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Complete topshop presentation

  1. 1. TOPSHOP Fashion Management and Marketing (FAD178) Group 2 JESSICA MOORE 1
  2. 2. Introduction and Objectives This report goes into depth about the brand Topshop. Topshop started up in 1964 in a basement of a department store, it has gone a long way since then becoming one of the most popular and well respected brands on the high street. It is now a multinational retailer which focuses in clothing, accessories, novelties, cosmetics and shoes. Topshop is part of the Arcadia group owned by Phillip Green, other retail outlets in this group include; Dorothy Perkins, Miss Selfridge, BHS, Wallis, Evans and Burtons. Topshop is always on trend and has released a Collection named Unique, which has been featured on the catwalk at the London Fashion Week. Topshop is well known for its cool girl, street style and unique looks. “one eye on the catwalk and the other on the cool street style” ( It's also known for it's collaborations with Kate Moss and Christian Kane. Topshop aim their product at 15-30 year old women and men, but internally they target at everyone who loves fashion. It appeals to individuals who aspire to be fashionable or create their own unique style. It offers customers an enjoyable shopping experience by the layout of the store and the multichannel services it provides. Topshop's marketing and promotion strategies rarely use the common TV ads and print techniques, which you would usually see from brands such as American Apparel. They take a more dynamic approach to promote their brand, through the shop windows and displays, creating a visually satisfying piece of art which includes the clothing. They also use social networking to promote any offers or new collaborations/designers who are joining the brand. This way they can get direct feedback from customers about their wants and needs which Topshop can then use to improve their brand. It also creates a relationship between the brand and the customers making them feel wanted. This report aims to research into the current market, brand handwriting and brand heritage of Topshop and identifying the key strengths and weaknesses of the brand in comparison to other competitors, using primary and secondary research to identify the customer and support the final proposal. Analysing the Macro market to identify a clear overview of the brand which will help determine a strategic opportunity for the repositioning or change of Topshop or a new branded development. 2
  3. 3. Executive summary • Page 1 Front cover • Page 2 - Introduction and Objectives • Page 3 – Executive summary • Page 4 – Topshop Heritage (where Topshop originated and where It is today) • Page 5 –Topshop Time Line (What Topshop has done over the years) • Page 6 – Market sector (Locations and Arcadia financials) • Page 7,8 – Topshop Channels (Where Topshop sells) • Page 9 – Operational Model ( vertical and horizontal) • Page 10 ,11 – Product perceptual maps (what products Topshop and it’s two competitors sell) • Page 12,13 – Market positioning map ( Where is Topshop compared to Arcadia Brand and other brands) • Page 14 – 3D perceptual map • Page 15 – ANSOFF (Market penetration and development, product development and diversification) • Page 16 – competitors ANSOFF • Page 17 - Boston matrix (question marks, cash cows, dogs and stars) • Page 18 – Boston matrix for competitors • Page 19 – 20 Financials for Topshop and it’s two competitors • Page 21 – 22 – Pen-portraits (typical Topshop customers) • Page 23 – Customer research (what's key to the customer) • Page 24- Customer research (size matters) • Page 25,26 – survey Topshop in Australia • Page 27 – Conclusion ( Bringing everything together) • Page 28 – Brand handwriting (brand, consumers and company) • Page 29 – Brand equity pyramid (looking at quality, performance, imagery and judgments towards the brand) • Page 30,31,32 – Trend pyramid for Topshop, Zara and River Island (what’s there cheap items and what's their risk taking items) • Page 33- Price architecture (Good, best, best) • Page 34 – Strategic Advantage model (where is Topshop compared to other retailers) • Page 35 – Price Model (Topshop’s price strategies) • Page 36 – Price Model for Topshop’s competitors • Page 37 – Price strategy used for a Topshop prodcut • Page 38 - Above the line and below the line • Page 39 – vehicles of communication • Page 40 – how Topshop uses the store • Page 41 – Perceived strengths and velocity (concluding all the key findings) • Page 42 – 45 PEST ( political, social, economical and technology) • Page 46 – Demographic trends lifestyle and trends • Page 47,48 SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunity's and Threats) • Page 49 – SWOT of competitors • Page 50 – Conclusion (The final outcome) • Page 51,52 – References • Page 53,54 – Bibliography • Page 55 – Appendices Survey 3
  4. 4. Topshop Heritage In 1964 Topshop was first launched. It has become one of the major fashion brands in history. Capturing every seasons trends and putting together high fashion collections which are sold on the High Street at affordable prices. You could say Topshop introduced fashion to High street shoppers. Topshop has come a long way since 1964, it has now opened up 300 stores in the UK and over 100 stores growing internationally. This is a huge success considering Topshop began in a basement store in the North of England. A few years later Topshop became its own retailer. Then in 1994 Topshop took over the huge store in Oxford street bringing in over 200,00 shoppers each week. Topshop is part of Arcadia groups. The brand is known for its individual and urban style and has attracted a lot of respect and attention. It supports the Young British design talent and has sponsored the new generation scheme since 2002, which has helped boost the careers of well known designers like Mather Williamson, Sophie kokosalaki, Alexander McQueen, Christopher Kane, Marios Schwab and Jonathon Saunders. Topshop has also collaborated with major fashion icons, such as Celia Birtwell and Kate Moss producing inspiring collections. Along side this it’s most expensive collection Unique hit the runway at London Fashion Week in 2005, which soon forged exclusive partnerships with international boutiques like; Tokyo and LA. Topshop’s multichannel operation, ensures customers the freedom too buy their products online including the exclusive ranges. The exciting stores have been rewarded a Time Out award for best high street store and in style magazine’s shopping award for best high street shop. 4
  5. 5. Started in 1964 In a basement Of a department store in Sheffield 1965 – Topshop established itself in the basement of Peter Robinson 1974 – Topshop became a stand alone retailer 1978 – Topman enters the High street 1994 – Topshop/Topman open a store in Oxford street as one of the largest fashion stores in the world. 2006 – Kate Moss's range is launched 2009 – First Topshop flagship store opening outside of the UK to be a massive success 2010 – Partnership between Kate Moss and Topshop is coming to an end. 1998 - Launch of Designers for Topshop with Clements Ribeiro and Hussein Chalayan 2001 - Unique collection launches Unique 2002 - Sir Philip Green acquires Arcadia Group 2002 - Topshop commences sponsorship of the New Gen Scheme 2008 - Christopher Kane, Marios Schwab, Jonathan Saunders, Richard Nicoll, Todd Lynn and Louise Goldin all produce collections for Topshop during London Fashion Week 1998 - Launch of Designers for Topshop with Clements Ribeiro and Hussein Chalayan TOPSHOP TIMELINE 5
  6. 6. Market sector Topshop is part of the Arcadia group owned by Sir Phillip Green. The financial results for all the Arcadia brands from 2010-2011, found on the Arcadia group website show: • Robust headline cash generated of £297.4m (£383.1m last year). • Total Group operating profit before goodwill of £190.4m. • Total Group pre tax profit of £133.1m. • The margin was down -1.8% points v last year (equal to £52.4m). • Total sales of £2,682.5m. Total UK VAT inclusive like for like (LFL) sales were -1.8% on last year. E-Commerce sales grew by +27% while the underlying retail LFL was -4.3%. • Continued capital investment in the business with expenditure of £112.8m. • Year End Bank debt of £444.5m (1.5 times headline cash generated). The Group employs some 44,030 people across our different brands and we now operate 2,507 owned stores. • “Given the very challenging conditions both in the UK and around the world, I am pleased to report cash generation of £297m” Said Sir Phillip Green ( 2011) The results show that although we’re in a recession, the retail industry, especially Arcadia brands are still able to make a profit. This could be due to many factors like; Loyalty, social acceptance etc… I will be looking at these factors closer throughout this report. = where Topshop is placed The map below shows there is a huge amount of Topshop stores based in Europe and South of Asia, which suggest a market gap in South America, north America, Africa, Australia and North Asia. Which Topshop could look to expand into, this would also increase employment for those countries and hopefully more sales for Topshop, to increase their profit margin. “Although Arcadia has announced closures amongst some of its 2,507 stores the UK, the group continues to expand abroad, with Topshop leading the way. US Topshop has opened its second flagship store in Chicago, with a third due to open in Las Vegas. Sir Philip also saw the possibility of the Topshop brand doubling in the next four years, with the potential of opening in China next year.” (BY SOPHIE WARBURTON | 24 NOVEMBER 2011, Telegraph) 6
  7. 7. Topshop Channels Apps Stores Topshop Concession stores Pop up shopsOnline (Mason,N., 2011. Multi- channel Retailing. UK, Mintel) 7
  8. 8. Topshop Channels analysis Topshop is a Multichannel retailer, selling its products online, in store, Apps etc… In the Fashion Online - UK - March 2011 report on Mintel, the findings are as followed: “The online fashion market is estimated to see sales increase 12% to £4.8 billion in 2011. The sector continues to grow, although the rate of growth has been impacted by a stabilization of the rise in internet penetration. … The sector received a boost as several high street fashion retailers developed their online channels at the end of 2010, with women’s fashion retailers Gap, Zara and H&M all launching websites.” These findings suggests there is a huge market for online and although Topshop has and online website, it isn’t as high tech and easy as other online websites like Zara, Asos and Marks and Spencers. This could be something they could develop to increase customer spending. “Four in ten 16-24s believe that that shopping online doesn’t really feel like spending money, so they tend to spend a lot more than they would in an actual shop. This is almost double the average.” this finding also suggests a lot more money is spent online than in store. Figure 2, from Clothing Retailing Executive Summary – UK – October 2012 by John Mercer.. Shows M&S has the highest share of consumer spending of 10.1 % in 2011, then its NEXT with 8.9 % in 2011 and finally ARCADIA has the third highest share of consumer spending of 5.2% but a lost of .2% in the last year. Which suggests consumer spending has decreased in the last year in fashion retail. The bar chart (figure 1) shows the amount of people following the retail brands on facebook in 2011 and Topshop comes in first with 1,500 people on facebook following. Which suggests the brand is popular with the youth society and has a strong relationship with its customers, where it can exchange information. 8
