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Subject cataloging


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Review of Subject Cataloging

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Subject cataloging

  2. 2. OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES  Refresh memory with the conceptsRefresh memory with the concepts and principles of subject catalogingand principles of subject cataloging  Refresh memory with the rules inRefresh memory with the rules in using Sears List of Subject Headingsusing Sears List of Subject Headings and Library of Congress Subjectand Library of Congress Subject HeadingsHeadings  Show examples of subject headingsShow examples of subject headings
  3. 3. OUTLINEOUTLINE  Definition of TermsDefinition of Terms  Concepts and Principles of SubjectConcepts and Principles of Subject CatalogingCataloging  Sears List of Subject HeadingsSears List of Subject Headings  Library of Congress Subject HeadingsLibrary of Congress Subject Headings
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF TERMSDEFINITION OF TERMS  Subject CatalogingSubject Cataloging  Subject HeadingSubject Heading  Subject ContentSubject Content  Subject AnalysisSubject Analysis  Subject CatalogSubject Catalog  Subject Authority RecordSubject Authority Record  Subject EntrySubject Entry
  5. 5. SUBJECT CATALOGINGSUBJECT CATALOGING  The process of providing subjectThe process of providing subject access points to bibliographicaccess points to bibliographic records.records.  The process of assigning subjectThe process of assigning subject headings to materials beingheadings to materials being cataloged.cataloged.
  6. 6. SUBJECT HEADINGSUBJECT HEADING  The term (a word or a group ofThe term (a word or a group of words) denoting a subject underwords) denoting a subject under which all material on that subject iswhich all material on that subject is entered in a catalog.entered in a catalog.  An authorized heading in a standardAn authorized heading in a standard list of subject headings.list of subject headings.
  7. 7. SUBJECT CONTENTSUBJECT CONTENT  The theme or topic treated by theThe theme or topic treated by the author in the work whether stated inauthor in the work whether stated in the title or not.the title or not. Examples:Examples: – PhilosophyPhilosophy ((Introduction toIntroduction to philosophyphilosophy)) – Classical literatureClassical literature ((Greek and RomanGreek and Roman literature)literature)
  8. 8. SUBJECT ANALYSISSUBJECT ANALYSIS  The process of identifying theThe process of identifying the intellectual content of a work.intellectual content of a work.  Process:Process: – Read the workRead the work – Identify subject content(s)Identify subject content(s) – Determine phase relations of subjectsDetermine phase relations of subjects – Represent subject content with subjectRepresent subject content with subject heading(s)heading(s)
  9. 9. SUBJECT CATALOGSUBJECT CATALOG  A catalog consisting of subjectA catalog consisting of subject entries only.entries only.  The subject portion of a dividedThe subject portion of a divided catalog.catalog.
  10. 10. SUBJ ECT AUTHORITY RECORDSUBJ ECT AUTHORITY RECORD  A record of a subject heading thatA record of a subject heading that shows its established form, cites theshows its established form, cites the authorities consulted in determiningauthorities consulted in determining the choice and form of the heading,the choice and form of the heading, and indicates the cross referencesand indicates the cross references made to and from the heading.made to and from the heading.  A collection of subject authorityA collection of subject authority records is known as subject authorityrecords is known as subject authority file.file.
  11. 11. SUBJECT ENTRYSUBJECT ENTRY  An entry in a catalog or aAn entry in a catalog or a bibliography under a heading whichbibliography under a heading which indicates the subject of an item.indicates the subject of an item.  The subject card in a card catalog isThe subject card in a card catalog is an example of a subject example of a subject entry.
  12. 12. IMPORTANCE OF SUBJECTIMPORTANCE OF SUBJECT CATALOGINGCATALOGING  It helps in determining subjectIt helps in determining subject content when the title of the workcontent when the title of the work does not completely indicate whatdoes not completely indicate what the material is all about.the material is all about.  It provides access to all relevantIt provides access to all relevant materials by subject.materials by subject.  It brings together all references toIt brings together all references to materials on the same subject.materials on the same subject.  It shows subject fields affiliations.It shows subject fields affiliations.  It provides a formal description ofIt provides a formal description of subject content.subject content.
