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  1. 1. Aacademic integrity: a fundamental principle in all research. If you quote or re-state in your own words ideas, facts, opinions, or quotations from another source, you must give credit to the original source. To do otherwise is considered plagiarism. See Citing your Researchalmanac: example almanacs and yearbooks are compendia of useful data and statistics; almanacs typically cover a broad spectrum of topics but do not include in-depth information. Almanacs are generally updated annually. Some are focused on a given field. See: Reference SourcesBbackground information: provides an introduction, overview, and basic information about a topic. See: Finding Background Information.bibliographic databases: (General and Subject) are databases that contain citations to publications, such as periodical articles, books, or dissertations. See: Research Databases.bibliographies: example 1. A selected list of additional reading materials, chosen for their importance and comprehensiveness. See: Finding Background Information. 2. A bibliography, or list of works cited, is a complete list of all the sources you used in your research, even if you dont cite anything specific from every source you used in your paper. See: Citing your Research.biographical sources: example include information on individuals; the information given ranges in length from several brief sentences containing basic factual information about a person, to quite extensive "chapters" on individuals, or "mini-biographies". See: Reference Sources.
  2. 2. books: published in the same timeframe as conference proceedings. See: Flow of Information.Ccatalog:citation: the basic bibliographic information about a resource. Includes title, author, publisher, date, page number, etc. Citations enable others to locate the sources used by an author. Multiple standards exist for citing resources. See: Understanding Citations and Citing your Research.classification systems: help you find the item you are looking for on the shelf. There are several different types of systems. Most academic libraries use more than one. See: Locating Library Materials.call number: the code assigned to each item, regardless of classification systems used, in a library collection. This unique identification number is found both in the library catalog and on the item itself. See: Locating Library Materials.conference papers (and are written and presented at academic conferences.journals): Audience: Scholars, specialists, and students. Coverage: Research results, frequently theoretical in nature. Written By: Specialists in the field; usually scholars with PhDs. Timelines: Current coverage (6 months - 3 years). Length: >2,500 - 10,000 words. Content: Detailed examination, statistical analysis, graphics, bibliography usually included. Slant: Supposed to present objective/neutral viewpoint, may be difficult to comprehend because of technical language or jargon, often sponsored by professional associations. See: Flow of Information.conference proceedings: Audience: Ranges from the general public to
  3. 3. specialists. Coverage: In-depth coverage of a topic, compilation of scholarly articles on a topic. Written By: Specialists/scholars. Timelines: varies (1 - 3 years plus). Length: 150+ pages. Content: varies from general discussion to detailed analysis; usually includes extensive bibliography. Slant: Perspective entirely dependent on author, may be sponsored or published by professional associations. See: Flow of Information.connectors (Boolean used to combine keywords to make a logical searchlogic): statement. The most common connectors are: and, or, not, adj, near, (). See: Search Techniques.controlled vocabulary: terms selected from a standardized or "controlled" list. Often used in searching a database. An example is the Library of Congress Subject Headings. See: Search Techniques.criticism: example analysis, discussion, or opinion about an original work of art (literature, music, film, dance, etc.)current information: sources that are up-to-date and report the latest findings or thinking about a topic.Ddatabase: a collection of information stored in electronic format.It may be a collection of words, numbers, sounds, images, or video. Databases are usually created using special software that also enables users to search the database in order to retrieve information according to specific criteria. Research databases generally contain references to published information, such as articles that may have been published in a newspaper or magazine. Some research databases also include full text. See: Research Databases.dewey decimal system: all materials are separated into ten major classes,
  4. 4. represented by numbers. Each of these classes is then divided and subdivided into more specific disciplines. See: Locating Library Materials.dictionaries: example There are numerous forms and types of dictionaries, the most familiar are general English language dictionaries, used for guidance on the definition, spelling, pronunciation, and etymology (history) of words. Subject dictionaries are another common type. They are devoted to a specialized field. See: Reference Sources.directories: example Directories generally list contact information (addresses, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, URLs) for people, organizations, and/or businesses. Many also include brief entries which further describe the person, organization or business. See: Reference Sources.Eencyclopedias: example There are two basic types of encyclopedias. A general encyclopedia covers all branches of knowledge and is comprehensive, but general in scope. A subject encyclopedia focuses on a specific discipline or area of knowledge. See: Finding Background Information.endnotes: example References to specific ideas, facts, data, opinions, or quotes within your paper. See: Citing Your Research.evaluation: Assessment of information a researcher finds and examination of his/her research process. See: Evaluating Information.Ffactual information: example dates, facts, statistics, and other brief aspects of a topic.
