Art History Chap 10 A


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Roman Art--The Republic and Early Empire

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Art History Chap 10 A

  1. 1. Chapter 10 The Art of Ancient Rome
  2. 2. The Roman World (Periods: Republic, Pompeii, Early, High, Late Empire) The Romans ruled from the Tigris and Euphrates to the Thames and beyond, from the Nile to the Rhine and the Danube. Only the Roman civilization approximates today’s world in its multicultural character. According to legend, Romulus founded Rome on the Palatine Hill- April 21, 753 BCE.
  3. 3. Figure 10-1 Model of the city of Rome during the early fourth century CE. Rome, Museo della Civiltà Romana. 1) Temple of Fortuna Virilis, 2) Circus Maximus. 3) Palatine Hill, 4) Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, 5) Pantheon, 6) Column of Trajan, 7) Forum of Trajan, 8) Market of Trajan, 9) Forum of Julius Ceasar, 10) Forum of Augustus, 11) Forum Romanum, 12) Basilica Nova, 13) Arch of Titus, 14) Temple of Venus and Roma, 15) Arch of Constantine, 16) Colossus of Nero, 17) Colosseum. The Republic (509-27 BCE) -Established a constitutional government which vested power in a senate (a council of elders) and in two elected consuls/ leaders were wealthy landowners (patricians) and later also came from plebeian class (farmers, merchants, freed slaves)
  4. 4. Figure 10-2 Temple of “Fortuna Virilis” (Temple of Portunus), Rome, Italy, ca. 75 BCE. Figure 10-3 Temple of Vesta (?), Tivoli, Italy, early first century BCE. Craze for Greek Art- 211 BCE Marcellus brought back to Rome spoils of war from Greek city of Syracuse and started the Greek craze (plundered Greek statues and paintings). Greece became a Roman province in 146 BCE. Roman Republic art and architecture is eclectic, drawing on both Greek and Etruscan traditions- the mixture is distinctly Roman. What is a pseudoperipteral temple? What elements are Etruscan? Greek? What is a round temple called? What elements are Etruscan? Greek? Cella walls are made of concrete.
  5. 5. Figure 10-5 Funerary relief with portraits of the Gessii, from Rome(?), Italy, ca. 30 BCE. Marble, approx. 2’ 1 1/2” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Figure 10-6 Relief with funerary procession, from Amiternum, Italy, second half of first century BCE. Limestone, approx. 2’ 2” high. Museo Nazionale d’Abruzzo, L’Aquila. Republic - Sculpture Aristocratic patricians were proud of their lineage and kept likenesses (imagines) of their ancestors in wooden cupboards in their homes and paraded them at funerals of prominent relatives. Slaves and former slaves could not possess any family portraits (not people but property). Freed slaves ordered portrait reliefs for their tombs to commemorate their new status as Roman citizens. Two on either side are freed slaves (bear their patron’s name), center is Gessius- a freeborn citizen with cuirass (breastplate), depicted in Republican superrealistic fashion Also freed slaves commissioned tomb reliefs that were narratives. Deceased looks like an Etruscan sarcophagi Artist avoids rules of classical art in this composition= tied to person’s political and social status
  6. 6. Figure 10-7 Head of a Roman patrician, from Otricoli, Italy, ca. 75–50 BCE. Marble, approx. 1’ 2” high. Museo Torlonia, Rome. Republican Verism -Republican portraits are one way patrician class celebrated its elevated position in society. -Mostly older men (elders with power) -They requested brutal realism (tradition of household imagines) -Veristic= superrealism -Makes a statement about personality = admired virtue during Republic What is his personality?