  9. 9. OPERATION MODEL Topshop Order Factory Topshop warehouse Stores Stores Stores Zara makes & Designs Stores Stores Stores Topshop is a horizontal model (figure 1), it pays other factories to make their products, which are then sent back to Topshop warehouses which are finally shipped off to the stores. Topshop are hoping to turn into a vertical model, like Zara (figure 2). Zara owns their own factories which means they are able to control how their products are made, know exactly when they are finished in the factory and when they are sent off to the stores. Topshop will benefit more from being a vertical model, they will save a lot more money if they own their own factory, as it costs a lot more to send the designs to the factory, factory costs and costs for shipping. It's also a much longer process. Arcadia mulls group sourcing strategy 8 September 2012 | By Catherine Neilan As part of the shake-up, the business has hired Tesco’s former buying director for clothing Jon Bennett as group sourcing director. Bennett has been working alongside Dave Shepherd, who was promoted from managing director of Topman to the new chief operating officer role back in April, to communicate the plans. Drapers understands the changes are likely to be implemented within a relatively short space of time, and will see orders made across Arcadia’s complementary fascias – such as Topshop and Miss Selfridge. An Arcadia spokeswoman declined to comment on the changes, although confirmed Bennett’s appointment. She added: “Jon is working closely with Dave Shepherd and the brand teams on our sourcing activities.” (8 September 2012 | By Catherine Neilan). (Figure 1) (Figure 2) 9
  10. 10. Product perceptual maps for Topshop products FASHION BASIC LOW PRICES Topshop sells products which are affordable to everyone, and products which are bought occasionally because the price Is high but the clothing is more on trend. The Unique collection in Topshop is expensive but the most fashionable collection as it has been featured on catwalks. The basic collection is very simple but cheap. They're is also fashionable and on trend products but at very cheap prices, for example; the skater dress. Topshop also sells basic clothing but with added detail at high prices like (Topshop., 2012.[digital image] [13 November 2012]. Available from: 10 HIGH PRICES
  11. 11. Product perceptual maps for Topshop competitors FASHION BASIC HIGH PRICES FASHION BASIC LOW PRICES HIGHPRICES Zara Zara's products are all very similar in prices, however it does have basic clothing at cheap prices called the TRF collection. It also has expensive clothing at high prices. River Island River Island is similar to Zara as the pricing of River Island products are in similar price ranges, but it does sell cheap basic products like, leggings and tank tops. As well as expensive clothing which is mostly made with expensive materials. (Topshop., 2012.[digital image] [13 November 2012]. Available from: 11 LOW PRICES
  12. 12. Market position map  Competitors Good styling High priceLow price Poor styling All Saints America A Zara Warehouse River Island Topshop Urban Outfitters Topshop basics H&M New Look Primark The Graph to the right shows All of Topshop's competitors which aren't part of the Arcadia group. The cheaper brands like New Look, Primark and H&M are down in the low price range with H&M, just above with better styling. Which suggests they're not close competitors of Topshop. River Island, Warehouse and American Apparel are in the High price range but still just below. Topshop is positioned in the Good styling section, but Topshop still has an edge on it's competitors. However it's in the same position as All Saints, Urban Outfitters and Zara, which are very close competitors on this diagram. Which implies they are aimed at the same target audience and sell similar products in the same price range. The brands may all be known by their target customers as having good quality products compared to cheaper Brands. These findings show Topshop could develop it's company to make it more individual to customers. 12
  13. 13. Market positioning map Good styling High priceLow price Poor styling  Arcadia groups Topshop (fashion forward) Wallis (Mum/Worker) Miss Selfridge (Young fashion forward) Dorothy Perkins (Work/Younger) BHS (Mum) Evans (Larger, older women) Arcadia groups owns many retail brands and has managed to fill every gap in the market. Topshop is positioned high as a high price and good styling brand. Wallis is just underneath but aimed at the mum/worker target audience. Miss Selfridge is similar to Topshop but aimed at the younger fashion forward individuals. Evans is low in price and just verging on the good styling category, the clothing is aimed at larger, older women. BHS is the least successful brand in the arcadia group with poor styling but at very low prices, which fills the gap for the budget shopping mums. Dorothy Perkins is high in prices but the styling isn't that great, the clothing is mostly aimed at young working women. Arcadia has done well to fill every market gap, aiming a brand at every age and size. 13
  14. 14. Customer proposition/Market position Special occasion/ Party Formal Smart casual Casual Basics Sport Traditional Updated Classics Contemporary H&M Topshop New Look Evans Zara Topshop's competitors all cover different types of clothing. The graph to the right shows what each brand covers and their personal style. H&M covers everything from sport to special occasion and has a very contemporary style. Compared to Evans which has a very traditional style and only covers special occasion/party to causal wear. New Look, similar to H&M it's style is very traditional and sells mostly everything but sports wear. Topshop and Zara are very close competitors, however Zara conveys a bit of every style from Traditional to Updated classics but only sells from party/special occasion to casual clothing, where as Topshop has an Updated classic style and a contemporary style and sells everything but sport clothing. Which makes H&M the only brand to sell sport garments, a market Topshop is missing. 14
  15. 15. Ansoff Matrix Current products New products Current markets New markets Market penetration Market development Product development Diversification  Selfridges concession  Click & collect  Student discount  Sales, mid-season sale  Offers/deals (2 for 3)  Basics, many colour options  Last chance to buy  Unique collection  Topman  Kate Moss collection  Mini  Designers collections (boutique)  Maternity  Taking it abroad  South Africa  More stores in USA  Nordstrom deal  142 stores worldwide  Cosmetics  Gifts & Novelties Topshop has developed a lot over the years as a company, it is now in concessions, has special offers for its customers, collaborations with designers and celebrities and it's own collection which has featured in London fashion week. Its recently worked on expanding it's products overseas, by recently signing a deal with Nordstrom. However there is still room for expansion. It also needs to develop it's new products into the new markets, to gain market share and help the products become successful. 15
  16. 16. Ansoff Matrix for Topshop competitors Current products New products CurrentmarketsNewmarkets Newmarkets Currentmarkets Current products New products Market Penetration Product Development DiversificationMarket Development Market Penetration Product Development DiversificationMarket Development • Zara owns its own factories which means, it can introduce new products every week. • Zara’s expansion strategy has worked successfully for Zara • Zara’s online services so that customers can buy the same products but online as well as offline. • ZARA produces more styles, roughly 12,000 a year. • Owning it’s own factories, so development and shipping is quicker. • ZARA’s opening a store in New York, This three-floor, 32,000 sq ft store is on the site of the former NBA store in Manhattan and it would be hard to find a more central location on the island. (31 March 2012/By John Ryan) • More than 1,600 stores across the globe • Kids clothing • The young fashion chain will launch brands including Forever Unique and Little Mistress into its Liverpool One store and online later this month, with a view to a wider roll-out. (5 May 2012 | By Victoria Gallagher, Ruth Faulkner) • Rihanna signed to produce a capsule collection for River Island. • River Island has unveiled a new line of men’s accessories designed by fashion and lifestyle bloggers. • It is also understood that River Island is in talks with concessions operator Hallett Retail, which works with Debenhams and New Look, to introduce more womenswear brands via a concessions model. (5 May 2012 | By Victoria Gallagher, Ruth Faulkner) • Girls clothing • Boys clothing • River Island, which has 300 stores In the UK and abroad in countries Including Singapore, has conducted Due diligence on possible sites in Manhattan, according to the Independent. (6 August 2012 | By Nicola Harrison) Zara's market development is very impressive with more that 1,600 stores across the globe. However it lacks in diversification and product development as it mostly sells clothing, shoes and handbags. Where as Topshop has expanded into cosmetics and novelties. River Island, lacks in Market Development as it hasn't looked into many new markets to sell its products. It also doesn't have a lot of diversification, like Zara it only sells clothing, shoes and handbags. 16
  17. 17. Boston matrix High Low Low High Question Marks Dogs Stars  Cosmetics  Bags  Hats  Fashion denim  Shoes  Fashion jersey  Unique collection  Brands (Kate/Motel)  Novelties  Maternity  Petite  Tall  Underwear  Basics  Tank top  Kate Moss tee  Basic denim  Leather jackets  Fashion dresses  Basic jersey  Leggings  accessories Cash cows Topshops question marks are handbags, hats and cosmetics. Cosmetics has only recently been introduced into Topshop, therefore customers are still testing the product. The stars in Topshop are the fashion items, Unique collection and brands, customers want to keep up with the latest trends and this is the best place to get a unique item which looks fashionable. The cash cows are mostly the basics which most of the public have one of, the products are always very popular and Topshop can always rely on them to make sells. The Dogs are Novelties, Maternity, Petite and tall, this could be due to lack of awareness of the collections and the amount being produced for each collection. (Topshop., 2012.[digital image] [13 November 2012]. Available from: 17