  13. 13. TYPES OF CATALOGS WITHTYPES OF CATALOGS WITH SUBJECT ENTRIESSUBJECT ENTRIES  Classed catalog – with hierarchical entriesClassed catalog – with hierarchical entries  Alphabetical-specific catalog -containsAlphabetical-specific catalog -contains specific subject headings arrangedspecific subject headings arranged alphabeticallyalphabetically  Dictionary catalog – entries are interfiledDictionary catalog – entries are interfiled in one alphabetical orderin one alphabetical order  Divided catalog – author, title, and subjectDivided catalog – author, title, and subject entries are separately arranged inentries are separately arranged in alphabetical sequencealphabetical sequence  Online catalog – automated catalogOnline catalog – automated catalog
  14. 14. SUBJECT AUTHORITY FILESUBJECT AUTHORITY FILE FUNCTIONSFUNCTIONS  Serves as a source of controlledServes as a source of controlled vocabulary and as a means forvocabulary and as a means for verifying and validating headings.verifying and validating headings.  Serves as the source for validationServes as the source for validation and verification of cross references,and verification of cross references, current status of headings, etc.current status of headings, etc.  Shows user terminology and form ofShows user terminology and form of subject access points and crosssubject access points and cross references in the catalog.references in the catalog.
  16. 16. USER and USAGEUSER and USAGE  The user and their usual way ofThe user and their usual way of looking or searching for informationlooking or searching for information should be determined since these areshould be determined since these are important in determining the termsimportant in determining the terms and forms of subject headings to beand forms of subject headings to be used.used. Example:Example: BirdsBirds instead ofinstead of OrnithologyOrnithology (for a public library catalog)(for a public library catalog)
  17. 17. UNIFORM HEADINGSUNIFORM HEADINGS  Each subject should be representedEach subject should be represented in the catalog under only onein the catalog under only one heading and under only one formheading and under only one form and format.and format. – Synonymous termsSynonymous terms – Variant spellingsVariant spellings – Foreign terms vs. local termsForeign terms vs. local terms – Technical vs. popular termsTechnical vs. popular terms – Obsolete vs. current termsObsolete vs. current terms
  18. 18. Choice Among SynonymousChoice Among Synonymous TermsTerms Adventure fictionAdventure fiction UFUF Adventure and adventures –Adventure and adventures – FictionFiction Adventure storiesAdventure stories Suspense novelsSuspense novels
  19. 19. Choice Among Variant SpellingsChoice Among Variant Spellings AestheticsAesthetics UFUF EstheticsEsthetics ArcheologyArcheology UFUF ArchaeologyArchaeology
  20. 20. Foreign Terms vs. Local TermsForeign Terms vs. Local Terms  Dung-awDung-aw instead of Crying for theinstead of Crying for the dead,dead, PinakbetPinakbet instead of Vegetableinstead of Vegetable in tomato sauce,in tomato sauce, BagnetBagnet instead ofinstead of Deep fried pork).Deep fried pork).  There may be a list of subjectThere may be a list of subject headings specific to a “country” e.g.headings specific to a “country” e.g. Filipiniana subject headings list,Filipiniana subject headings list, which may be used as a source.which may be used as a source.
  21. 21. Technical vs. Popular TermsTechnical vs. Popular Terms CryogenicsCryogenics USEUSE Cold temperaturesCold temperatures GynecologyGynecology USEUSE Women—Health and hygieneWomen—Health and hygiene
  22. 22. Obsolete vs. Current TermsObsolete vs. Current Terms Computing machinesComputing machines USEUSE ComputersComputers BlacksBlacks USEUSE African AmericanAfrican American
  23. 23. UNIQUE HEADINGSUNIQUE HEADINGS  The same term should not be used inThe same term should not be used in more than one sense.more than one sense. Example:Example: Cold (Disease) ; Cold (Temperature)Cold (Disease) ; Cold (Temperature)
  24. 24. SPECIFIC ENTRYSPECIFIC ENTRY  Chose the most specific subjectChose the most specific subject heading available.heading available. Example:Example: CatsCats instead ofinstead of AnimalsAnimals (if the book is(if the book is about cats only)about cats only)
