Wearing a toga – a symbol of being in the ruling class of Rome, being a citizen. Shows his long ancestry within Rome by displaying him with the head of Roman ancestors.
Americans were very influenced by Roman sculptural techniques. Americans were trying to mimic the Republican values of Rome.
Augustus came to power after the assassination of his father, Julius Caesar. The art also changed at this time – depictions of the ruler as more god-like. He wanted to represent himself as being descended from the gods. Emphasis on the heritage of the emperor ascended from the gods – showing a small statue of cupid, to show that he derived from ancient gods. His god like stance shows his arm raised, and the breastplate that he wears.
Breastplate shows his victory over peoples in Africa, significant in his royal life. Shows a horse drawn carriage depicting the victory. Shows a cornicopia with corn and filled with other goods – showing bounty and the wealth that Augustus had achieved from Rome.
Sculpture in the early empire became much more public, rather than private. Extremely large public monuments of sculpture. Erected to glorify the emperor’s achievements, that lead to peace for Rome. This monument was erected by August after his battle victories across the Mediterranean – these victories lead to an extended peace for Rome. Erected as a symbol for PaxRomana – that peace should rule the Roman Empire. The images on the monument display the political movements that Augustus persued.
Symbolic images – show a woman as the personification of mother earth, named Tellus in Greek. Shows her bounty and wealth that she bestows upon Rome. She is flanked by bare breasted women and swans – carry flying veils behind them; shows personification of winds. There are pleasant winds being blown into the Roman empire at this time of peace. Additionally, there are images of processions – depictions of individuals from the Roman family. The figures wear togas, classical garments. There is depiction of many children in this scene for the first time – normally there were only adult images. Realistic scene. Political motive to showing these types of scenes – there was a very low birth rate during this time. Augustus created a program that would enforce birthright and to encourage families to have children.
After Augustus, there is a return of an older type of art – the period of abusive power by the emperors – era of the Emperor Nero.
Called triumphal arches – mark the triumph of Rome. The cite of triumph for the cities where victorious Roman emperors would process into the city after success in battle. The Emperor Titus was particularly sucessful in the east – the capture and destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
Images on the interior panels of the arch display the political victories. Realistic event that actually took place. There is also an image of the triumphant Titus marching into Rome.
Tallest monument in Rome for the very long time – built with the intention of being seen above all other buildings in Rome. Along the spiral of the column – there are images that depict Trajan’s battle victories. Ontop is a statue of Trajan himself.
Images from daily life – represent the most common type of art. Basket of fruit shown as we are looking down from a scene from above. Production of this type of art was much cheaper rather than using marble. More personal images associated with the lower classes of Roman society – were even adopted into imperial art of the high empire.
Apotheosis refers to a person ascending into heaven after death, and becoming god-like. He is being carried on the wings of a male creature. Dressed in imperial garments. Symbols of personification at the base – on the left an image of victory and war, associated with the god Mars.
Dome of the US capitol is modeled after the Roman art. Shows the apotheosis of George Washington.
Americanscultpures very carefully studied Roman art during this time and were very influenced by it.
Period of great strife at the end of the high Roman Empire. Bronze sculpture – mistaken as an image of the emperorconstantine – the first christian emperor.
2011 survey roman_sculpture
Roman Sculpture through the High Empire<br />
4th Style wall painting, <br />Ixion room at the House of the Vettii, Pompeii<br />
Sculpture during the Roman Republic<br />Head of a patrician, from Osimo, mid-first cent. BC<br />Verism<br />
Head of a patrician, from Osimo, mid-first cent. BC<br />Portrait of a Roman general, found at Tivoli, Italy, 75-50 BC<br />
←<br />Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Thrower), Roman marble copy from Pompeii, after a Greek bronze original of ca. 450 BC<br /> -><br />Portrait of a Roman general, found at Tivoli, Italy, 75-50 BC<br />
The so-called "TogatusBarberini": a Roman senator holding the imagines (effigies) of deceased ancestors in his hand. Marble, late 1st century BC.<br />
George Washington, sculpture by Horatio Greenough, 1840 <br />
Early Empire<br />Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy, <br />early 1st cent. CE<br />
Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy, <br />early 1st cent. CE<br />
Relief Panels from <br />the Arch of Titus<br />Spoils of Jerusalem<br />Triumph of Titus<br />
High Empire<br />Rome, Column of Trajan, dedicated 112 CE<br />
Detail of Column of Trajan showing the start of the first of Trajan's two victorious military campaigns against the Dacians, dedicated 112 CE<br />Funerary relief of a vegetable vendor, from Ostia, Italy. 2nd cent. CE. <br />Painted terracotta. 1’5” high.<br />
Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Rome, ca. 161 CE. Marble, 8’ high.<br />
U.S. Capitol, Washington D.C. <br />Dome begun in 1855<br />Interior of dome<br />
Apotheosis of George Washington in the Dome of the Rotunda of the US Capitol painted by ConstantinoBrumidi in 1863<br />
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, Rome, ca. 175 CE. Bronze. 11’ high<br />Detail<br />