  18. 18. Boston matrix for Topshop competitors Question Marks Stars- strong Cash cowsDogs Dogs Cash cows Question Marks Stars- strong ZARA • Handbags • Jackets/coats • Shirt • Evening dresses • Scarfs • Trafaluc clothes range • Jeans • Shoes • Skirts • Basic tees • Accessories • Zara Kids • Man RIVER ISLAND • Onesie • Jackets and coats • Evening dresses • Handbags • Fashion leggings • Brands (lashes of London) • Male suits • Male clothing • Jeans • Leggings • Beachwear/Swimwear • Fashion Dresses • Basic tees • Knitwear • Boys • Girls HIGH LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH (Zara., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: (River Island., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: 18
  19. 19. Financial chart for Topshop and it's two competitors Topshop River Island (Top Shop/Top Man., 2002-2011. Top Shop/Top Man Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].) (River Island., 2002-2011. River Island Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].) Huge difference in turnover 19
  20. 20. Financial chart for Topshop and it's two competitors Zara These are the key financials results from 2002- 2011 for Topshop and it’s two competitors, Zara and River Island In 2002 Topshop turned over 528,000, where as River Island turned over 377,641 and in 2003 Zara only turned over 67,789. Topshop bought in the most money out of both it’s competitors in this year. Then in 2006 Topshop turned over 629,000, River Island Turned over 670,538 and Zara only turned over 155,325 which means River Island turned over the most amount of money in 2006 making it a close competitor with Topshop. In 2011 Topshop took the largest amount of money, with a turnover of 763,00 compared to Zara with 332,487 and River Island with 720,700. River Island and Topshop are both in the 7 million mark but Topshop just took the lead by 42300. Topshop had a 100% profit margin from 2002- 2011 apart from in 2006 when it made a 69.95% profit margin . Compared to it’s two competitors this is extremely impressive. The highest percentage Zara made was 5% in 2011 and River Islands highest percentage was 23.35 % in 2006. These findings show Topshop stands strong compared to it’s competitors, although it had a slight down fall in 2006 where River Island came out on top, it’s managed to pick up and come out with amazing figures. (Zara., 2002-2011. Zara Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].) 20
  21. 21. Pen portrait Sage • Age – 22 • Single • Interning Sage is 22 and is currently interning at Glamour magazine in London. She want’s to become a creative director of a high end fashion magazine in the near future. She studied fashion at central Saint martins in London and came out with an impressive 2:1. She supports herself financially as a part time waitress in an Italian restaurant near by, she works there most nights and on the weekends. On her nights off she likes to socialize with her friends in the local pubs and bars nearby with the occasional big night out. She is currently sharing a flat with two of her close mates in Brick Lane. Her main passion is fashion and music, she always makes time to go see gigs and festivals. She spends a lot of her money on clothing, exhibitions, festivals, cd’s and records. Her favourite brands are Guns and Roses and The White Stripes. Her fashion style is very vintage and unique, she enjoys rummaging around for bargains in Vintage fairs and shops but also shops a lot in High street stores like; Topshop, Urban outfitters and Zara. She watches what she eats but isn’t afraid to have the occasional binge here and there. She’s career minded but wants to live a fun packed life whilst she’s young and single. Maisie 28, Is currently in a stable job for HPR Lonon. After studying Public Relations and communication at Southampton Solent University. She is very passionate about her job and hopes to work her way up to the top in the company. She lives with her boyfriend, who works in the film industry. They've been living with each other for three years now but are not thinking about marriage and children just yet, they are both very career minded. Her job means she works with many celebrities which inquires her to keep up with the latest fashion trends, to make a good impression. She happens to enjoy shopping and loves the Unique collection in Topshop, her other favourite high street fashion retailers are Zara and All Saints. Her style is very sophisticated and elegant with elements of sparkle and glamour. In her spare time she enjoys going for coffee with her friends and going to the cinema to watch the latest films, she has done the partying life and now prefers a quiet night in with her boyfriend. She's very content and happy with her life and is excited for what the future may hold for her. Maisie  Age – 28  In a relationship  Job in PR (LookBook., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: 21
  22. 22. Pen portrait Drew •Age – 25 •Single •Guitarist in a band Drew 25, is a fun loving guy who is always up for a party. He has recently graduated from ACM in Guildford studying music performance. He is currently working as a bar man supporting himself financially, whilst he works on his band in his spare time. He aspires to be like the band Mumford and Sons. He rents out a small house with his ex- university friends who also enjoy the same things as he does. He is currently single but is in no hurry to settle down, enjoying the single life whilst he is young. He enjoys traveling and has travelled most of the world already, his spontaneous attitude towards life takes him around the world, trying out dangerous and exciting activities. He doesn’t believe he will ever get to old to bungee jump. His other hobbies include socializing, jamming to music and skateboarding. Image and brand conscious, Drew shops for branded clothes but also is appealed to the basic tees and jeans at Topshop and Urban Outfitters. His style is very basic but still fashionable. Abdou  Age – 22  Single  Works for an Architecture company Abdou 22, is a very ambitious and career minded guy. After gradating at UWE bristol studying Architecture he was offered a job from Broadway Malyan (an architecture company based in London), after interning with them in the previous year. His job entitles him to explore different buildings as well as designing them, so he takes many weekends away exploring city landmarks. He currently still lives at home with his parents just outside of London, as he travels around a lot with his job, he doesn't feel the need to move into his own place yet. He takes care of himself and is very vein about what he looks like. He has two different styles for night and day. In the day his style is very rustic and vintage, he looks around Topshop and Urban Outfitters for his outfits. Yet in the night he likes to look smart, wearing chinos and a nice shirt, he shops around the more expensive brands for his clubbing clothes. In his spare time, he enjoys going clubbing and going to many music gigs. His career is his main priority in his life right now and he wants to excel in his career before he settles down with a girlfriend and and (LookBook., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: 22
  23. 23. Consumer research – Whats key to the customer Consumer research for Mintel found that...  “Women are less concerned about quality than style in their clothing than they were in 2003”  “In most product areas, the proportion of women spending over £100 a year or more is rising, meaning more room for premium collections.”  “They are less likely to wear designer clothes than in the past and are less inclined to think that wearing them improves someone’s image.”  “More than half of women (56%) has bought a pair of jeans in the past year and other casual items like trousers, tops and T-shirts lead the list of purchases.”  “Half of women spend under £25 a month, emphasising the large number of budget fashion customers.”  “When asked what they were most likely to want to spend their money on, 58% of women say clothing/shoes”  “Mintel's consumer research found that less than half of all women are confident shoppers and know what suits them. They may feel overwhelmed with so much choice and certainly it indicates that retailers need to do more with their visual merchandising – more mannequins to show how to wear the looks, plus better-co-ordinated displays and mood themes.”  “Less than a third of women really enjoy shopping for clothes”  (Quotes from Mintel, customer research) From these findings on Mintel it is suggested that there are many ways in which consumer shopping can be improved. The findings show people are more likely to spend their money on cheaper options of clothing rather than higher quality, they're is also a higher proportion of individuals who would rather spend their money on basic items and daring items. Which suggests retailers should be focusing more on the basic ranges than the expensive, unique collections. The findings also suggest that the shopping experience could be improved to increase consumer confidence and purchases. By Objectives My objective is to find out whether people in Australia are interested in Topshop and whether they would like to see more openings of Topshop stored in different parts of the country. There is already two Topshop’s based in Australia one in Sydney and the other in Melbourne of which were a hit with the Australian youth population. The Australian Topshop twitter page already has 8,721 followers. Methodology I will achieve my objective by surveying individuals in Australia aged 10 to 40+ about the retail company Topshop. I will ask them general questions like; occupations, gender, age etc… Then about what style they go for and whether they shop at Topshop and use the online store. Lastly I will ask them how far away the closest Topshop is to them and where else in Australia they would like to see another store. Hopefully this will give me an insight into whether Topshop is popular in Australia and where about in Australia would be a good place to expand. Australian Topshop Twitter page 23
  24. 24. Customer Research- Size Matters “Mintel estimates that the plus-size womenswear market increased in value by 47% over the last five years and is valued at £4 billion in 2011. This exceeds the performance of the women’s clothing market as a whole, which experienced growth of 15% since 2006.”(Fashion – Size Matters Executive Summary – UK – July 2011). The chart above shows, that in 2006 and 2008 a larger portion of the sample are buying plus size clothing compared to those in 2011 who are buying smaller sizes. Size 12 seems to be the most popular size in all years, reaching a total of 24 % of females aged 16+ in 2011. Another interesting finding is there is a larger percentage of 20+ clothing bought with all the years added together, which comes to 30%, in comparison to the smallest sizes which comes to 27% in total. These findings suggest that size 12 is the average size for females and that there is slightly more larger women than there is small. It also suggests weight has decreased in the last four years. The chart above shows the attitudes towards shopping for clothes, by gender and size. The results show a high percentage of plus sized women find it hard to shop. Nearly 80% say there isn't enough choice, around 75% say the clothing sizes lack consistency and 12% say its easy to find clothes that fit. Only 30% of plus sized men say there is not enough choice and 48% say the clothing lack consistency, which is a huge difference to the plus sized women results. This suggests there is a huge market gap for over sized women clothing. 24
