates one new Gemini ticket per email.  Goal to implement changes in June.  Future iteration of BHL website should include a flagging function (similar to the one on the Internet Archive website) that allows users to more easily indicate which materials contain metadata errors, missing pages, gaps in a series, etc.
  73. 73. WORMS & COL & COL+ Catalogue of Life & Catalogue of Life Plus meeting. Urbana, 19-20 March 2019 World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). 12 March 2019
  74. 74. NAME FINDING Name Strings 188,147,990 Show Unique Name Strings 30,128,831 The number of unique name strings. Show Verified Name Strings 9,972,029 The number of unique and verified name strings. A verified name is one that has been resolved against a name authority (NameBank, Catalogue of Life, etc).
  75. 75. Top Name Searches /name/Ornithorhynchus_anatinus: 2,717 (0.07%) /name/Canis_lupus_familiaris: 1,723 (0.04%) /name/Acinonyx_jubatus: 1,624 (0.04%) /name/Raphanus_sativus: 1,425 (0.04%) /name/Ursus_maritimus: 1,359 (0.03%)
  76. 76. Ornithorhynchus anatinus
  77. 77. Ornithorhynchus anatinus
  78. 78. OCR for The naturalist's miscellany I' t " '>:: V : - : '. 4 -i • -. "|S ;aki% i k ■ ■ ! H^i-^gy, : t"-;("^: ■ .?;■{ ;iy; ; £lf -: t; ;t '.•:?-. :-■ " -, : ■■■■':■ ■■:'.!■:.::
  79. 79. NAME CONSUMERS
  80. 80. NAME CONSUMERS
  81. 81. • BHL DESIDERATUM
  82. 82. • • • • • BHL DESIDERATUM
  83. 83. BHL: Past>Present>Future Technical Development
  84. 84. Technical Advisory Group 2019 Technical Development Martin R. Kalfatovic BHL Program Director Bianca Crowley BHL Collections Manager Mike Lichtenberg BHL Developer Joel Richard Technical Coordinator Susan Lynch The New York Botanical Garden NEW ROLES
  85. 85. BHL Server Architecture No Changes in 2019
  86. 86. BHL Dark Storage (Smithsonian) • Year 1 (2016) BHL: 109 TB • Year 2 (2017) BHL: 122 TB • Year 3 (2018) BHL: 135 TB • Year 4 (2019) BHL: 148 TB • Year 5 (2020) BHL: 162 TB
  87. 87. Technical Goals: 2019  Evaluate Metadata Model Document  Review/Revise DOI Strategy  Incremental improvements  BHL EVO  Plan for IIIF implementation  Review/Revise BHL Data Model  System Planning
  88. 88. Technical Goals: 2019 Metadata Model Evaluation
  89. 89. Technical Goals: 2019 Review/Revise DOI Strategy ARK KearneyNAU
  90. 90. Technical Goals: 2019 IIIF Planning
  91. 91. Technical Goals: 2019 Review/Revise Data Model
  92. 92. BHL EVO Goals: 2019  System Requirements Overall things the system should do. This flows into the API.  Data Requirements What rules and such are needed for data integrity, etc.  UI Requirements What things should users be able to do in the User Interface  Data Model A description of the actual data model we will be using  Components and Implementation Possible ideas on what tools or technologies to use for implementation.
  93. 93. DRAFT System Requirements  IIIF Image Viewer  Rich REST API  RDBMS  Strong Authentication Layer / API Keys  Support for Digitized Page Images, PDFs, Artwork Images, others?  E type of thing needs a data model  Basic User Functions  Login  Create Lists  Save Searches  Advanced User Functions  Crowdsourcing of certain content (OCR/Transcriptions, Corrections, etc)  Separation from Internet Archive - BHL is the source of the data  Send to Internet Archive content that is added to BHL and for which we have permission  Update Internet Archive with structural and metadata changes at BHL for which we have permission  Continue to ingest content from IA that is pertinent to BHL and not specifically in the BHL collection.