  7. 7. Figure 10-10 Aerial view of the forum (1), with Temple of Jupiter (Capitolium, 2) and Basilica (3), Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE and later. Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius -August 24, 79 CE, Mount Vesuvius erupted. Many towns buried in a single day. -When researchers first explored (18 th century), ruins had been undisturbed for nearly 1,700 years -In Feb. 62 CE, when an earthquake shook Pompeii, its population was between 10,000 to 20,000 people -Forum = public square -Capitolium = Temple of Jupiter -Basilica = law court of Pompeii
  8. 8. Figure 10-11 Aerial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70 BCE. Pompeii Amphitheater - Seated 20,000 spectators -Seating assigned by rank -Amphitheater = double theater which resembles two Greek theaters (Greek theaters built on natural hillsides)/ Roman’s built a series of concrete barrel vaults forming a wall that holds up the earthen mound and stone seats/ barrel vaults also formed tunnels leading to the arena (Latin for sand = soaked up blood of wounded and killed) Function of Roman Amphitheater: Gladiator Sports Function of Greek Theater: Performances of comedies and tragedies Barrel Vault: (tunnel vault) extension of a simple arch, creating a semicylindrical ceiling over parallel walls/ They need buttressing to counteract their downward and outward thrust on walls
  9. 9. Figure 10-13 Atrium of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, second century BCE, rebuilt 62–79 CE. Figure 10-14 First Style wall painting in the fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy, late second century BCE. Townhouses for the Wealthy- The House of Vetti (Roman Domus= private house) Fauces: narrow foyer, Atrium: large central reception area, Impluvium: channels rainwater into a basin, Cubicula: bedrooms, Tablinum: home office, Triclinium: dining room, Peristyle garden Pompeii Wall Paintings – First Style: (masonry style) imitates costly marble panels using painted stucco relief
  10. 10. Figure 10-15 Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE. Frieze approx. 5’ 4” high. Figure 10-16 Second Style wall paintings (general view and detail of tholos) from Cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor, Boscoreale, Italy, ca. 50–40 BCE. Approx. 8’ 9” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Second Style Wall Painting- After 80 BCE and popular until ca. 15 BCE - Wanted to dissolve a room’s confining walls and replace with illusion of imaginary 3-D world/ Purely pictorial (Greek heroes, famous myths and landscapes)/ True Frescoes - Chamber used to celebrate rites of Greek god Dionysos/ Was a mystery religion popular with Italian women/ Shows mortals interacting with mythological figures - Vista of Italian town/ Spacial illusionism/ knowledge of single point linear perspective which was favorite tool of Second Style painters (incorrectly said to be an innovation of Italian Renaissance)/ transformed windowless walls of Roman houses into “picture-window” vistas
  11. 11. Figure 10-17 Gardenscape, Second Style wall painting, from the Villa of Livia, Primaporta, Italy, ca. 30–20 BCE. Approx. 6’ 7” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome. Second Style Wall Painting- - Mastery of atmospheric perspective = indicating depth by blurring objects in the distance
  12. 12. Figure 10-18 Detail of a Third Style wall painting, from Cubiculum 15 of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus, Boscotrecase, Italy, ca. 10 BCE. Approx. 7’ 8” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Third Style Wall Painting - Decorate walls with delicate linear fantasies sketched on predominantly monochromatic (one-color) backgrounds/ colonettes supporting featherweight canopies/ in center is tiny floating landscape painted on black background -Landscapes and mythological scenes appear in frames, like modern canvas paintings hung on walls
  13. 13. Figure 10-20 Fourth Style wall paintings in Room 78 of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 CE. Figure 10-21 Fourth Style wall paintings in the Ixion Room (Triclinium P) of the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE. Fourth Style Wall Painting Popular 62-79 BCE -Above: Creamy white background with sea creatures, birds/ Framed landscape paintings/ Painted architectural elements (columns, pediments, etc.) are irrational and just ornamental -Right: Crowded and confused compositions with garish color combos./ Lowest panels imitate imported marbles/ Large panels with floating central motif/ Subjects are from Greek mythology/ Fragmented architectural vistas with people who would tumble into room if took step forward
