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Ceramic Application
Guidelines
A Guide for Success
Whisker Ceramics
 Developed for
machining high temp
alloys
 Primary target
Inconel
 Primary Markets
 Aerospace
 Energ...
Nickel Based Materials
 Geometry
 Strongest possible
 #1 - Round
 #2 - 100º corner of 80º diamond
 #3 - Square
 #4 -...
Nickel Based Materials
 Lead Angle
 Longest tool life with
45º Lead Angle
 #1 45º Best
 #2 30º
 #3 15º
 #4 0º
 #5 -...
Percentage of Strength by Shape
100%
80%
40% 10%35%
90%
70%
Clearance Improves Tool Life
11°
6°
.005“ Wear .003“ Wear
*Both inserts have .025" flank wear
Strength by Thickness
5/16"
1/4"
3/16"
1/8"
0%
Weakest
25% 50% 75% 100%
Strongest
Insert
Thickness
Strength by Nose Radius
.062"
.047"
.031"
.015"
100%75%50%30%
Strength
Nose
Radius
SFM & IPR % Adjustment
0.000
0.050
0.100
0.150
0.200
0.250
50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
SFM & IPR %
SFM & IPR %Versus DOC...
Chamfering
Feed
Direction
Poor Tool Life
*Multiple passes at the same depth of cut increase notch wear
which is the primary failure for this grade
Ramping
Alternate cut paths
One angled pass and one straight pass
Spreads notch wear over a bigger area and
increases tool...
Nickel Based Materials
 Lead Angle Effect of Round Insert
45º
25% of insert diameter
Produces 45º lead angle
Feed
Directi...
Nickel Based Materials
 Speeds & Feeds
Hardness Cutting Speed Feed
 30 HRC 800-2000 SFM .008 - .015 IPR
 35 HRC 600-140...
Nickel Based Materials
 Guidelines for success
 Chamfer parts before machining
 This prevents burrs on exit and creates...
Nickel Based Materials
 Guidelines for success continued
 Edge preps are very important (See charts)
 When testing star...
 Guidelines for success
 Round inserts
 Do not exceed 25% of the insert diameter
 DOC equal to 5% to 15% of diameter i...
Countermeasures - Edge Chipping
Cause
 Speed too low
 Feed too high
 Incorrect Edge
prep
 Vibration
Countermeasure
 S...
Countermeasures - Edge Chipping
Cause
 Interrupted Cut
Countermeasure
 Increase SFM
 Reduce Feed IPR
 Increase insert ...
Troubleshooting Wear
 Use correct SFM. Too high or too low can both
cause wear.
 Check feed (IPR) Maybe too high.
 Chec...
Troubleshooting Insert Breakage
Cause
 Scale
 Breakage on
entering or
exiting.
Countermeasure
 Increase width of
land a...
T Land
Measure the width of the T Land across insert
not perpendicular to T Land
W
Honed Insert
A hone .0005 to .001 used for finishing and
with a T Land for roughing
B hone = .002 to .003 used for severes...
Ceramic & Whisker Ceramic
Edge Preparations
 T Lands
 .008" x 20° (standard edge prep)
 Turning & Milling Clean Materia...
Gray Iron Application Guideline
 Si3N4
 Developed for
machining gray cast
irons
 Primary Markets
 Automotive
 Truck
 Tractor
 Primary Applications
...
Gray Cast Irons
 Speeds & Feeds
 Cutting Speed
 2000 to 3400
 Start at 2300
 Feed
 .005” to .030”
 As Required
Edge Preparations
 T Lands
 .008" – .016" x 20°
 Turning & Milling .008" – .016 “ x 20° + A Hone
 General Purpose Coba...
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Si3 n4 application guidelines web

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Machining cast iron and nickle based materials with ceramic and whisker ceramic inserts

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Si3 n4 application guidelines web

