Gerunds and Infinitive


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Gerunds and Infinitive

  1. 1. In Latin and English grammar, the gerund is a non-finite verb form used to make a verb phrase that can serve in place of a noun phrase. The English gerund ends in -ing (as in I enjoy playing football); the same verb form also serves as the English present participle (which has an adjectival or adverbial function), and as a pure verbal noun. In English, the gerund is the form that names the action of the verb (for instance, playing is the action of "to play"). It should not be confused with other nouns ending in -ing, such as building, painting, writing, which name the product resulting from an action. GERUND.
  2. 2. GERUND. Examples of use The following sentences illustrate some uses of gerund clauses, showing how such a clause serves as a noun within the larger sentence. In some cases the clause consists of just the gerund (although in many such cases the word could equally be analyzed as a pure verbal noun). Gerunds are -ing forms of verbs, but they are not part of any verb tense. Instead, they are used as nouns. Notice that 1. Most gerunds are the -ing form (base form + -ing) of a verb . 2. Gerunds may be affirmative or negative. Negatives are formed by putting not before the -ing form. Gerunds may be used exactly as nouns are used. Their most common uses are 1. as subjects; 2. as objects of verbs and prepositions; 3. as subject complements.
  3. 3. GERUND. Examples: Subjects Swimming is excellent exercise. Drinking too much coffee gives him a headache. Eating too quickly gave him an upset stomach. Not doing his homework caused him to fail the test. Not having an answering machine causes him to miss many calls. Objects He dislikes doing homework. The manager suggested having our meeting away from the office. He proposed meeting in a restaurant. I look forward to seeing you soon. She's worried about missing her bus. Are you tired of studying? She's depressed about not passing the test. He's nervous because of not being on time. He's tired from not getting enough sleep.
  4. 4. Subject Complements His hobby is playing computer games. My least favorite chore is cleaning the bathroom. His problem is not coming to class on time. GERUND.
  5. 5. Infinitive. Is a grammatical term used to refer to certain verb forms that exist in many languages. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable to all languages. The word is derived from Late Latin infinitivus, a derivative of infinitus meaning "infinite". Infinitives are used mostly as non-finite verbs. In traditional descriptions of English, the infinitive is the basic dictionary form of a verb when used non-finitely, with or without the particle to. Thus to go is an infinitive, as is go in a sentence like "I must go there" (but not in "I go there", where it is a finite verb). The form without to is called the bare infinitive, and the form with to is called the full infinitive or to-infinitive. As a verb, an infinitive may take objects and other complements and modifiers to form a verb phrase (called an infinitive phrase). Like other non-finite verb forms (such as participles, gerunds and gerundives) infinitives do not generally have an expressed subject; thus an infinitive verb phrase also constitutes a complete non-finite clause, called an infinitive (infinitival) clause. Such phrases or clauses may play a variety of roles within sentences, often as nouns (for example as the subject of a sentence or as a complement of another verb), and sometimes as adverbs or other types of modifier. Infinitives are not usually inflected for tense, person, etc. as finite verbs are, although some degree of inflection sometimes occurs; for example Latin has distinct active and passive infinitives.
  6. 6. Infinitive. Uses of the infinitive The main uses of infinitives (and infinitive phrases) are as follows: • As complements of other verbs. The bare infinitive is used as complement of the dummy auxiliary do, most modal auxiliary verbs, verbs of perception such as see, watch and hear (after a direct object), and the verbs of permission or causation make, bid, let, and have (also after a direct object). The to-infinitive is used after many intransitive verbs such as want, aim, like, fail, etc., and as a second complement after a direct object in the case of verbs such as want, convince, aim, etc. • In various particular expressions, such as had better and would rather (with bare infinitive), in order to, as if to, am to/is to/are to. • As a noun phrase, expressing its action or state in an abstract, general way, used as the subject of a clause or as a predicative expression: "To err is human"; "To know me is to love me". The bare inifinitive can be used in such sentences as "What you should do is make a list." A common construction with the to-infinitive involves a dummy pronoun subject (it), with the infinitive phrase placed after the predicate: "It was nice to meet you."
  7. 7. Infinitive. • Adverbially, to express purpose, intent or result – the to-infinitive can have the meaning of "in order to ..." or "so as to ...“ • As a modifier of a noun or adjective. This may relate to the meaning of the noun or adjective ("a request to see someone"; "keen to get on"), or it may form a type of non-finite relative clause, as in "the man to save us"; "the method to use"; "nice to listen to". • In elliptical questions (direct or indirect): "I don't know where to go." After why the bare infinitive is used: "Why reveal it?“.
  8. 8. The infinitives are highlighted below:She hopes to work in New York. 1.Ask him to sing the National Anthem. 2.You need to wash before eating. 3.The principal wants you to explain what happened. 4.Boys love to catch bugs. 5.She wants to dance at the ceremony. 6.Sara asked to play the flute. 7.I'd like Mom to make meatloaf for dinner. 8.Grandpa is known to spin some very wild stories. 9.When do you want to paint the bedroom? Infinitive. Examples