  14. 14. Figure 10-22 Neptune and Amphitrite, wall mosaic in the summer triclinium of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite, Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE. Figure 10-23 Portrait of a husband and wife, wall painting from House VII,2,6, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 70–79 CE. Approx. 1’ 11” x 1’ 8 1/2”. Museo Nazionale, Naples. Figure 10-24 Still life with peaches, detail of a Fourth Style wall painting, from Herculaneum, Italy, ca. 62–79 CE. Approx. 1’ 2” x 1’ 1 1/2”. Museo Nazionale, Naples. -Tesserae Mosaics located on walls and even on ceilings/ Mythological subjects/ found in courtyard for outdoor dining -Above: Roman marriage portrait/ man holds scroll, woman holds stylus and writing tablet = fine education/ faces show individuality = realistic portrait -Still Life Painting: attention to shadows and highlights (function of light)/ worked from direct observation/ won’t see this again until Dutch still lifes in 17 th and 18 th centuries
  15. 15. Early Empire (27 BCE-96 CE) Figure 10-25 Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy, copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6’ 8” high. Vatican Museums, Rome. Figure 10-26 Portrait bust of Livia, from Faiyum, Egypt, early first century CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 1 1/2” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. -Julius Caesar murdered (Ides of March, 44 BCE)/ Roman world moves into bloody civil war, lasted 13 years and ended when Octavian (Augustus) crushed naval forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra -Augustus controlled all aspects of Roman public life -Augustus brought peace and prosperity to the Mediterranean world = Pax Romana -Emperors commissioned huge number of public works throughout the Empire/ purpose of most to mold public opinion (propaganda) -Roman portraitists depict emperors as youthful heads of state (idealistic)/ Augustus depicted as a godlike leader/ few people actually saw the emperor/ Classical Greek art inspired emperor’s sculptors Below: Livia (wife of Augustus, lived to age 87)/ eternal youthfulness like Classical Greek goddess Left: Polykleitan style in body shape/ head is of individual not nameless athlete/ reliefs on cuirass advertise diplomatic victory/ Cupid at feet proclaims his divine descent (trace ancestry back to Venus), Cupid was the goddess’s son/ sculptor designed statue to carry political message
  16. 16. Figure 10-27 Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. (View from the southwest). Figure 10-28 Female personification (Tellus?), panel from the east facade of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 3” high. Figure 10-29 Procession of the imperial family, detail of the south frieze of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Rome, Italy, 13–9 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 3” high. A Shrine to Peace – Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) -Monument celebrating most important achievement- the establishment of peace/ reconstructed during Fascist era (Mussolini) in Italy to celebrate 2,000 th birthday of Augustus/ 4 panels depict mythological subjects Above, right: Tellus (Mother Earth) symbolizes fruits of Pax Augusta/ around her earth in bloom, animals live side by side, personifications of refreshing breezes = peace and fertility Bottom, right: Procession of imperial family and others, like the Panathenaic procession frieze of Parthenon/ different in that is depicts a specific event- inaugural ceremony with recognizable contemporary figures/ shows children who act like children, they were included because of concern with decline in birthrate among nobility/ using art to further his political/social agendas
  17. 17. Figure 10-30 Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France, ca. 1–10 CE. Figure 10-30 Detail engaged columns from SSE Rome in France – Maison Carree- Nimes, France -Corinthian pseudoperipteral temple patterned on Temple of Mars in Forum of Augustus/ Larger than Temple of Virilis/ Classical architectural style, admired also by Thomas Jefferson who modeled his design for the State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia on the Nimes temple
  18. 18. Figure 10-31 Pont-du-Gard, Nîmes, France, ca. 16 BCE. Figure 10-31 Detail Raking view of central arches Pont-du-Gard (aqueduct bridge) at Nimes -Carried water from the mountains to the city on the Tiber River -Provided 100 gallons of water a day for each inhabitant of Nimes (from a source 30 miles away) -Water carried over distance by gravity flow (channels built with continuous gradual decline throughout entire route) -3 story bridge/ each arch spans 82 ft. and constructed with blocks weighing up to 2 tons each/ uppermost level, smaller arches carries water channel/ lower level is a walking bridge