  5. 5. footnotes: example References to specific ideas, facts, data, opinions, or quotes within your paper. See: Citing Your Research.full-text databases: in addition to the citations to publications, they also include the actual content of the item referred to by the citation, such as an article, poem, or even a complete book. See: Research Databases.Ggeographical sources: example Familiar geographical reference sources are maps and atlases. Some atlases present information over time or on a particular theme. A gazetteer is a list of place names, and includes information such as population, longitude and latitude. See: Reference Sources.guides: example (Used interchangeably with "handbooks" and "manuals") Cover a variety of topics. Some explain how to do something (e.g. how to format a citation to a journal article in a bibliography, according to a specific format). Other handbooks, manuals, and guides provide basic information. See: Reference Sources.Hhandbooks: example (Used interchangeably with "handbooks" and "manuals") Cover a variety of topics. Some explain how to do something (e.g. how to format a citation to a journal article in a bibliography, according to a specific format). Other handbooks, manuals, and guides provide basic information. See: Reference Sources.historical information: example older materials, or those that give a historical perspective on a topic.
  6. 6. Iimage databases: Contain visual information, such as illustrations, artwork, photographs. See: Research Databases.information literacy: A set of abilities requiring individuals to "recognizewhen information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information." See: Introduction.intellectual property: It is dishonest to use someone elses work without properly giving credit. Those ideas, research results, opinions, and, the actual wording the original author uses are, from a legal standpoint, the intellectual property of the author. "Stealing" that property is a violation of the copyright law. See: Citing Your Research.invisible college: Sharing or recording ideas, theories, or plans alone in a lab or personal journal, with friends, with colleagues, or with significant others. See: Flow of Information.Jjournals (and conference published in print, and increasingly online. Containspapers): multiple articles. Databases often provide citations to journal articles. Audience: Scholars, specialists, and students. Coverage: Research results, frequently theoretical in nature. Written By: Specialists in the field; usually scholars with PhDs. Timelines: Current coverage (6 months - 3 years). Length:>2,500 - 10,000 words. Content: Detailed examination, statistical analysis, graphics, bibliography usually included. Slant: Supposed to present objective/neutral viewpoint, may be difficult to comprehend because of technical language or jargon, often sponsored by professional associations. See: Flow of Information.K
  7. 7. keyword searching: Permits you to search a database for the occurrence of specific words or terms, regardless of where they may appear in the database record. See: Search Techniques.Llibrary of congress (LC) the cataloging system used by the Library ofsystem: Congress. Assigns all materials to one or more of 245,000 subject headings, and these headings are assigned to letters of the alphabet. See: Locating Library Materials.library record: personal information about you as a library user; information may include your address, telephone number, and information about items you have checked out. This information is confidential, and is accessible only to you and authorized library staff.limits: most databases allow you to limit your search results. You can restrict your results to only the records that meet certain criteria. Limits include: language, date and type of material. See: Search Techniques.Mmagazines: Audience: General public to knowledgeable layperson. Coverage: Popular topics, current affairs. Written By: Professional journalists, not necessarily specialists in the field, poets and writers of fiction, essayists. Timelines: Very current coverage (one week to several months). Length: 250 - 5,000 words. Content: As with newspapers, a strong emphasis on reporting: who, what, where, when and why; general discussion; editorial opinion; graphics; photographs; advertisements; usually no bibliography or list of sources. Slant: Articles may reflect the editorial bias/slant of the magazine. See: Flow of Information.