  25. 25. CROSS REFERENCESCROSS REFERENCES  See or USE –See or USE – unauthorized to authorizedunauthorized to authorized  See also – related headingsSee also – related headings – BT – broader termBT – broader term – NT – narrower termNT – narrower term – RT – related termRT – related term  General reference – covers an entireGeneral reference – covers an entire category or class of headingscategory or class of headings
  26. 26. PHASE RELATIONSPHASE RELATIONS  Influence phaseInfluence phase ExEx.:.: Role of sociology in educationRole of sociology in education  Bias PhaseBias Phase Ex.: Biology for Philippine schoolsEx.: Biology for Philippine schools  Tool or application phaseTool or application phase Ex.: Use of mathematics in artEx.: Use of mathematics in art  Comparison phaseComparison phase Ex.: Asian literatureEx.: Asian literature
  28. 28. BRIEF INTRODUCTIONBRIEF INTRODUCTION  Developed by Minnie Earl SearsDeveloped by Minnie Earl Sears  First title :First title : List of Subject HeadingsList of Subject Headings for Small Librariesfor Small Libraries  Has patterns with LCSH withHas patterns with LCSH with modifications appropriate for smallmodifications appropriate for small librarieslibraries
  29. 29. TYPES OF MAIN HEADINGSTYPES OF MAIN HEADINGS  TopicalTopical  Place or geographicPlace or geographic  FormForm  NameName
  30. 30. FORM OF HEADINGSFORM OF HEADINGS  Single noun headingsSingle noun headings Ex.Ex.:: EssayEssay (abstract concept)(abstract concept) EssaysEssays (Concrete concept)(Concrete concept)  Compound headingsCompound headings ExEx.:.: Satire and humorSatire and humor  Adjectival headingsAdjectival headings ExEx.:.: Higher educationHigher education  Prepositional phrase headingsPrepositional phrase headings ExEx.:.: Electricity in agricultureElectricity in agriculture Freedom of speechFreedom of speech
  31. 31. SUBDIVISIONSSUBDIVISIONS Types:Types: – TopicalTopical ExEx.:.: English language--GrammarEnglish language--Grammar – Geographic/PlaceGeographic/Place ExEx.:.: Flowers--AustraliaFlowers--Australia – Chronological/PeriodChronological/Period ExEx.:.: Philippines—History—1946-1971Philippines—History—1946-1971 – FormForm ExEx.:.: Chemistry—DictionariesChemistry—Dictionaries Order of Subdivisions:Order of Subdivisions: Main Heading—Topical—Geographic—Chronological—FormMain Heading—Topical—Geographic—Chronological—Form
  32. 32. OMITTED SUBJECTOMITTED SUBJECT HEADINGSHEADINGS  Terms not included in the list but canTerms not included in the list but can be supplied by the cataloger:be supplied by the cataloger: - Proper names for persons, families,- Proper names for persons, families, places, nationalities, nationalplaces, nationalities, national languages and literatures, events,languages and literatures, events, ethnic tribes and corporate bodiesethnic tribes and corporate bodies - Common names of animals, plants,- Common names of animals, plants, objects, activities, diseases, foods,objects, activities, diseases, foods, chemicals, minerals, etc.chemicals, minerals, etc.
  33. 33. KEY HEADINGSKEY HEADINGS  Authors -Authors -Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616  Ethnic Groups –Ethnic Groups – Native AmericansNative Americans  Languages –Languages – English languageEnglish language  Literature –Literature – English literatureEnglish literature  Places –Places – United StatesUnited States OhioOhio Chicago (Ill.)Chicago (Ill.)  Public figures –Public figures – Presidents—United StatesPresidents—United States  Wars –Wars – World War, 1939-1945World War, 1939-1945
  34. 34. INDIVIDUAL BIOGRAPHYINDIVIDUAL BIOGRAPHY  Heading is the name of biographeeHeading is the name of biographee  Form takes on the rules fromForm takes on the rules from AACR2RAACR2R ExampleExample:: Obille, Kathleen Lourdes B., 1977-Obille, Kathleen Lourdes B., 1977-  For materials containing significantFor materials containing significant information in the field to which theyinformation in the field to which they “belong” another subject heading on“belong” another subject heading on the field or discipline may be added.the field or discipline may be added.
