It makes a sentence complete.
e.g.: I read a book.
Verb which has a subject and change
its form with the:
Tense of the verb(present, past,
E.g.: I read a book.
He reads a book.
Verbs used in all TENSES are finite
Non -Finite Verb
Verb which has no subject,
tense or number. It cannot
make a sentence complete and
needs help of one finite verb to
complete its meaning.
E.g.: I to play cricket.
I like to play cricket. √
(‘like’ made the non-finite verb
Non -Finite Verb
It does not change its form
according to the person or number of
I like to play cricket.
He likes to play cricket.
Infinitives, Gerunds and Participles
are Non-Finite verbs
• A gerund is a special kind of noun
that we make from a verb.
• 1. Running is good cardiovascular
exercise. (subject in sentence)
• 2. Many people don't enjoy working
at their jobs. (direct object in
• 3. Elena is excited about working at
her new job. (object of the
• 4.One of the most popular exercises
Formed by adding –ing
Is always active as expresses continuous
Hearing the sound, the man ran out.
Formed by adding-’ed, en, n, t, d’ to
the root verb
Refers to completed action and is passive
The smell of roasted chicken filled the
Formed by adding ‘Having/Having
been’ before the participle form of
Having finished our work, we went
Having been loved by everyone,
the child felt severe.
A gerund is a "VERB+ING" that works as a
NOUN in a sentence.
1.Walking is good for health.
2.He goes for walking.
Present participle is also "VERB+ING", but it
does not work as NOUN. It works as an
adjective and modifier.
1.We may need walking stick at our old age.
2.They are searching for swimming cloth.
1.Seeing the police, the thief ran away.
2. Resting a while, he returned to his desk.
A verb consisting of the word
‘to’+ root verb and functioning
as a noun, adjective or
He refuses to accept our
They want to read a book.
To Infinitive/ Present Infinitive
S+ finite verb+ to + V1 +
I want to play cricket.
He failed to get the pass
They managed to reach there on
We hope to get better results.
Adjective/ Noun/ Pronoun
S+ finite verb+
oIt is nice to see you here.
oWe are sure to win.
oPlease give me your pen to
oIt was silly of me to miss
Question word Infinitive
S+ finite verb+ Question word+
I don’t know how to help her.
I wonder when to call him up.
They could not decide whether to
go or not.
S + finite verb + to + have + V3
I am happy to have met you.
He pretended to have seen the film.
I intended to have called you.
S + finite verb + obj. + V1
His jokes made us laugh.
I saw him come.
You need not go there.
We heard her lock the door.
Please help me cross the road.
Gerunds are often used when actions
are real, fixed, or completed and
• I enjoy cooking.
•She avoids walking in the rain.
Infinitives are often used when actions
are unreal, abstract, or future and one
•He wants to swim.
•He refuses to talk to me.
1. Rising prices of vegetables is a cause
2. Reading is fun.
3. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
4. She enjoys gardening on the
5. Carrying pets on board in the flight is
6. I love to dance in the rain.
7. Backbiting is not a good habit.
8. Having spoken to him I realised that
he was genuinely in trouble.
8.Cheating among pupils will not be
9. We intend to leave early.
10. Travelling might satisfy your desire
for new experiences.
11. They asked me to bring some food.
12. Waiting seemed foolish.
13. The crying baby had a wet diaper.
14. Arriving at the store, I found that
it was closed.
15.Having read the newspaper, i came
to know about the accident.