Rome the Republic
• Period of ancient Rome when it operated as a
Republic (the type of government we have in
• This facet of Roman history began circa 509
• Republic - Type of government where the
• Verism- The preference of
the truthful representation
of an image over an
Head of a Roman patrician
ca. 75-50 B.C.E.
approximately 1 ft. 2 in. high
• Portrait of a Roman General
• Tivoli, Italy
• ca. 75 - 50 B.C.E.
6 ft. 2 in. high
• First Style wall painting
• fauces of the Samnite House,
• late 2nd century B.C.E.
• Pompeii was a city in
Rome which was
“destroyed” by the
• The destruction of
this city also
solidified it’s place in
Pompeii forum, or city center
Dionysiac mystery frieze
Room 5, Pompeii, Italy
ca. 60-50 B.C.E.
frieze approximately 64 in. high
• Like the roman mixture for concrete, we also have not
yet found the recipe for Pompeiian red.
The Roman Empire
• Where the Roman Republic was a republic
• The Roman Empire is an autocratic system of
• Autocratic – System of government where one
person holds all political power.
Portrait of Augustus as general
from Primaporta, Italy
ca. 20 B.C.E.
80 in. high
Head of Caesar Augustus
ca. 100 C.E.
marble with traces of polychrome
ca. 13-9 B.C.E.
63 in. high
• Arches have a long history beginning in the second century
BCE, and ending in the era of Christian Roman emperors.
• Early triumphal arches contained only one passage way.
• Squandrels (Area between framing and arch) contain reliefs.
• Usually contain inscription at top.
• Triumphal arches are dedicated to emperors who have been
deified. If an emperor goes against the senate he is not
deified, his statues are all destroyed, and he is erased from
public inscriptions. This is known as Damnatio Memoriae
Arch of Titus
• Dimensions: 15.4 meters high by 13.5 meters
• The inscription reads: The Roman Senate and
People to Deified Titus, Vespasian
Augustus, son of Deified Vespasian.
• The reliefs in the Arch of Titus represent the
triumphal parade of Titus after the conquest
of Judea at end of Jewish wars.
Titus Reliefs and Inscription
Relief: Spoils of Jerusalem
Relief: Triumph of Titus