  35. 35. AUTOBIOGRAPHICALAUTOBIOGRAPHICAL HEADINGSHEADINGS  Subject heading to be assignedSubject heading to be assigned should be similar with the authorshould be similar with the author entry.entry. ExampleExample:: Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865
  36. 36. COLLECTIVE BIOGRAPHYCOLLECTIVE BIOGRAPHY  General biographyGeneral biography ExEx.:.: BiographyBiography Biography—DictionariesBiography—Dictionaries  National biographyNational biography ExEx.:.: Philippines—BiographyPhilippines—Biography  Professional / Subject biographyProfessional / Subject biography ExEx.:.: ChemistsChemists;; LibrariansLibrarians;; Women--Women-- BiographyBiography;; Baseball--Baseball-- BiographyBiography
  37. 37. WORK ABOUT BIOGRAPHYWORK ABOUT BIOGRAPHY  When the material discusses how toWhen the material discusses how to write biographies, assign the subjectwrite biographies, assign the subject headingheading Biography (as a literary form)Biography (as a literary form)
  38. 38. WORK ABOUT LITERATUREWORK ABOUT LITERATURE  Where literature is the subject, thisWhere literature is the subject, this is treated like other works withis treated like other works with subject headings representing thesubject headings representing the scope of the works.scope of the works. ExamplesExamples:: Literature; Drama;Literature; Drama; German drama—History andGerman drama—History and criticismcriticism
  39. 39. LITERARY WORKSLITERARY WORKS  For an individual literary work, no formFor an individual literary work, no form heading is assigned.heading is assigned.  For collections of works of more than oneFor collections of works of more than one author, a literary form heading isauthor, a literary form heading is assigned.assigned. ExamplesExamples:: Essays; American drama--Essays; American drama-- CollectionsCollections  For works about literature, assign subjectFor works about literature, assign subject headings representing the content andheadings representing the content and scope of the materials.scope of the materials. ExampleExample:: American literature; DramaAmerican literature; Drama
  41. 41. BRIEF INTRODUCTIONBRIEF INTRODUCTION  Originally developed by the Library ofOriginally developed by the Library of Congress for use on its catalogingCongress for use on its cataloging recordsrecords  First published in 1914First published in 1914  Omitted headingsOmitted headings – Name headingsName headings – Headings with free floating subdivisionsHeadings with free floating subdivisions – Headings with free floating phrasesHeadings with free floating phrases
  42. 42. TYPES OF MAIN HEADINGSTYPES OF MAIN HEADINGS  TopicalTopical  FormForm  Headings for named entitiesHeadings for named entities
  43. 43. SYNTAX OF MAIN HEADINGSSYNTAX OF MAIN HEADINGS  Single noun headingsSingle noun headings  Adjectival phrase headingsAdjectival phrase headings  Conjunctive phrase headingsConjunctive phrase headings  Prepositional phrase headingsPrepositional phrase headings  Inverted phrase headingsInverted phrase headings  Free floating phrase headingsFree floating phrase headings  QualifiersQualifiers
  44. 44. HEADINGS FOR NAMEDHEADINGS FOR NAMED ENTITIESENTITIES  Personal namesPersonal names  Corporate namesCorporate names  Geographic namesGeographic names – JurisdictionalJurisdictional – Non-jurisdictionalNon-jurisdictional
  45. 45. Personal NamesPersonal Names Follow AACR2R rules as regards format.Follow AACR2R rules as regards format.  PersonPerson ExEx.:.: Defoe, Daniel, 1661-1771Defoe, Daniel, 1661-1771  FamiliesFamilies ExEx.:.: Aquino familyAquino family  Gods/goddessesGods/goddesses  ExEx.:.: Zeus (Greek deity)Zeus (Greek deity)  Legendary characterLegendary character ExEx.:.: Merlin (Legendary character)Merlin (Legendary character)
  46. 46. Corporate namesCorporate names  Follow AACR2R format of headingsFollow AACR2R format of headings for corporate bodies.for corporate bodies.  If used as main entry, its form ofIf used as main entry, its form of heading should be similar with theheading should be similar with the subject entry.subject entry. ExEx.:.: Chinese Medical AssociationChinese Medical Association
  47. 47. Jurisdictional GeographicJurisdictional Geographic NamesNames  Established according to AACR2REstablished according to AACR2R ExamplesExamples:: PhilippinesPhilippines Vigan (Ilocos Sur,Vigan (Ilocos Sur, Philippines)Philippines) Chicago (Ill.)Chicago (Ill.)  Regardless of the changes inRegardless of the changes in geographic jurisdictions, the currentgeographic jurisdictions, the current name of the place should be of the place should be used.