  25. 25. Survey for Topshop in Australia I surveyed nine females and five males who live in Australia And asked them various questions like; occupation, gender, Personal style, whether they shop at Topshop etc… I then Asked how far the nearest Topshop is from them and where In Australia they would like another Topshop. The results Show 30% want to see another Topshop in Sydney and nearly 60% want to see a Topshop store in Perth and Melbourne. I also asked whether They shop online at Topshop? And 91.7% said yes and 16.7% said no, which is similar to the results of who shops at Topshop. The findings show there is room for expansion in Australia. 25
  26. 26. Survey for Topshop in Australia 26
  27. 27. Conclusion In conclusion to my customer research on Mintel and my personal survey I found some interesting findings on customer spending and what customers expect in a retailer. Customers are spending more time online shopping then shopping in store, this Mintel quote backs this statement up “Consumers are relying on the internet more and more; over a fifth (22%) of consumers now buy more clothes online than they do in-store, compared to just over one in ten (12%) in 2010.” It has also been proven that customers spend more money online than they do in store, suggesting the online market is growing and to increase spending in stores, the experience should be changed to make it more enjoyable. The statistics on women sizes show, women don’t feel confident in shopping as there is not always clothing of their size and shape, this is a market Topshop is missing and could expand on to open a new market for the larger women, it will also increase consumer confidence and spending. Due to the recession and other factors like, family, consumer spending has decreased and a larger number of customers are budget fashion shoppers. This becomes a problem for Topshop’s more expensive collections like Unique, it also could suggest Topshop’s basic range will do well in this current climate. “They are less likely to wear designer clothes than in the past and are less inclined to think that wearing them improves someone’s image.” this Mintel quote backs up that statement. From these findings, Topshop could improve their retailer experience for its old customers and new customers, by; • Producing more sizes for larger women • Increase consumer confidence • Improve the store experience • Improve their online services 27
  28. 28. Brand Handwriting BRAND  Topshop as a brand, black and white dots  Unique collection  Celebrities clothing lines e.g. Kate Moss  Boutique brands  Designer collaborations  21st century phenomenon  Good quality and affordable  High-street  Up to a minuet  Pink dot for sale  The staff at Topshop dress in all Topshop and always look Trendy. CONSUMERS  Consumer Pen Portrait, fashionable, unique, student etc...  Key consumer, affordable, brand exploring and experiences,  key silhouettes, parka, chelsea shoes, skater dress/skirt, skinny jeans and leggings  trend/high-street.  Store accessibility  Topshop is like an old friend to consumers  Fill up their wardrobes COMPANY Innovation & execution Value & relationship Information & input  Online world; email, social networking, online shop, pop up shops, television and print.  Fashion company  Celeb collaborations  Topshop nail and hair bar  Concession with Selfridges  Shopping experiences online and offline.  Affordable  Loyalty Topshop has a unique and recognizable logo for it’s brand, the black and white polka dots. It’s well known for it’s collaborations with celebrities and designers especially Kate Moss. The brand lives up to its mission statements “a 21st fashion phenomenon” for women, which many women believe when they shop at Topshop and its male mission statement “delivering fashion with authority” which males would describe Topshop as. Customers shop at Topshop for the latest trend, affordable prices, basic clothing which is good quality and for loyalty schemes. 28
  29. 29. Brand equity pyramid by Kevin Lane Keller Resonance Judgements Feelings Performance Imagery Salience Loyalty, attachment, community Warmth, fun, security Personality and values, history and heritage user profiles Category identification, needs satisfied Quality, credibility, consideration Durability, reliability, price Judgements  Quality  Washing temperature  High fashion  Material  Dyes, colour Resonance  Online world  One to one  Social networks  Emails Performance  Affordable  Price skimming  Penetration  Premium Feelings  Fun  Fashionable  Reliable, like an old friend  Exciting  Warmth Imagery  Kate Moss  Black and white dots  Simple  Basement  Skater dresses Salience  High street  High Trend  Fashion  Affordable  Popular The brand equity pyramid represents the value of the brand in the marketplace. Topshops key value points are; • High fashion • Good pricing strategies • Multichannel retailer • Kate Moss collection • The feeling customers get when shopping at Topshop Over all the equity pyramid represents Topshop as a High fashion forward brand, which has develops it’s company to keep up with the demands of the 21st century. 29
  30. 30. Trend pyramid for topshop Trend Mainstream Basic/core Celeb collaborations Made in Britain Boutique Unique Underwear Make up Wholesale Motel/Rare Jewelry Fashion/pattern Moto denim Coats Shoes Hard/Novelties/gifts Maternity Pattern leggings Mini - Kids Basic leggingsFashion dresses Skater dresses Moto basic denim Basic tees Price Risk Topshop’s trend collections have a higher risk factor and are more expensive, there is very little of these Collections in store and online. The mainstream collections are in the middle, affordable prices and enough items which will sell, these item are aimed at fashion forward customers at affordable prices. The basic/core collections have the biggest market share with very low prices and are guaranteed to sell. (Topshop., 2012.[digital image] [13 November 2012]. Available from: 30
  31. 31. Trend pyramid for river island Trend Mainstream Basic/core Boutique Exclusive ranges Brand focus Coats Underwear Jewelry Pattern jeans Brands Shoes Pattern leggings Graphic Tops Multi buy offers Novelties Basic tops Basic Leggings River Island have less collections in the Trend section compared to Topshop, which could suggest these collections don’t do as well. River Islands mainstream collections are it’s main focus with affordable pricing and high fashion items. It also does basic/core clothing which has very low pricing and sells well. 31
  32. 32. Trend pyramid of Zara Mainstream Basic/Core Trend Expensive/ limited edition products Medium price products TRF Zara’s trend pyramid is upside down as most of Zara’s clothing is in the trend section with very high pricing and less of a risk than the Basic/Core collection TRF, which has very low pricing. This is due to the customers beliefs of Zara, they shop at Zara for the expensive but more fashionable items which could be a problem for Topshops Unique and boutique collections. 32
  33. 33. Price architecture Good- Entry prices & offers Best – Exit price Better – Average prices £1-18 £18-60 £60 - 200 • £15 – leggings • £8 – T-shirt • £3 – underwear • £15 – skater dresses • £20 – Dolly shoes • Unique • Celeb collaborations • Made in Britain • Designer shoes • Leather jackets • Boutique • £30,45 -fashion jeans • £25+ fashion shirt • £18,25 – fashion leggings • £25,30 - skirts Topshops best collection is the Unique, designer brands and celebrity collaborations the prices are a little steep but quality and high fashion is guaranteed. This is compared to the basic items like leggings which a priced cheaply but are low in fashion. The clothing which offers affordable pricing and fashionable clothing is the ‘Better’ items, like the fashion leggings and shirts. (Topshop.,2012.[digitalimage][13November2012] 33
  34. 34. Differentiation Topshop Zara River Island Urban Outfitters All Saints Overall cost leadership H & M Primark New Look Bhs Peacock Strategic Advantage Model Uniqueness perceived by the customer Low cost position Target Industrywide multi-regiment Strategic Particular segment Focus Channel Burberry Ralph Lauren Christian Dior Yves Saint Laurent Giorgio Armani Prada Louis Vuitton 34
  35. 35. Price Model Premium Pricing Penetration PricingEconomy Pricing Skimming Pricing Topshop uses premium pricing for its more expensive lines like; Unique and Boutique. Unique uses more expensive materials and is also shown on the catwalks which makes it a more valuable and unique item. Topshop also uses penetration pricing for the basic ranges in Topshop, Artificially low prices to gain market share, opens up a new market for Topshop. Topshop doesn’t use economy pricing as it’s manufacturing and marketing prices are too high to use this type of pricing. As Topshop has a wide range of customers who are loyal to the retail company, it is financially able to increase it’s prices for its products, however competitors like River Island and Zara will soon pick up on this and create similar products for cheaper prices, this forces Topshop to lower its prices. Low High LowHigh Quality Quality (Topshop., 2012.[digital image] [13 November 2012]. Available from: 35
  36. 36. Price model for Topshop’s competitors Economy Pricing As Zara owns their own factories, manufacturing is cheaper, therefore economy pricing is used. Penetration Pricing Zara uses penetration pricing for it's TRF collection, to gain market share and open up a new market. Skimming Pricing Zara uses skimming pricing when it sees it's competitors rise the prices of a product so it creates a similar product but sells at a lower price. Zara also rises its pricing on products before competitors lower theirs. Premium Pricing Zara mostly uses premium For it's products as they are made from expensive materials and are on trend. Economy Pricing River Island rarely use economy pricing as it's marketing and manufacturing prices are quite high. Penetration Pricing River Island uses penetration pricing on it's basic range, e.g. black leggings. Selling at artificially low prices to gain market share. Skimming Pricing Premium Pricing River Island has recently started to use premium pricing on its new collections, Boutique and celebrity collaborations, as they are sold at high prices. River Island uses skimming pricing when it sees it's competitors rise the prices of a product so it creates a similar product but sells at a lower price ZARA River Island In conclusion, Zara mostly uses premium pricing but also efficiently uses economy pricing which means it spends a lot less than Topshop and River Island on manufacturing. Topshop and River Island both equally use penetration, skimming and premium pricing but rarely economy pricing, which suggests they are missing an efficient strategy to saving money. 36