  94. 94. DRAFT Components & Implementation  Authentication Layer  Processes users, access tokens, API keys, etc.  Supports crowdsourcing  Supports blocking, rate limits, blacklisting, etc.  Needs a permissions and API-space model  Needs a technology (JWT? NodeJS? Tyk.io?)  Calls the API  Every request goes through this layer  API  REST-Based  Handles Data requests  Handles Asset Requests  Needs a technology (Node  Does not worry about permissions, Lives behind the API
  95. 95. DRAFT Components & Implementation  Asset Store & Delivery  REST-Based (question)  Handles and serves all media (Images, PDF, OCR, Audio, etc)  Needs a data model  Needs a technology  Needs some aspects of digital preservation  Does not worry about permissions, Lives behind the API  Data Store  REST-Based  Needs a data model (NoSQL, TripleStore, WikiBase, RDBMS)  Needs a technology (Apache Cassandra, MongoDB, etc)  Does not worry about permissions, Lives behind the API
  96. 96. DRAFT Components & Implementation  Search Index  Handles Searching  Handles Indexing Content  All requests pass to the Authentication Layer  The website is just another "user" of the system  Automated Processing  Also another "user" of the system  Nightly processes, reports, maintenance, etc  Filtering System  Conversion of one format to another
  97. 97. DRAFT Components & Implementation  Website  Plain website with lots of AJAX  IIIF Viewer  PDF Viewer  Media Player (HTML5)  All requests pass to the Authentication Layer  The website is just another "user" of the system
  98. 98. BHL: Past>Present>Future Financial
  99. 99. CASH & IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS DIRECT STAFF $1,660,625.88 VALUE OF MEMBER & AFFILIATE CONTRIBUTIONS 2017 OTHER $227,690.32 2016 VS 2017 TOTAL IN-KIND CONTRIBUTIONS 2016 $1,817,543.82 2017 $1,888,316.20 21.6 TOTAL MEMBER & AFFILIATE FTEs WORKING ON BHL IN 2017
  100. 100. 2019 Dues Spending Plan
  101. 101. BHL: Past>Present>Future 2020+
  102. 102. I cannot separate the aesthetic pleasure of seeing a butterfly and the scientific pleasure of knowing what it is. Vladimir Nabokov Interview in Sports Illustrated (1959)
  103. 103. Future: BHL 2020+
  104. 104. The Tragedy of the Commons …and the current success of BHL The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. Garrett Hardin. "The Tragedy of the Commons." Science (13 Dec 1968): Vol. 162, Issue 3859, pp. 1243- 1248. DOI: 10.1126/science.162.3859.1243
  105. 105. BHL is a Global Partnership … how do we manage catastrophic success?* * Generous Thinking: A Radical Approach to Saving the University (2019) by Kathleen Fitzpatrick • Community building becomes another demand on resources • Distributed development is prone to slowness • Sustainability of non-profit projects are antithetical to non-profit structure
  106. 106. BHL is a Global Partnership … how do we manage catastrophic success?* * Generous Thinking: A Radical Approach to Saving the University (2019) by Kathleen Fitzpatrick • Social sustainability -- how do people (institutions) commit not just to the THING but to the community • Community is an imaginary construct that papers over differences • Community is an alibi for what should be societal funded activities
  107. 107. BHL is a Global Consortium …what does that mean going forward? • The current “Member” and “Affiliate” model does not allow for nuanced partnership with BHL • The number of well-funded and well-staffed libraries in natural history museums and botanical gardens is finite • BHL has probably tapped, globally, nearly all the potential Members from the natural history and botanical garden community
  108. 108. BHL is a Global Consortium …what does that mean going forward? • Large research institutions and national libraries have better resources, excellent collections, but rarely a single-minded focus on biodiversity • Supporting growth of Members & Affiliates in the current model with existing central staff levels is not sustainable • Increasing central staffing to support additional Members and/or Affiliates is not feasible without a quantum growth of partnerships
  109. 109. BHL succeed through effective organization & management … but has BHL outgrown the 2012 model? • Does the current organizational structure allow for: • Effective representation of all partners? • Provide appropriate means for input in the governance of BHL? • Allow for reflective and strategic planning for BHL? • Allow for nimble and reactive management of BHL?
  110. 110. BHL is the largest repository of biodiversity literature … but how can it be more useful? • Maximize impact of content acquisition: • Prioritize digitization (or ingest) of high impact collections and content • Deprecate “yet another copy of …” • Stop chasing content from difficult sources • Encourage partners to work on aggregating existing content instead of new digitization • Seek relevant and unique local sources of content
  111. 111. BHL is the largest repository of biodiversity literature … but how can it be more useful? • Prioritize curation of existing content • Enhance metadata • Increased pagination • Develop new tools and services to maximize machine use of BHL content • Integrate BHL more deeply in the wider library community ecosystems (human and technical)
  112. 112. BHL 2020+ How can BHL … • Help catalyze institutional change across the partnership to ensure success for both partners and BHL • Integrate BHL’s specialized content with global scientific initiatives to engage a broader audience • Enable collaboration with biodiversity library collections of all sizes and levels of resources • Increase fundraising (institutional/philanthropic)
  113. 113. BHL 2020+ Governing the Commons* … Further, all organizational arrangements are subject to stress, weakness, and failure. Without an adequate theory of self-organized collective action, one cannot predict or explain when individuals will be unable to solve a common problem through self- organization alone, nor can one begin to ascertain which of many intervention strategies might be effective in helping to solve particular problems. Elinor Ostrom. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (1990)
  114. 114. BHL 2020+ Governing the Commons* … The term "common-pool resource" refers to a natural or man-made resource source system that is sufficiently large as to make it costly (but not impossible) to exclude potential beneficiaries from obtaining benefits from its use. To understand the processes of organizing and governing CPRs, it is essential to distinguish between the resource system and the flow of resource source units produced by the system, while still recognizing the dependence of the one on the other. Elinor Ostrom. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (1990)
  115. 115. BHL 2020+ Governing the Commons* … Making the switch, however, from independent to coordinated ordinated or collective action is a nontrivial problem. The costs involved in transforming a situation from one in which individuals act independently to one in which they coordinate activities can be quite high. And the benefits produced are shared by all appropriators, whether or not they share any of the costs of transforming the situation. Elinor Ostrom. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (1990)
  116. 116. BHL 2020+ Governing the Commons* … Designing and adopting new institutions to solve CPR problems are difficult tasks, no matter how homogeneous the group, how well informed the members are about the conditions of their CPR, and how deeply ingrained are the generalized norms of reciprocity. Given the strong temptations to shirk, free-ride, and generally act opportunistically that usually are present when individuals face CPR problems, overcoming such problems can never be assured. Elinor Ostrom. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (1990)
  117. 117. “The study of biodiversity is far and away the most important endeavor in the history of humanity, certainly until now, and very possibly into the future as well .... We are building the card catalog for the most important library that has ever existed, and ever will exist (at least from the perspective of humans).” Dr. Richard L. Pyle Bishop Museum (2010)
  118. 118. BHL: Past>Present>Future
  119. 119. Thank You! Questions? Martin R. Kalfatovic 30 April 2019 | Ithaca, NY

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