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Natura non facit saltus: But Humans Do, The Need for Taxonomic Annotation

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Natura non facit saltus: But Humans Do, The Need for Taxonomic Annotation. Martin R. Kalfatovic. I Annotate 2018. San Francisco, CA. 7 June 2018.

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Natura non facit saltus: But Humans Do, The Need for Taxonomic Annotation

  1. 1. Natura non facit saltus But Humans Do, The Need for Taxonomic Annotation Martin R. Kalfatovic | BHL Program Director BHLProgDirector@Twitter 7 June 2018 | I Annotate 2018 (#ianno18)
  2. 2. … a couple thousand meter view of biodiversity annotation
  3. 3. Darwin. Darwin VIAF ID: 27063124 Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882
  4. 4. “The cultivation of natural science cannot be efficiently carried on without reference to an extensive library.” Charles Darwin, et al (1847)
  5. 5. Inspiring Discovery through Free Access to Biodiversity Knowledge 12+ years of inspiring discovery 15th-21st centuries through free & open access to biodiversity literature & archives from the Mission The Biodiversity Heritage Library improves research methodology by collaboratively making biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
  6. 6. BHL is a Global Consortium 20MEMBERS AS OF MAY 2018 20AFFILIATES 80+ WORLDWIDE PARTNERS
  7. 7. 54+MILLION PAGES TITLES VOLUMES 137,000+ 226,000+ 183+MILLION INSTANCES OF TAXONOMIC NAMES 770+IN-COPYRIGHT TITLES LICENSED FOR BHL AGREEMENTS WITH 340+ LICENSORS *Stats as of May 2018
  8. 8. Darwin. Darwin VIAF ID: 27063124 Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882
  9. 9. Charles Darwin’s Library biodiversitylibrary.org/browse/collection/darwinlibrary ___________________ A digital edition and virtual reconstruction of the surviving books owned by Charles Darwin. It also provides full transcriptions of his annotations and marks. These works provide important insight into the development of Darwin’s ideas on evolution and natural selection. "If this were true, adios theory" Charles Darwin wrote these words in response to reading Principles of Geology, v. 2 (1837) by Charles Lyell, who was arguing that changes in species have limitations. Darwin, on the other hand, argued that changes in species are infinite and continuous, an integral concept crucial to his theory of evolution. "If this were true, adios theory"
  10. 10. Charles Darwin’s Library biodiversitylibrary.org/browse/collection/darwinlibrary ___________________ A digital edition and virtual reconstruction of the surviving books owned by Charles Darwin. It also provides full transcriptions of his annotations and marks. These works provide important insight into the development of Darwin’s ideas on evolution and natural selection. "If this were true, adios theory" Charles Darwin wrote these words in response to reading Principles of Geology, v. 2 (1837) by Charles Lyell, who was arguing that changes in species have limitations. Darwin, on the other hand, argued that changes in species are infinite and continuous, an integral concept crucial to his theory of evolution. "If this were true, adios theory"
  11. 11. The BHL is a rich field for use of annotations in a scientific discipline that has historically relied on annotations of the nearly 300 years of taxonomic description in the print world
  12. 12. TheMachineIsUs/ingUs <Response xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema- instance" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"> <Status>ok</Status> <Result> <Item> <ItemID>16800</ItemID> <Volume/> <Contributor>MBLWHOI Library</Contributor> <Sponsor>MBLWHOI Library</Sponsor> <Language>English</Language> <LicenseUrl/> <Rights/> <DueDiligence/> <CopyrightStatus/> <CopyrightRegion/> </Item>
  13. 13. … and though APIs and machine use of BHL is important, there is still a need to human-based annotations to the literature in BHL
  14. 14. L. Linnaeus VIAF ID: 34594730 Linné, Carl von, 1707-1778
  15. 15. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
  16. 16. L. Linnaeus VIAF ID: 34594730 Linné, Carl von, 1707-1778 Natura non facit saltus
  17. 17. This “lumping” and “splitting”, renaming, finding syonyms, etc. caused a big problem when taxonomy was all done in print form ….
  18. 18. Notes and corrections to this edition, by Strickland, occur in Ann. & Mag. N.H., VIII, Jan., 1842, pp. 367-375; March, 1842, pp. 544-545
  19. 19. SPECIES NAMED IN HONOR OF BHL Vargapupa biheli “We may think it is natural to have old literature online, but if we didn't, we would have serious trouble finding the relevant publications. Therefore I thought BHL definitely deserves a new species named after it for the help it provided.” DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3937.1.1 Dr. Barna Páll-Gergely
  20. 20. U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-42
  21. 21. Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) & the Smithsonian Smithsonian Regent, 1943-1955 Swearing in of the seventh Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Leonard Carmichael (1953-1964), with (l-r) Senator Clinton P. Anderson, Charles Greeley Abbot (fifth Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1928- 1944), Robert V. Fleming, Alexander Wetmore (sixth Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1944-1952), Judge Harold M. Stephens (chief judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals), Leonard Carmichael, Vannevar Bush, and Representative Clarence Cannon. Smithsonian Institution Archives. SIA 94-12570
  22. 22. Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) & the Memex One can now picture a future investigator in his laboratory. His hands are free, and he is not anchored. As he moves about and observes, he photographs and comments. Time is automatically recorded to tie the two records together. If he goes into the field, he may be connected by radio to his recorder. As he ponders over his notes in the evening, he again talks his comments into the record. Vannevar Bush, in “As We May Think” “As We May Think”. Life (10 Sep 1945)
  23. 23. Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) & Annotation (?) A record, if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored, and above all it must be consulted. Hypothetical Memex (1945) From YouTube Video: Memex animation - Vannevar Bush's diagrams made real. SheffieldLibraryGuy Vannevar Bush, in “As We May Think”
  24. 24. The Sixth Extinction The "normal" rate of extinction is one species every four years. Today, species are going extinct at a rate of four per hour.
  25. 25. The study of biodiversity is far and away the most important endeavor in the history of humanity, certainly until now, and very possibly into the future as well .... We are building the card catalog for the most important library that has ever existed, and ever will exist (at least from the perspective of humans). Richard L. Pyle, Bishop Museum (2010)
  26. 26. Thank You! Martin R. Kalfatovic BHL Program Director 7 June 2018 | I Annotate 2018

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