  37. 37. Price Strategy used for a Topshop product Low Price High price HighFashion Lowfashion £160 £65 £36 £29 £50 £20 Penetration pricing Premium pricing Skimming pricing Topshop have created a variation of different styles of skater dresses, ranging from as low as £20 and as high as £160.Topshop uses Penetration pricing on the basic styles of skater dresses selling them at cheap pricing to gain market share and open up a new market. Skimming pricing is used for the skater dresses which are still quite simple but with added detail, so Topshop can put them at higher prices as they know loyal customers of Topshop will buy them. Finally Premium pricing is used on the Unique and Boutique collections as they are more expensive to make and they are designed by top designers. (Topshop., 2012.[digital image] [13 November 2012]. Available from: 37
  38. 38. Above the Line and Below the line ABOVE THE LINE BELOW THE LINE Billboards Pop up shops Webpage Editorial Buses Print Twitter Facebook Tumblr Apps Blog Youtube 38
  39. 39. Vehicles of communication Magazine ads TV ads Celebrities wearing Topshop clothing in public Promotions on Topshop’s Facebook page Topshop’s Twitter page Topshop aren’t the biggest promoters of their brand in the retail industry, this could be due to already making a good name for themselves. However they still promote in; • Fashion and gossip magazines, representing the clothing in a fashion story • TV ads, which usually promote a new designer or celebrity which is collaborating with the brand, for example the screen shot of the TV ad above is promoting Christian Kane's collection in Topshop. • Celebrities wearing Topshop clothing in public, the photo above is of Kate Moss wearing one of her big fur coats in public. This strategy works well as the public aspire to look like celebrities, so if they see their idol wearing an item of clothing which is affordable, they will most likely buy it, to look more like the celebrity. • Promotions on social networks, the photo above is from Topshop's Facebook promoting an offer “free shipping on all orders”. Social network is very popular and an easy way to promote a brand to customers. It is also used to show awareness and for customers to interact with the brand. 39
  40. 40. How Topshop use the store Store ambient factor Store Design Store social factor Music and lights, in store Colour 30 seconds to convince customers to come into the store Store layout P.O.S Speed bump Poor returns policy Sale assistants Customer focus How they group things together suggests how cheap/expensive the product is. Topshop lays out their products around one item of clothing then other items of clothing and accessories around that item which will go well, this is very clever as customers will then buy a whole outfit instead of just one item. 40
  41. 41. Perceived strengths and velocity In conclusion, what factors make Topshop a successful retailer? It's recognisable logo and mission statements It's strong relationship with it's customers Having different collections for different types of customers, from the budget shopper to the high fashion shopper It's successful pricing strategies Although Topshop does little promotion of its brand, it does enough to attract attention for its brand. It's creative and dynamic store layout to increase consumer confidence and making the shopping experience more enjoyable and easy Topshop has taken into account many factors to make it a tough competitor in the market. In comparison with Zara and River Island, Topshop takes a strong lead, by show casing many different collections for all types of customers which increases it's market share, where as Zara focuses mainly on it's expensive items and River Island still need to expand their boutique and basic range. Topshop also uses the pricing model to its advantage by creating one style of product and ranging the prices of it by tweaking it at each price level, a good example of this is the skater dress or the chelsea boots. The disadvantage Topshop has on Zara is the expensive collections, Zara is known for it's high fashion and expensive clothing which is in competition with Topshops unique and boutique collections. Topshop could overcome this by promoting awareness of these collections, producing more pieces for these collections in more sizes and present them in every Topshop store. 41
  42. 42. Political CODE OF CONDUCT  Forced labour  Child labour  Non-discrimination when hiring  Wages right to a living wage, comply with the laws  Working hours should be defined by law and not exceed 48 hours  Health & safety  Every worker should be treated with dignity &respect  Fair trade ranges  Topshop organic cotton jean collection moto  Washing at lower temperatures  Despite growth, this remains as yet an undeveloped market, if one with plenty of potential. Mintel estimates that total sales of ethical clothing are currently worth around £175 million (or about 0.4% of total market), which is a little larger than the bridalwear sector and equivalent to almost half of the value sales of hosiery. (Ethical Clothing - UK - February 2009, Mintel)  “The portrayal of Middle Eastern women in the film Sex and the City 2 and Vogue sheds light on a peculiar but nonetheless irritating perception of Muslim women that persists in the West.” (Rena Niamh Smith (International Socialist Group, 2012) 42
  43. 43. Economic   •A concession in America Nordstrom •Russia a 14.8% CAGR  in consumer expenditure on fashion products from 2002-2007 (possible expansion?) •Consumer spending on fashion products has grown at 7.1% annually from 2002 to 2007. (The Global Fashion Industry – Growth in Emerging Markets  September 2009, Drapers article) •0.2% - Dip in Eurozone economies in Q2 (April to June) compared with Q1(June - April ) (18 August 2012 | By Catherine Neilan)  •€110bn - Amount allotted as emergency loan for Spanish banks back in June (18 August 2012 | By Catherine Neilan, Drapers article)  •0% - Bank of England’s growth prediction for 2012 (18 August 2012 | By Catherine Neilan, Drapers article)  •2.6% - UK inflation in July (18 August 2012 | By Catherine Neilan, drapers article)  •2014 - Year the UK will return to “full fitness”, according to Mervyn King (18 August 2012 | By Catherine Neilan, Drapers Article)  •Most people are still making ends meet–20% say their finances are healthy, and 41%that they are OK. People are marginally more positive than they  were towards the start of the year. (Consumers and the Economic Outlook Quarterly Update, July 2011) •In a welcome respite to a wave of otherwise fairly bleak economic news, the proportion of the population who say that the slow down has had a major  impact on their finances has fallen significantly. Four fifths say either that they haven’t been affected, or that the impact has been manageable…There’s  also a slight improvement in how confident people are about the coming year. For the first time since November 2010, the proportion who say they are  really worried or that their finances couldn’t get much worse has dipped under 20%. (Consumers and the Economic Outlook Quarterly Update, July 2011) •People are still prepared to spend. A fifth plan to book a holiday or go to a sporting or cultural event in the next three months. (Consumers and the  Economic Outlook Quarterly Update, July 2011) •Almost three quarters of the sample believe that the government’s austerity measures will have an impact on their finances, but most of them think that  the effect should be relatively minor. (Consumers and the Economic Outlook Quarterly Update, July 2011l) •The clothing sector has survived the recession, with the market growing 1.4% in 2009 to £41.3 billion. Sales remained in positive territory, although  growth was limited due to weakened consumer spending. (Fashion: Impact of The Recession - UK - June 2010, Mintel)  •Value retailers outperformed the market, with sales from these outlets • growing by almost 6% in 2009 to reach £8.1 billion. This growth has been driven  by consumers’ continued value consciousness and pressure on disposable income.(Fashion: Impact of The Recession - UK - June 2010, Mintel) •Far from stopping spending on clothes last year, most people did not change their shopping habits. And although many tightened their purse strings, they  did not stop buying clothes altogether. (Fashion: Impact of The Recession - UK - June 2010, Mintel) •Young people’s love of fashion and carefree attitude to the recession continued to drive sales, with one in five 16-24-year-olds spending more on clothes  last year than they. (Fashion: Impact of The Recession - UK - June 2010, Mintel) •People like a bargain: almost half of consumers mostly buy clothes on sale or special offer. But retailers need to draw the focus away from discounting  as price promotions rarely build loyalty and simply erode margins. •Some pent-up demand will be released this year as nearly 20% of consumers plan to spend more on clothes in 2010, almost twice the proportion who  spent more in 2009. (Fashion: Impact of The Recession - UK - June 2010, Mintel) 43
  44. 44. Social • Codi Young and Australian model, size 0, was removed from a campaign • 51.4% of consumers buy online because they say its more convenient (DRAPERS - article - highlights of consumer online habits) • 55% said a loyalty scheme or money-off vouchers would motivate them to shop at a particular retailer (30 June 2012  By Ruth Faulkner, Victoria  Gallagher, Drapers article) • 29% of customers polled said price was their primary reason for choosing to shop with a retailer. (30 June 2012 | By Ruth Faulkner, Victoria Gallagher,  Drapers article) • Topshop will debut an eco capsule collection in collaboration with sustainable fashion label From Somewhere on June 8.(DRAPERS- article  information 19 May 2012) • Polling more than 2,000 people, Drapers’ Multichannel Report survey found that the majority of consumers (69%) use bricks-and-mortar stores to shop  and research for fashion purchases, while 61% use websites for both. The study also found that only 7% of consumers prefer to use mobile sites and  apps.(29 September 2012 | By James Knowles, Drapers article) • The research shows 47% of those who buy fashion online go straight to their favourite retailers’ websites with a slight bias towards women. The sale is  there for the taking, and retailers should be closely examining what this group of customers does once they arrive on the site if they want to improve  their conversion rates.