  48. 48. Non-jurisdictional GeographicNon-jurisdictional Geographic NamesNames  Names of natural geographicNames of natural geographic features that may be used as subjectfeatures that may be used as subject entries but not used as main entries.entries but not used as main entries. ExamplesExamples:: Amazon RiverAmazon River Ohio River ValleyOhio River Valley
  49. 49. Generic QualifiersGeneric Qualifiers  Added to the non-jurisdictional nameAdded to the non-jurisdictional name when there is a need to distinguishwhen there is a need to distinguish between headings and/or cross-between headings and/or cross- references that have the same namereferences that have the same name and geographic qualifier.and geographic qualifier. Ex.: Big Bear Lake (Calif. : City)Ex.: Big Bear Lake (Calif. : City) Big Bear Lake (Calif. : Lake)Big Bear Lake (Calif. : Lake)
  50. 50.  The inverted form is used when the nameThe inverted form is used when the name of the natural geographic feature consistsof the natural geographic feature consists of a specific and a generic term, and theof a specific and a generic term, and the generic term precedes the specific term.generic term precedes the specific term. ExamplesExamples:: Fuji, Mount (Japan)Fuji, Mount (Japan) specific genericspecific generic ButBut Rocky MountainsRocky Mountains (specific) (generic)(specific) (generic) ENTRY ELEMENTENTRY ELEMENT (for Geographic headings)(for Geographic headings)
  51. 51. SUBDIVISIONSSUBDIVISIONS  TopicalTopical  GeographicGeographic  ChronologicalChronological  FormForm  Free floating (form or topical)Free floating (form or topical)
  52. 52. Free Floating SubdivisionsFree Floating Subdivisions  Free floating subdivisions of general applicationFree floating subdivisions of general application ExEx.. MathematicsMathematics––Study and teachingStudy and teaching  Free floating subdivisions under specific types ofFree floating subdivisions under specific types of headingsheadings ExEx.. Actors—Political activityActors—Political activity  Free floating subdivisions indicated by “multiples”Free floating subdivisions indicated by “multiples” ExEx.. Birth control—Religious aspects—Birth control—Religious aspects— Buddhism [Christianity, etc.]Buddhism [Christianity, etc.]  Free floating subdivisions controlled by patternFree floating subdivisions controlled by pattern headingsheadings
  53. 53. Examples of Pattern HeadingsExamples of Pattern Headings Languages andLanguages and groups ofgroups of languageslanguages English languageEnglish language --Pronoun--Pronoun IndividualIndividual literary authorsliterary authors Shakespeare, William,Shakespeare, William, 1564-16161564-1616 Literary worksLiterary works entered underentered under authorauthor Shakespeare, William,Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Hamlet1564-1616. Hamlet
  54. 54. Geographic SubdivisionsGeographic Subdivisions  Direct (country follows heading)Direct (country follows heading) Ex.Ex. Music—SpainMusic—Spain Education—Finance—JapanEducation—Finance—Japan  Indirect (country interposed between mainIndirect (country interposed between main heading and local place)heading and local place) Ex.Ex. Charities—France--ParisCharities—France--Paris  Exceptions (to be entered directly)Exceptions (to be entered directly) – CanadaCanada ProvincesProvinces – United StatesUnited States StatesStates – Great BritainGreat Britain Constituent CountriesConstituent Countries
  55. 55. LITERARY WORKSLITERARY WORKS  Works about literature in generalWorks about literature in general Ex.Ex. Literature—History and criticismLiterature—History and criticism  Anthologies by more than one authorAnthologies by more than one author Ex.Ex. Literature—CollectionsLiterature—Collections  Individual Works by one authorIndividual Works by one author No literary form headings are assigned.No literary form headings are assigned. Works about individual authors andWorks about individual authors and worksworks Ex.Ex. Shakespeare, William--BiographyShakespeare, William--Biography Beard, Henry N. Bored of the RingsBeard, Henry N. Bored of the Rings
  56. 56. BIOGRAPHYBIOGRAPHY  For individual biographies, the subjectFor individual biographies, the subject heading is the name of the biographeeheading is the name of the biographee following the AACR2R format.following the AACR2R format. Ex.Ex. Twain, Mark, 1835-1910—BiographyTwain, Mark, 1835-1910—Biography  For collection of biographies use theFor collection of biographies use the following examples:following examples: Biography; Biography—Dictionaries;Biography; Biography—Dictionaries; Philosophers—Biography;Philosophers—Biography; Art—Biography; Italy--BiographyArt—Biography; Italy--Biography
  57. 57. CHILDREN’S MATERIALSCHILDREN’S MATERIALS  Regular headings implying juvenile natureRegular headings implying juvenile nature or with juvenile subdivisionsor with juvenile subdivisions ExamplesExamples:: Family--Juvenile dramaFamily--Juvenile drama Children’s playsChildren’s plays  Alternative headings for children’sAlternative headings for children’s materials (regular subject headingsmaterials (regular subject headings without juvenile subdivisions)without juvenile subdivisions) – Headings are enclosed in bracketsHeadings are enclosed in brackets Example:Example: [Horsemanship—Fiction][Horsemanship—Fiction]
  58. 58. For queries: emailFor queries: email