• Saturated fats are usually obtained from animal sources, for example
butter and lard. The exceptions are coconut and palm oils.
• Polyunsaturated fats come from vegetable sources, such as sunflower oil.
Gives energy and vitamins A, D, E and K
• Found in oils, solid fats, fatty meat, cream, cheese and nuts
• Animal fats and some vegetables oils contain saturated fat, which may raise
blood cholesterol levels
• Vegetable fats such as sunflower and soya and those in oily fish are
polyunsaturated and better for the heart
• Gives a rich source of energy that can be converted into fat in the body,
which protects organs and gives heat
• Provides energy and fibre
• Found in cereals, vegetables, sugar, rice, pasta, bread and pastries
• If the body receives more energy than it needs, it stores it as fat
• Wholemeal/wholegrain cereals are a richer source of fibre than
• Vitamins B and E, calcium and iron are also provided by bread
• Enables the body to grow and repair
• Found in milk, meat, fish, eggs and cheese
• Also in soya, beans, cereals, pulses and nuts
• If more protein is eaten than is needed for growth and repair, the
excess is converted into glycogen in the liver and used as energy
• Animal foods and soya beans are used most efficiently by the body
• Many protein foods also provide iron and B vitamins (especially B12)
• Tofu (soya bean curd), Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP) made from
soya flour, and Quorn (fungus) can all be used to replace animal
• thickens a liquid by forming a suspension such as a sauce
• forms a gel when the suspension is heated, like adding cornflour to a custard powder and milk mix
• flavours by sweetening
• colours by caramelising when heated
• aerates when beaten with a fat such as in a cake mix
• can coagulate which is when a liquid becomes firmer, for example when an egg is heated
• can aerate a mixture, like whisking egg whites in a meringue mix
• shortens pastry (makes it more crumbly) by making it less stretchy
• can act as an emulsifying agent to stop two liquids from separating
• moistens a baked mixture such as a cake
• Aerating incorporates air by sieving, creaming, whisking, beating, folding and
rolling, or rubbing in. Raising agents can be used to make a mixture lighter, for
example, baking power is used in cakes.
• Coagulation is when something thickens from a liquid to a solid. For example, raw
eggs are clear and runny but become white and solid when heated.
• Preserving helps food to last longer through freezing, canning, jam-making, or
pickling. Fats, sugar and oil are used in preserving.
• Tenderising tough meat makes it easier to eat. Lemon juice, vinegar or wine can
be used as a marinade, or meat can be tenderised with mechanical action using a
meat mallet or slow cooking.
• Thickening uses eggs, pulses, cereals and fruit to thicken liquids such as milk, and
heat is usually applied. Egg custard is made like this.
• Binding uses fats, eggs, cereals and flour to bind ingredients. For example, egg is used to bind
together a biscuit mixture.
• Bulking forms the main structure of a food product, such as flour in biscuits and cakes.
• Enrobing means coating a food with another ingredient, for example, dipping fish in beaten egg
and then breadcrumbs.
• Enriching is the addition of an ingredient to improve the quality. Nutrients are sometimes added
to increase nutritional value.
• Fermentation uses yeast to convert carbohydrates into alcohol and carbon dioxide. In bread
making, yeast is added to flour and water causing the dough to rise.
• Flavouring can be savoury, like herbs and spices, or sweet, like sugar or sweeteners. Sugar helps
to soften the sharp taste of grapefruit.
• Shortening uses of oils and fats to reduce the development of gluten in pastry to make the dough
• Stabilising helps food keep its structure. Eggs and flour are used for stabilising.
• Setting means using ingredients to make foods firm, such as gelatine to set cold desserts.
• Browning uses fats, eggs, sugar, milk, flour or oil, which darken a food
• Glazing adds a shiny coating, for example, pastry brushed with beaten
egg before cooking.
• Icing can add colour and texture.
• Solution is when one substance is dissolve in another one, for example when sugar is
dissolved in water we get a sugar solution.
• Colloid is a general term for when two substances are mixed together. For example milk
has a colloidal structure, because it is made from microscopic drops of fat dispersed in a
• Emulsion is when two unblendable liquids are mixed together, for example, oil and
vinegar. An emulsifier like egg yolk is needed to stop them from separating. Emulsions
are a particular type of colloid. Mayonnaise is an emulsion.
• Foam is when air bubbles are incorporated into a liquid, such as in whipped cream and
• Gel contains a small amount of a solid in a large amount of liquid. A small amount of
gelatine can set a large amount of liquid.