  1. 1. Ceramic Application Guidelines A Guide for Success
  2. 2. Whisker Ceramics  Developed for machining high temp alloys  Primary target Inconel  Primary Markets  Aerospace  Energy  Military
  3. 3. Nickel Based Materials  Geometry  Strongest possible  #1 - Round  #2 - 100º corner of 80º diamond  #3 - Square  #4 - 80º diamond  #5 - Triangle  #6 - 55º diamond  Edge Preparation  Finishing  Hone  Roughing  T Land  Severe Roughing or Scale  T Land with Hone
  4. 4. Nickel Based Materials  Lead Angle  Longest tool life with 45º Lead Angle  #1 45º Best  #2 30º  #3 15º  #4 0º  #5 -5º Worst
  5. 5. Percentage of Strength by Shape 100% 80% 40% 10%35% 90% 70%
  6. 6. Clearance Improves Tool Life 11° 6° .005“ Wear .003“ Wear *Both inserts have .025" flank wear
  7. 7. Strength by Thickness 5/16" 1/4" 3/16" 1/8" 0% Weakest 25% 50% 75% 100% Strongest Insert Thickness
  8. 8. Strength by Nose Radius .062" .047" .031" .015" 100%75%50%30% Strength Nose Radius
  9. 9. SFM & IPR % Adjustment 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 SFM & IPR % SFM & IPR %Versus DOC 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° Centerline Insert Diameter .250 .375 .500 .125 .188 .100. .150 .075 .113 .050 .075 .025 .038 D O C 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 SFM & IPR % SFM & IPR %Versus DOC 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° Centerline Insert Diameter .250 .375 .500 .125 .188 .100. .150 .075 .113 .050 .075 .025 .038 D O C 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 SFM & IPR % SFM & IPR %Versus DOC 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° Centerline Insert Diameter .250 .375 .500 .125 .188 .100. .150 .075 .113 .050 .075 .025 .038 D O C 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 SFM & IPR % SFM & IPR %Versus DOC 75° 60° 45° 30° 15° Centerline Insert Diameter .250 .375 .500 .125 .188 .100. .150 .075 .113 .050 .075 .025 .038 D O C Above 100% increase SFM & IPR Below 100% decrease SFM & IPR
  10. 10. Chamfering Feed Direction
  11. 11. Poor Tool Life *Multiple passes at the same depth of cut increase notch wear which is the primary failure for this grade
  12. 12. Ramping Alternate cut paths One angled pass and one straight pass Spreads notch wear over a bigger area and increases tool life
  13. 13. Nickel Based Materials  Lead Angle Effect of Round Insert 45º 25% of insert diameter Produces 45º lead angle Feed Direction
  14. 14. Nickel Based Materials  Speeds & Feeds Hardness Cutting Speed Feed  30 HRC 800-2000 SFM .008 - .015 IPR  35 HRC 600-1400 SFM .008 - .012 IPR  40 HRC 500-900 SFM .007 - .009 IPR  45 HRC 450-750 SFM .006 - .007 IPR  50 HRC 450-650 SFM .005 - .006 IPR
  15. 15. Nickel Based Materials  Guidelines for success  Chamfer parts before machining  This prevents burrs on exit and creates smooth entrance and exit of cuts preventing chipping  Feed at 90º to chamfer to avoid notching  Use largest lead angle possible (45° preferred)  Use strongest geometry possible  Vary the D.O.C. (reduces notching)  Ramp the cuts on a slight angle (reduces notching)  Increase speed (reduce BUE)
  16. 16. Nickel Based Materials  Guidelines for success continued  Edge preps are very important (See charts)  When testing start at low feed and increase .001" per pass.  Try slightly higher SFM than competition  Honed edge should provide longest life in clean cuts  Increase SFM for interrupted cuts  Using coolant will increase notching but reduce BUE
  17. 17.  Guidelines for success  Round inserts  Do not exceed 25% of the insert diameter  DOC equal to 5% to 15% of diameter is optimum  Never double notch inserts by cutting in both directions (DNGA or CNGA profile cuts)  Flank wear  Reduce speed  Increase feed Nickel Based Materials
  18. 18. Countermeasures - Edge Chipping Cause  Speed too low  Feed too high  Incorrect Edge prep  Vibration Countermeasure  See chart for correct speed  Reduce Feed  See Chart  Check Chucking, reduce tool overhang. Change direction of cut. Reduce lead angle or nose radius to reduce tool pressure
  19. 19. Countermeasures - Edge Chipping Cause  Interrupted Cut Countermeasure  Increase SFM  Reduce Feed IPR  Increase insert thickness  Decrease tool overhang  Increase number of passes  Check spindle bearings, ways, chucking, fixturing.
  20. 20. Troubleshooting Wear  Use correct SFM. Too high or too low can both cause wear.  Check feed (IPR) Maybe too high.  Check for correct edge prep  Vibration and micro chipping. Your machine and setup must be very rigid.
  21. 21. Troubleshooting Insert Breakage Cause  Scale  Breakage on entering or exiting. Countermeasure  Increase width of land and add hone.  Increase insert thickness, increase edge prep, check shim seat.
  22. 22. T Land Measure the width of the T Land across insert not perpendicular to T Land W
  23. 23. Honed Insert A hone .0005 to .001 used for finishing and with a T Land for roughing B hone = .002 to .003 used for severest roughing. Honed Edge
  24. 24. Ceramic & Whisker Ceramic Edge Preparations  T Lands  .008" x 20° (standard edge prep)  Turning & Milling Clean Materials Nickel Materials  .008" x 20° + A Hone  General Purpose Cobalt and Iron Based Alloys  .008" x 20° (use a lighter feed & higher speed)  .008" x 20° + A Hone  Scale Applications, Overlay Welds, Lightly Interrupted Cuts, Hardened Material Finish Turn & Mill  .008" to .015" x 30° +B Hone  The Severest Roughing Applications
  25. 25. Gray Iron Application Guideline
  26. 26.  Si3N4  Developed for machining gray cast irons  Primary Markets  Automotive  Truck  Tractor  Primary Applications  Diesel Engines  Cylinder Heads  Liners  Blocks  Brakes  Rotors  Drums
  27. 27. Gray Cast Irons  Speeds & Feeds  Cutting Speed  2000 to 3400  Start at 2300  Feed  .005” to .030”  As Required
  28. 28. Edge Preparations  T Lands  .008" – .016" x 20°  Turning & Milling .008" – .016 “ x 20° + A Hone  General Purpose Cobalt and Iron Based Alloys  .008" x 20° standard edge prep  .008" to .016” x 20° + A Hone  Scale Applications, Overlay Welds, Lightly Interrupted Cuts, Hardened Material Finish Turn & Mill  .013" to .015" x 30° +B Hone  The Severest Roughing Applications  Turning, max feed is 1.5 times the width of the T land  Milling the max feed must be less than the T land

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