(29 September 2012 | By James Knowles, Drapers article) • The survey found that the inability for consumers to touch and feel product is a major barrier to purchasing online. Female shoppers are most  concerned about not being able to try clothes on, at 48%, and don’t know which size will give them the desired fit, at 45%, while the inability to try  clothes on was a problem for 40% of male shoppers, who also cited not being able to gauge the quality as an issue, at 34%. The survey asked  consumers which functionality could help retailers address these concerns, and found that 44% want the ability to zoom in on product, while 36% said  clear size measurements would help them close the deal, and 33% want to be able to read reviews to help them decide. (29 September 2012 | By  James Knowles, Drapers article) • Overall, 26% of respondents said retailers having more stock in their size in store would encourage them to shop more with particular retailers or  brands. However, 31% of women agreed with this point.(30 June 2012 | By Joanna Perry, Drapers article) • Personal information and how it can usefully be used was also highlighted by the number of consumers who were keen for more fashion retailers to  operate loyalty schemes. A loyalty scheme was the second most mentioned answer when we asked consumers what would make them shop more  with a retailer or brand – 37% said so, compared with the 55% who mentioned the top answer, money-off vouchers. (30 June 2012 | By Joanna Perry,  Drapers article) • Personal information and how it can usefully be used was also highlighted by the number of consumers who were keen for more fashion retailers to  operate loyalty schemes. A loyalty scheme was the second most mentioned answer when we asked consumers what would make them shop more  with a retailer or brand – 37% said so, compared with the 55% who mentioned the top answer, money-off vouchers. (30 June 2012 | By Joanna Perry,  Drapers article) 44
  45. 45. Technology • 80% of people shop online now • Department stores have the broadest range of shoppers – nearly 74% of those polled buy clothing from their shops. However, only 44% buy clothing  from department stores’ websites, showing that these retailers have an opportunity to increase online sales by engaging customers who already have a  relationship with them.(30 June 2012 | By Joanna Perry, Draper article) •  All Saints’ campaign is called ‘We Are All Saints’ and is an interactive video that allows users to drag their mouse over the video, moving it around to  view the full arrangement. The video features a group of young creatives (musicians, dancers and models) wearing autumn 12 product. As users move  the video around each individual has a marker point on them, which are clicked on to see more details.(13 October 2012 | By Keely Stocker, Drapers  article) • Topshop is to launch a click-and-collect service by June, according to Topman managing director Dave Shepherd ( 22 March 2012 | By Ruth Faulkner,  Drapers article) • The Facebook feature is called “Collections” and enables users on Facebook to engage with items by “liking”, “collecting” or “wanting” them. Products  within Collections will also have a buy link which will direct users to the retailers’ transactional site.(11 October 2012 | By Keely Stocker, Retail Week) • Retail search volumes increased 11% in the first quarter of 2012, while overseas retail searches jumped 57% due to the increasing popularity of  shoppers using mobile devices said the British Retail Consortium (BRC)- Google Online Retail Monitor.(16 April 2012 | By Tiffany Holland, Retail  Week) • According to the BRC, the advance was driven by a soaring 132% increase in mobile and tablet search volumes. Retailers that enable customers to  compare prices in store is also pushing up retail searches on these devices.(16 April 2012 | By Tiffany Holland, Retail week) • Topshop attracted more than 2 million online viewers for its live streamed show at London Fashion Week. The womenswear retailer said it reached its  largest ever online audience, as by 4.45pm on Sunday more than 2 million people in 100 countries had tuned in. (17 September 2012 | By Victoria  Gallagher, Drapers article) • In fact, 265 branches of fashion multiples closed in the first six months of this year according to the report from research firm Local Data Company,  which, taking into account any openings over the same period, equates to a net 3.6% decline in the number of sites on the UK’s high streets. This is a  sign of the times for sure, but most interestingly if we compare these figures to those within the indie market, we can see that in fact indies seem to  have fared better over the same period as a result of a much larger number of openings, with net closures totalling 35, equating to a drop of 0.43%.  Either way, the report suggests that the climate is favourable for a move to a more varied high street mix, something consumer groups and industry  watchers have suggested is key to rejuvenating some of the ailing regional retail centres. (20 October 2012 | By Caroline Nodder, Drapers article) • Only 47% of consumers around the world say they trust paid media (television, magazine and newspaper ads), a decline of over 20% since 2009.  (Source: Nielsen, April 2012) • 92% of global consumers say they trust earned media (word-of-mouth and recommendations from friends and family) above all other forms of  advertising, an increase of 18% since 2007. (Source: Nielsen, April 2012) • Online consumer reviews are the second most trusted form of advertising with 70% of global consumers trusting them, an increase of 15% in four  years. (Source: Nielsen, April 2012)   45
  46. 46. Demographic trends lifestyle and culture The retail industry is changing dramatically. Retailers are changing their parallel  operating models to multichannel operating models, so customers have various  unique opportunities to shop from or find out information. The customer needs to  be able to interact with a retail brand, interacting with other channels and touch  points to create a unique shopping experience. Retailers need to consider many  factors when in the process of changing to a multichannel operating model.   Defining the store proposition, retailers must understand their customers  requirements and expectations of the brand. Review each channel and how they  create an overall proposition for the store and finally determine the role of the store  for the customers.   Retailers should also reset the store portfolio by identifying immediate cost  reductions and review the necessary size, formats and location of the store.   Finally realigning the operating model, retailers must understand the impact of  moving to a multichannel operating model and appropriately allocate costs. Brands need to create a more efficient shopping experience for their customers due to  many social and economic factors;  Consumer spending has decreased due to high unemployment, rising petrol prices  and interest rate uncertainty   Rise in commodity prices and global demand   Technology is evolving fast   More competition   A more greener economy   The statements above suggests retailers are developing their technology in store and  online. Both Apple and Nordstrom are developing their technology in store and online to  create a more dynamic and efficient experience for their customers, this also puts them  in a stronger position with competitors.  “Deloitte predicts that in 2011 more than 25%7 of all tablet computers  will be bought by enterprises, and that figure is likely to rise in 2012  and beyond.”  Both these statements suggest retailers will need to invest more  money into technology to create a more unique experience for their  customers and to keep in competition with other retailers. Once one  retailer develops it's technology it will attract more customers to this  new exciting experience which will result in other retailers doing the  same thing.  Geddes,I. 2011 Changing the face of retail. Deloitte report [online]3, [viewed 17th november2012]  Available from: 46
  47. 47. Strengths • Topshop is opening in Selfrdges (20 October 2012 | By John Ryan, draper article) • It is Saturday afternoon and Topshop in SoHo, New York, is heaving as women look to get their hands on the British retailer’s stylish clothes. “What  do you like about Topshop?” I ask one fashionable twenty something. “It’s just so cool,” she responds, before picking up a pair of studded boots. (6  October 2012 | By Suzanne Bearne, drapers article) • Both Topshop and Topman, owned by Arcadia tycoon Sir Philip Green, have partnered with franchisee House of Busby to launch stores in the  region, the first of which will open in Johannesburg in November. It will also launch concessions within South African department store Edgars,  owned by the country’s largest non-food retailer Edcon. The move to South Africa, the 37th country in which the brands will operate, follows its high  profile tie-up with legendary US department store Nordstrom to open Topshop and Topman concessions in a selection of its stores from September.  Topshop already has three US stores trading in the US. (2 August 2012 | By Gemma Goldfingle, Drapers article) • Arcadia boss Sir Philip Green has hired former Burberry vice-president of public relations Justin Cooke to push forward global expansion plans for  Topshop. According to the Sunday Times, Green has hired Cooke, who has worked at Burberry as vice-president of public relations for the last five  years and seven months, as chief marketing officer. Cooke, who is credited with helping Burberry alter its image, will start work with Topshop in  September and is expected to work closely with Green and Topshop managing director Mary Homer to look at oversees opportunities for the  business. (11 June 2012 | By Ruth Faulkner, Drapers article) • In the final instalment of our seasonal Hit or Miss survey, it was double trouble for the rest of the high street’s footwear retailers as Liverpool’s  Topshop and Topman came out on … top. A plethora of on-trend product, an impressive storefit and a raft of eye-catching visual merchandising  ideas mean these two are stepping ahead of the competition this season. (DRAPERS - TOPSHOP HIT OR MISS, 21 April 2012)   Weaknesses • Zara, with more than 1,600 stores across the globe, Topshop has a lot less stores across the globe than Zara. • During the first six months of the year the group opened 166 stores, meaning Inditex now operates 5,693 stores in 85 markets. (19 September 2012 | By  Victoria Gallagher, Drapers article). • Experience of Topshop store - Taking up one side of a large plot shared with Topshop, Topman comes across as the poor relation. A markdown section  is large, and unmissable on entry, possibly cannabalising full-price sales. Smaller sizes are plentiful but outside a 34 waist/large top, depth is limited.  Pillars near the entrance block the view down the tightly packed store while staff were far from helpful with size queries. Fittings and finish on the floor  and in the changing rooms look tired. 6/10 (14 April 2012 | By Ian Wright, Drapers article, Hit or Miss) SWOT analysis f Topshop 47