  19. 19. Figure 10-32 Porta Maggiore, Rome, Italy, ca. 50 CE. Claudian Rustication – Porta Maggiore -Grandiose gate constructed where two of Rome’s water lines and two intercity roads converge/ Huge attic (upper story) conceals aqueducts/ Gate is example of Roman rusticated (rough) masonry style which is a combo. of smooth and rusticated stone surfaces/ crisp pediments resting on engaged columns with rusticated drums
  20. 20. Figure 10-33 SEVERUS and CELER, plan (above) and section (below) of the octagonal hall of the Domus Aurea (Golden House) of Nero, Rome, Italy, 64–68 CE. Nero’s Golden House -64 CE- Nero is emperor- great fire destroyed large section of Rome, reconstruction done with use of concrete (cheap and fire resistant) -Severus and Celer built grand new palace for Nero on confiscated plot of land (Nero’s Domus Aurea) -Domed octagonal room with oculus (admitted light)/ from central room, smaller rectangular rooms covered by concrete vaults, one contains a waterfall -First time architects thought of walls and vaults not as limiting space but as shaping it Nero’s outrageous/extravagant behavior = forced to commit suicide in 68 CE/ his statues suffered damnatio memoriae and were torn down, name erased from public inscriptions
  21. 21. Figure 10-34a Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, ca. 70–80 CE. Figure 10-34 Detail Curving, outer wall: three levels of arcade and attic story The Flavians (Vespasian) – The Colosseum -Flavius family (Vespasian and sons Titus and Domitian) ruled Rome for more than a quarter century -Vespasian’s amphitheater built on grounds of Nero’s Domus Aurea artificial lake/ took its name from location beside Colosus of Nero (huge statue of Nero as sun god)/ reclaimed the land for the public (political move) -Holds 50,000 spectators, Titus completed after Vespasian’s death -Opening- games held for 100 days, highlight was flooding of arena to stage naval battle with more than 3,000 participants -Purpose: gladiatorial and animal combats, many of those who died were Christians -Concrete barrel-vaulted corridors hold up the enormous oval seating area -Most of marble seats were hauled away = fall of Rome, reused for other projects -Elaborate substructure- for gladiators, animal cages, lifting devices, etc. -160 ft. high = modern 16 story building/ spectators sat according to place in social hierarchy/ 76 gateways to seating/ façade divided into 4 bands, ornamental Greek orders frame the arches (Tuscan Doric, Ionic and Corinthian)/ upper level has Corinthian pilasters with brackets for wooden poles to hold the velarium
  22. 22. Figure 10-35 Portrait of Vespasian, ca. 75–79 CE. Marble, approx. 1’ 4” high. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. Figure 10-36 Portrait bust of a Flavian woman, from Rome, Italy, ca. 90 CE. Marble, approx. 2’ 1” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome. Revival of Verism -Vespasian sculptors bring back veristic tradition of the Republic values in contrast to Nero -Political statement (distance himself from Nero) -Portraits of people of all ages -Purpose to depict idealized beauty through contemporary fashion/ used drill instead of chisel for curls of hair which creates masses of light and shadow in contrast with softly modeled and highly polished skin
  23. 23. Figure 10-37 Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Figure 10-38 Spoils of Jerusalem, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, approx. 7’ 10” high. Figure 10-39 Triumph of Titus, relief panel from the Arch of Titus, Rome, Italy, after 81 CE. Marble, approx. 7’ 10” high. Triumphal Arch – New Arch for a New God -Titus dies, younger brother succeeds him and erected arch in his honor = Triumphal Arch -Triumphal arches commemorate military victories and building of roads and bridges – they are like our billboards which advertise -One passageway/engaged columns with composite capitals (Ionic and Corinthian elements)/ dedicatory inscription in attic (honor the god Titus= gods after death) -Depicts soldiers carrying the spoils of war (Jewish Wars 70 CE) -High relief, deep carving produces strong shadows/ illusion of movement, rapid march produced with diff. surface levels of heads/bodies -Allegory celebrating imperial virtues: Victory rides with Titus, below is bare-chested Honor, Valor leads the horses/ First instance of divine beings interacting with humans on official Roman historical relief