• Suspension is when a solid is held in a liquid. The solid may sink if the mixture is not
stirred. Flour (solid) is suspended in milk (liquid) when making a cheese sauce.
• Natural additives occur naturally in foods. They are extracted and put
into other foods. Caramelised sugar is used as colouring in cola.
• Artificial additives do not occur naturally. They are made
synthetically for a certain purposes. For example tartrazine is a
synthetic colouring added to some sweets to make them yellow.
Can you think of
Uses for additives
• Both natural and artificial additives are used for many different
• Preservatives extend the shelf life of a product. Salt is used used in
bacon and sausages.
• Colouring makes food products look more appealing and appetising.
• Flavourings can be used to add or improve the flavour of a food
product. Vanilla flavouring is often added to cakes and biscuits.
• Emulsifiers are used to prevent ingredients from separating. For
example, lecithin, which is found in eggs, is used to stop the
ingredients in mayonnaise from separating
Some foods, such as citrus fruits, are acidic. Others, like sodium bicarbonate, are alkaline.
Foods that are neither acid nor alkaline, like pure water, are called neutral and have a pH
value of 7.
Acidity or alkalinity affects:
the taste of final product
the rate at which microorganisms grow within and upon food
Acidity or alkalinity can affect food in the following ways:
Acidic fruit mixed with milk will cause the mixture to curdle.
Vinegar (acid) is added to meringue to give it a soft marshmallow texture.
Bicarbonate of soda (alkaline) acts as a raising agent during baking.
Lemon juice (acid) helps prevent fruits like apples from discolouring
• Dairy produce, cooked foods and raw ingredients should be kept at a
temperature between 0°C and 5°C. This will slow the growth of
microorganisms, but won't stop it.
• Meats, vegetables and ready meals can be frozen. Freezing maintains high
standards of freshness and safety. Freezers store products at -18°C or
below. Freezing does not kill microorganisms, but will keep them dormant
until the food is unfrozen.
• Reheating foods
• Food must be reheated to at least 72°C to avoid the risk of food poisoning.
Leftovers should be disposed of quickly.
Eat Well Plate
• The Eatwell Plate is based on the Government’s
• Eight Tips for Eating Well:
• 1. Base your meals on starchy foods
• 2. Eat lots of fruit and veg
• 3. Eat more fish
• 4. Cut down on saturated fat and sugar
• 5. Try to eat less salt – no more than 6g a day
• 6. Get active and try to be a healthy weight
• 7. Drink plenty of water
• 8. Don’t skip breakfast
• http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/eatwell-plate.aspx - use this website for more
Functions of ingredients- Flour
• Provides fibre (especially if wholemeal)
• If Self-Raising, makes mixtures rise
• Thickens sauces
• Forms the bulk of bread, pastry and cake mixes
• If wholemeal, provides colour and texture
• Gluten in flour produces a stretchy dough
• Provides carbohydrate, Vitamin B, calcium and iron
• Provides sweetness
• If brown, provides colour and texture
• Large amounts prevent micro-organism growth (for example,
• Caramelises to produce a brown colour
• Retains moisture
• Helps to trap air in cake mixtures
• Provides carbohydrate
• Hold air when beaten
• Coagulate (sets) when heated
• Add colour to mixtures
• Thickens sauces, custards, etc.
• Glaze bread, scones and pastry
• Bind ingredients together
• Provide protein, fat, iron and Vitamins A, B, and E
Fats and oils
• Provide flavour
• Keep products moist and extend shelf-life
• Add colour to foods
• Make pastry 'short' by coating the flour to stop gluten developing
• Hold air when creamed with sugar
• Oil forms an emulsion with liquids (for example, mayonnaise)
• Provide energy and Vitamins A and D
Can you identify the pastry?
Can you identify the pastry?
• Many sauces are thickened by gelatinisation of starch. When mixed with a liquid and heated,
starch thickens the liquid.
• During gelatinisation the following occurs starch particles form a suspension in the liquid ( they
do not dissolve)
• Stirring the liquid keeps the starch particles suspended – if the suspension isn’t stirred they stick
together and sink to the bottom – forming lumps. This will then not cook correctly.
• When the liquid reaches approximately 60°C the starch grains begin to swell as they absorb the
• As heating continues (approx 80°C) the particles break open and release starch. This makes the
mixture thick and viscous. This is gelatinisation.