  48. 48. Opportunity's  •Arcadia Group is looking to introduce fundamental changes to its sourcing strategy, working on a group-wide basis rather than individual fascias. As part of  the shake-up, the business has hired Tesco’s former buying director for clothing Jon Bennett as group sourcing director. (8 September 2012 | By Catherine  Neilan, ). •Sir Philip Green has called on international retailers to support the British Fashion Council’s New Gen initiative, sponsored  by his Topshop brand, by  pledging to buy stock from emerging designers. Speaking today at the launch of this year’s London Fashion Week, the Arcadia boss announced a further 10  year sponsorship of the New Gen programme and called on retailers to make it a “virtuous circle” by agreeing to buy from the featured designers. (17  February 2012 | By Caroline Nodder) •Topshop is to launch a click-and-collect service by June, according to Topman managing director Dave Shepherd. Speaking at the Drapers’ Next  Generation event in London today, Shepherd revealed that the Arcadia-owned Topshop/Topman retailer plans to have its click-and-collect service ready by  late May or June. (22 March 2012 | By Ruth Faulkner) •Hot on the ethical heels of H&M and Marks & Spencer, Topshop will debut an eco capsule collection in collaboration with sustainable fashion label From  Somewhere on June 8. The range – Topshop Reclaim to Wear – features dresses and denim accessories made from discarded and waste fabric. Prices  are to be confirmed. (19 May 2012, DRAPERS- article information -Topshop to debut eco capsule collection) •Topman will launch a premium suiting line for autumn 12 to capitalise on growing consumer demand for tailoring. (25 April 2012 | By Ana Santi) •Menswear labels Agi & Sam, Astrid Andersen and Shaun Samson are set to show at London Collections: Men in June as part of MAN, the Topman and  Fashion East menswear show. (23 May 2012 | By Victoria Gallagher)   • Only 29% of consumers in Brazil, China and India say that it pays to be loyal to favored brands. (Source: COLLOQUY and Epsilon's Cross-Cultural  Loyalty Study, 2011) • swedish fashion giant H&M is considering the UK for the global launch of its planned new upmarket fascia & Other Stories. (4 April 2012 | By Gemma  Goldfingle) • Swedish fast fashion retailer H&M has opened its first store in Mexico and launched a Mexican version of its website. (5 November 2012 | By Ruth  Faulkner) • This news came as H&M announced that from December 1 to February 29 group sales including VAT increased by 13% to SEK 27.8bn (£2.6bn), 3%  on a like-for-like basis. Profit after financial items rose 4.6% to SEK 3.7bn (£350m) due to increased buying cost not passed onto consumers.... Sales  from March 1 to 27 increased by 22% compared to the same period last year. The retailer said collections had been well received which resulted in  increased market share.... H&M has revealed it is to launch a new retail chain after posting a rise in sales for the first three months of the year  today....The Swedish retailer said the new chain would provide customers with an even broader product offering. (29 March 2012 | By Victoria  Gallagher) • Zara parent Inditex saw net profit rise 32% in its first half as like-for-like sales rose by 7%. In the period from February 1 to July 31 net profit grew 32%  to €944m (£758m) as sales rose 17% to €7.2bn (£5.8bn). During the first six months of the year the group opened 166 stores, meaning Inditex now  operates 5,693 stores in 85 markets. (19 September 2012 | By Victoria Gallagher) • Young fashion retailer River Island is considering opening a store in New York’s Manhattan as it ponders expansion in the US. (6 August 2012 | By  Nicola Harrison) • Last week the news broke that one of the world’s biggest popstars is to design a line for a UK high street chain, as Rihanna signed to produce a  capsule collection for River Island. (28 July 2012 | By Ian Wright)   Threats 48
  49. 49. SWOT for Topshop competitors Zara Strength In the period from February 1 to July 31 net profit grew 32% to €944m (£758m) as sales rose 17% to €7.2bn (£5.8bn). During the first six months of the year  the group opened 166 stores, meaning Inditex now operates 5,693 stores in 85 markets. (19 September 2012 | By Victoria Gallagher Drapers) Spanish fast-fashion retailer Zara’s UK pre-tax profits jumped 22% to £19.3m in its year to January 31 as Zara prepares to open its UK flagship store. (9  October 2012 | By Gemma Goldfingle, Drapers) Weakness                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lasting impressions I normally love Zara but this particular day at this particular shop was just too chaotic. I didn't have the patience to look through piles of  clothes to find my size and I was disappointed when a top I liked had makeup stains on it. (Huma Qureshi,, Friday 6 July 2012 08.45 BST) Zara, which is allegedly struggling in the U.S., has been blamed for selling sizes too small for its American customers. By OLIVIA FLEMING PUBLISHED:  20:31, 15 August 2012 | UPDATED: 21:04, 15 August 2012, Daily Mail) Opportunity According to reports, the Spanish clothing giant took advantage of a rare opportunity to own one of London’s best retail locations and bought the 75,347 sq ft  property located between Oxford Street and New Bond Street from German fund manager, Deka.(19 June 2012 | By Ruth Faulkner, Drapers) The Spanish high street fashion retailer launched an etail offer across Europe last year and has scheduled its online debut in the US for September 7. ( 4  August, 2011 | By Jennifer Creevy, Drapers) Threat  Menswear labels Agi & Sam, Astrid Andersen and Shaun Samson are set to show at London Collections: Men in June as part of MAN, the Topman and  Fashion East menswear show. 23 May 2012 | By Victoria Gallagher, Drapers) Fashion chain Zara has forced the closure of one of its supplier’s factories after a BBC programme found evidence that its staff were being ill-treated. 24 (24  June, 2008 | By Lisa Berwin, Retail Week)River Island Strengths River Island eyes New York store. Young fashion retailer River Island is considering opening a store in New York’s Manhattan as it ponders expansion in the  US. (6 August 2012 | By Nicola Harrison, Drapers). Fashion retailer River Island produced an industry-beating performance last year, driving profits up by more than£40 million to over£120 million. (29 March,  2006, Retail Week) Weaknesses Untidy stores-River Island loses points for the random placement of odd shoes beneath hanging rails of clothes, which looks untidy and accidental rather  than deliberate. The level of quality and fewer points of difference let it down a little. (20 October 2012 | By Graeme Moran, Drapers) River Island pre-tax profits tumbled 25% to £86.9m last year as the fashion retailer absorbed higher costs, rather than pass them on to consumers, and  invested in the business. (20 September, 2012 | By George MacDonald, Retail Week) Opportunities Rihanna is collaborating with river Island. Last week the news broke that one of the world’s biggest popstars is to design a line for a UK high street chain, as  Rihanna signed to produce a capsule collection for River Island. (28 July 2012 | By Ian Wright, Drapers) Chelsea Girl, the iconic 1970’s fast fashion retailer that later became River Island, is to be revived as a branded capsule collection within River Island  stores…The 40-piece range will go on sale in selected River Island stores on March 19 to mark 40 years since the first Chelsea Girl opened. It will also  launch in a Chelsea Girl pop-up shop in Selfridges. (14 March, 2011 | By Katherine Rushton, Retail Week) Threats River Island profits plunge as it absorbs cost hikes. River Island saw its pre-tax profits plunge by 25% to £86.9m last year, as it took the hit on the rising  costs of material rather than pass them on to consumers. (20 September 2012 | By George MacDonald, Retail Week)  The chief executive of young fashion giant River Island stepped down this week after 20 years with the company. (April 16, 2010 | By Tim Danaher, Retail  Week) 49
  50. 50. Conclusion In conclusion, I have reviewed the overview brand of Topshop, analyzing the market sector, customer research, current offer and Macro market  evaluation. I’ve identified the current strengths and weaknesses of Topshop and it’s competitors. Which has led me to conclude an area of  which Topshop could expand into which will help develop the brand, increase potential long term sales and market share in new or emerging  fashion sectors.  I have researched into Australia using primarily and secondary research. The findings show the Topshops already based in Australia are a  huge success and the community are gradually becoming more aware of the brand. “Customers camped overnight to be first in the hundreds  strong queue to get in and Topshop put on 40 extra security guards with the expectation of 30,000 people going through the doors today  alone.” (Thursday, 04 October 2012, Cara Waters). This quote suggests Topshop was already well known in Australia and the online website  was in high demand from Australian citizens before the first store was based in Sydney, followed by the second store in Melbourne.  Topshop in comparison to it’s two competitors (Zara and River Island), Showed significant strengths and weaknesses. The comparisons of the  financial data showed Topshop had a 100% profit margin every year apart from 2006, where as Zara’s highest percentage only reached 5%  and River Island’s 23.35 %. Overall Topshop had higher ratings. However Zara is well known for it’s international stores, which altogether  brings in more money than Topshop’s over all financials, this suggests there is room for expansion for Topshop stores to increase market  share.  Zara’s Vertical operational model also competes with Topshop’s horizontal model, as the production process is a lot faster and manufacturing  costs are kept to a minimum. This is an area Topshop could focus on, especially in international countries so the new collections are released  earlier for customers to purchase, this will support Topshop’s mission statement “ A 21st  century fashion phenomenon” . Another key finding is Topshop’s channelling services, it provides many ways in which customers can interact with the brand, forming a loyal  relationship which can be useful to both Topshop and the customers. “More than 2 million people in 100 countries tuned into fashion retailer  Topshop’s livestreamed fashion show at London Fashion Week yesterday.” (17 September, 2012 | By George MacDonald). This statistic  supports Topshops idea about interacting with it’s customer’s and listening to their demands and needs. Topshops 21st century view on it’s  brand compels it to keep up with the latest technology to excite customers and keep in the competitive running with other brands. Arcadia  Group is to roll out a new EPoS system to stores to improve its multichannel offer. (April 21 2011 | By Rebecca Thomson). That quote supports  the above statement, creating new and innovative ways to shop. Considering all the findings of Topshops overview, Australia’s youth culture and attitudes towards fashion seems a suitable area for Topshop to  expand further into. It will also create more competition for Zara who already own 5 store in Australia.  50
  51. 51. Political •(Anon., 2009. Ethical clothing – UK. Mintel [Online], 1-2 [viewed 13 October 2012].) Economics •(Anon., 2009.Growth in emerging markets. The Global Fashion industry [Online], 1-5 [viewed 13 October 2012].) •(Neilan, C., 2012. Dip in Eurozone's economies. [online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nelian, C., 2012. Emergency loan for Spanish banks. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October] 2012.) •(Nelian, C., 2012. Bank of England's growth predictions. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [Viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nelian, C., 2012. UK inflation. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nelian, C., 2012. 2012- Year the UK will return to “full fitness”. Drapers article [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Anon., 2011. Consumers and the Economic Outlook quarterly update. [Online], 1-6 [viewed 10 October] 2012.) •(Anon., 2010. Fashion: Impact of the recession – UK. Mintel [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) Social •(Anon., 2012. Highlights of consumer online habits. [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Faulkner, R. and V. Gallagher, 2012. [Online], 1-4 [Viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Anon., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Knowels, J., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Perry, J., 2012. Drapers Article [Online], 1-8 [viewed 10 October 2012].) Technology •(Perry, J., 2012. Drapers article [online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Stocker, K., 2012. All Saints campaign. Drapers article [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Faulkner, R., 2012. Click + Collect. Drapers Article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Stocker, K., 2012. Retails Week [online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Holland, T., 2012. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Gallagher, V., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nodder, C., 2012. Drapers article [online], 1-2 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nielson, 2012. [Online], [viewed 10 October 2012].) Strengths •(Ryan, J.,2012. Topshop opening in Selfridges. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Bearne, S., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Goldfingle, G., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Faulkner, R., 2012. Topshop hires Burberry PR guru. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Anon., 2012. Hit or Miss. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) Weaknesses •(Gallagher, V., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Wright, I., 2012. Hit or Miss. Drapers article, 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) Opportunity's •(Neilan, C., 2012. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Nodder, C., 2012. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Anon., 2012. Topshop to debut eco capsule collection. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [Viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Gallagher, V., 2012. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) Threats  •(Anon., 2011. Colloquy and Epsilon’s cross- cultural study. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Goldfingle, G., 2012. [online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Faulkner, R., 2012. H&M opening in Mexico. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Gallagher, V., 2012. [Online], 1-2 [Viewed 12 October 2012].) REFRENCES 51
  52. 52. Zara Strength •(Goldfingle, G., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed on 20 November 2012].) •(Gallagher, V., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Weaknesses •(Qureshi, H., 2012. Guardian article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(Fleming, O., 2012. Daily Mail [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Opportunity's •(Creevy, J., 2012. Drapers [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Threats •(Gallagher, V., 2012. Drapers [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(Berwin, L., 2008. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) River Island Strength •(Harrison, N., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(Anon., 2006. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Weaknesses •(Moran, G., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(MacDonald, G., 2012. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Opportunity’s •(Wright, I., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(Rushton, K.,2011. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •Page 45 - (Geddes,I. 2011 Changing the face of retail. Deloitte report [online]3, [viewed 17th november2012] Available from: Perceptual map •(Topshop., 2012.[digital image] [13 November 2012]. Available from: • (Mason,N., 2011. Multi- channel Retailing. Exeecutive summary – UK, Mintel [Online], 1-8 [Viewed 10 November 2012], Available rom: Images •(River Island., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: •(Zara., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: •(LookBook., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: Reports •(Top Shop/Top Man., 2002-2011. Top Shop/Top Man Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].) •(Zara., 2002-2011. Zara Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].) •(River Island., 2002-2011. River Island Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].) REFRENCES 52
  53. 53. Bibliography 53 Political •(Anon., 2009. Ethical clothing – UK. Mintel [Online], 1-2 [viewed 13 October 2012].) Economics •(Anon., 2009.Growth in emerging markets. The Global Fashion industry [Online], 1-5 [viewed 13 October 2012].) •(Neilan, C., 2012. Dip in Eurozone's economies. [online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nelian, C., 2012. Emergency loan for Spanish banks. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October] 2012.) •(Nelian, C., 2012. Bank of England's growth predictions. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [Viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nelian, C., 2012. UK inflation. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nelian, C., 2012. 2012- Year the UK will return to “full fitness”. Drapers article [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Anon., 2011. Consumers and the Economic Outlook quarterly update. [Online], 1-6 [viewed 10 October] 2012.) •(Anon., 2010. Fashion: Impact of the recession – UK. Mintel [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) Social •(Anon., 2012. Highlights of consumer online habits. [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Faulkner, R. and V. Gallagher, 2012. [Online], 1-4 [Viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Anon., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Knowels, J., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Perry, J., 2012. Drapers Article [Online], 1-8 [viewed 10 October 2012].) Technology •(Perry, J., 2012. Drapers article [online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Stocker, K., 2012. All Saints campaign. Drapers article [Online], 1-4 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Faulkner, R., 2012. Click + Collect. Drapers Article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Stocker, K., 2012. Retails Week [online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Holland, T., 2012. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Gallagher, V., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-3 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nodder, C., 2012. Drapers article [online], 1-2 [viewed 10 October 2012].) •(Nielson, 2012. [Online], [viewed 10 October 2012].) Strengths •(Ryan, J.,2012. Topshop opening in Selfridges. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Bearne, S., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Goldfingle, G., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Faulkner, R., 2012. Topshop hires Burberry PR guru. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Anon., 2012. Hit or Miss. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) Weaknesses •(Gallagher, V., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Wright, I., 2012. Hit or Miss. Drapers article, 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) Opportunity's •(Neilan, C., 2012. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Nodder, C., 2012. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Anon., 2012. Topshop to debut eco capsule collection. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [Viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Gallagher, V., 2012. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) Threats  •(Anon., 2011. Colloquy and Epsilon’s cross- cultural study. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Goldfingle, G., 2012. [online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Faulkner, R., 2012. H&M opening in Mexico. [Online], 1-2 [viewed 12 October 2012].) •(Gallagher, V., 2012. [Online], 1-2 [Viewed 12 October 2012].)
  54. 54. Bibliography  54 Zara Strength •(Goldfingle, G., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed on 20 November 2012].) •(Gallagher, V., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Weaknesses •(Qureshi, H., 2012. Guardian article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(Fleming, O., 2012. Daily Mail [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Opportunity's •(Creevy, J., 2012. Drapers [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Threats •(Gallagher, V., 2012. Drapers [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(Berwin, L., 2008. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) River Island Strength •(Harrison, N., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(Anon., 2006. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Weaknesses •(Moran, G., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(MacDonald, G., 2012. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) Opportunity’s •(Wright, I., 2012. Drapers article [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •(Rushton, K.,2011. Retail Week [Online], 1-2 [viewed 20 November 2012].) •Page 45 - (Geddes,I. 2011 Changing the face of retail. Deloitte report [online]3, [viewed 17th november2012] Available from: Perceptual map •(Topshop., 2012.[digital image] [13 November 2012]. Available from: • (Mason,N., 2011. Multi- channel Retailing. Exeecutive summary – UK, Mintel [Online], 1-8 [Viewed 10 November 2012], Available rom: Images •(River Island., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: •(Zara., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: •(LookBook., 2012. [digital image] [19 November 2012]. Available from: Reports •(Top Shop/Top Man., 2002-2011. Top Shop/Top Man Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].) •(Zara., 2002-2011. Zara Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].) •(River Island., 2002-2011. River Island Limited. Key financials and employees. Fame report [online].)
  55. 55. Appendices – Topshop survey 55
  56. 56. 56