• Gelatinisation is completed when the liquid reaches 100°C. The liquid now forms a gel.
• On cooling the gel solidifies – it will set to form a mould e.g. Blancmange.
• This is the same for all starch- based sauces. It is important to remember that cornflour and
arrowroot are pure starch where as wheat flour contains a high proportion of starch and also
• The Roux Method
• The fat is melted and the flour is then stirred in and cooked on a
medium heat. The liquid is added gradually off the heat. The sauce is
then returned to the heat and brought back to the boil.
Types of Roux
• White roux - cooked for 1 minute, no colour
• Blond roux - cooked for 2-3 minutes. Flour starts to brown before
liquid is added
• Brown roux – flour cooked thoroughly until deep brown to develop
fullness of flavour before stock added. Base for stews
• One-off production is when a single product is made, for example a
designer wedding cake. This is classed as a luxury food item.
• Batch production involves making of a set number of identical products.
Typically batch production is used in a bakery, where a certain number of
different types of loaves will be made every morning.
• Mass production is used to make foods on a large scale. The production
line involves repetitive tasks so machines are often used. This saves time
and helps lower the cost of production.
• Continuous-flow production is a high-volume production method where
machines run 24 hours a day. It is often used to produce milk and packet
CAD- Computer Aided Design
• Computers are essential in the development and manufacture of food products.
Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps create, modify and communicate information
efficiently. Computer modelling allows designers to test models and changes without
carrying them out.
• CAD is used for:
• Nutritional analysis software provides nutritional information to help create foods for a
• Simulate changes to inputs and processes so the impact of modifications can be
• Calculate costs and amounts of ingredients needed for batch production
• Packaging design and advertising decisions using graphics and 3D modelling software
• Sensory profile software is used in testing and can analyse and rank results
• Production flowcharts show where Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)
checks need to be included in the factory processes
• Quality control
• Quality assurance (QA) guarantees that food meets a clear, consistent set of standards. At key
stages in production there should be quality control checks so manufacturers are alerted to any
problems. The results of these checks are recorded. Checks can be done by hand or by computer.
• Quality control checks will normally include:
• weight checks to make sure the product is the required weight
• visual checks to make sure it looks the way it should
• temperature checks to make sure it is being kept at an appropriate temperature
• pH checks to make sure the food has the correct acidity/alkalinity
• microbiological checks to make sure bacteria are not at harmful levels
• chemical checks to guard against chemical contamination
• metal checks to guard against contamination by metals (usually at the packing stage, using a
• organoleptic checks to check flavour, texture and aroma by sampling the food product
Can you think of any other advantages
Environmentally friendly packaging
• Environmentally friendly packaging causes less damage to the
environment. There are three types:
• Reusable packaging can be cleaned and re-used. For example, glass
milk bottles are reused.
• Recyclable packaging is made of materials that can be used again,
usually after processing. Recyclable materials include glass, metal,
card and paper.
• Biodegradable packaging will easily break down in the soil or the
• These are the items on the label that are required by law.
• manufacturer's name and contact details
• name of the product
• description of the product
• weight (some foods are exempt, for example bread)
• ingredients (listed in descending order of weight)
• cooking/heating instructions
• storage instructions
• shelf life
• place of origin
• allergy information
• The following items are not legal requirements, but are nevertheless
good practice and often included on packaging:
• illustration of product
• nutritional values of the product
• customer guarantee
• the batch-code and bar-code numbers
• opening instructions
How to get full marks on the design question.
• How to get full marks for design ideas –
• • recognisable sketch that fits design criteria – explain HOW your design fits
• the design criteria (refer to the decorations you have chosen)
• • write the product name,
• • draw two DIFFERENT products,
• • label in detail
• • add measurements (what size is the product, is it a small decorated cake or a
• large decorated cake? Portion sizes etc‐could put weight in grams on.
• • Explain HOW your product is suitable for providing sensory appeal e.g.
• colour, aroma, texture, shape, variety of flavours, finishing techniques.
• • Include finishing techniques and use a variety which complement each other
• and fulfil what the brief has asked.
Mark scheme for what should be in
your method of how to make this
GCSE FOOD EXAM TOP TIPS!
• Go into the exam with your design ideas and methods in your head
• Read all of the questions at least twice, if you have to neatly
underline the command words in the question
• NEVER leave a blank- Always try and answer the question
• Use your time wisely- you have 2 hours and 4 sections= 30 minutes
on each section