  8. 8. manuals: example (Used interchangeably with "guides" and "handbooks") Cover a variety of topics. Some explain how to do something (e.g. how to format a citation to a journal article in a bibliography, according to a specific format). Other handbooks, manuals, and guides provide basic information. See: Flow of Information.Nnatural language accepted by some larger databases and web searchsearching: engines. Simply type in your search query using plain English. See: Search Techniques.numeric databases: contain primarily statistical data. They may require knowledge of specific software that enables the user to extract specific information and display it in different ways, such as in tables, charts, or graphs. See: Research Databases.Ooriginal research report: results or findings from a study, experiment, or other research project.Pparenthetical references: example references to specific ideas, facts, data, opinions, or quotes within your paper. See: Citing Your Researchpeer review: a process through which a research paper or other piece of writing is critically reviewed prior to publication, by individuals with in-depth knowledge of the authors area of research or investigation, to ensure that the work under review is accurate, reliable, well-written, and worthy of publication; the process is generally guided by an editor who makes the final decision
  9. 9. periodicals: publications that are issued periodically. Examples include newspapers, magazines, and journals.phrases: useful in searching for databases. Essentially the same as requesting that your words appear immediately adjacent to one another, in the exact order you type them. See: Search Techniques.popular materials: example books and articles intended for a general audience. These materials tend to have a popular perspective and cover news, current events, or human interest stories.primary source: example original material, or material that describes an event by someone who witnessed it. Some examples of primary sources include newspaper articles written at the time an event occurred, original works (novels, poems, films, etc.), and first-hand accounts (interviews, diaries, memoirs, etc.)Rreference sources: Audience: Ranges from general public to specialists Coverage: Factual information, the "Big Picture," overviews, and summaries Written By: Specialists/scholars Timelines: Depends -- articles typically appear in encyclopedias 4 - 10 years later Content: convenient summaries of knowledge to date; may include data, statistics, directories, bibliographies Slant: supposed to present objective/neutral viewpoint; may be sponsored or published by professional associations. See: Flow of Information.relevance: 1. Appropriateness of a resource, including web pages, articles, books, and databases, to a research project and topic. See, Determining the Information You Need. 2. [Search engine] results are usually returned in ranked order by relevance. Relevance may be determined by the number of times words from your search query appear in the document,
  10. 10. where the words occur, and how close together the words appear. See: Search Techniques.Sscholarly materials: example books, articles, and reports of research written by and for scholars or professionals, with an in-depth, narrow focus. Articles are chosen for publication through a peer-review process.search query: Various combinations of keywords to create a very detailed and specific search. See: Search Techniques.search statement: The actual search as you type in a database. See: Search Techniques.secondary source: material that reports or comments on a primary source, event, or work. Some examples of secondary sources include journal and magazine articles, books, reviews, and commentaries.statistical sources: example The bulk of the information found in statistical sources is in numerical form. Some statistical resources, summarizes statistics collected by national governemnts or historical statistics. See: Reference Sources.style manual: A guide to citing sources. It explains what information to include for each source, and shows examples for the bibliography, as well as for the notes or parenthetical references. Researchers in different disciplines tend to prefer specific style manuals. See: Citing Your Research.subject headings: Official terms used to precisely describe the content of books, articles, videos, or other materials and publications. Librarians, indexers, or sometimes the authors themselves assign the terms by reviewing
  11. 11. the content of the item and selecting appropriate terms from an official, standardized list. Sometimes called controlled vocabulary. See: Search Techniques.superintendent of often used for government documents. Everydocuments (SuDoc) executive department and agency, the Judiciary,numbers: Congress, and other major independent establishments have a unique alphabetical identifier. Documents will be found on the shelf alphabetically by this symbol. Numbers are added to the alphabetic identifiers to distinguish bureaus and offices within major departments. See: Locating Library Materials.Tthesaurus: example 1. Thesauri are arranged like dictionaries, but provide alternate word choices (synonyms and antonyms) rather than defninitions. See: Reference Sources. 2. A list of subject headings. See: Search Techniques.truncation: Allows you to search for alternate forms of words. Shorten the word to its root, then add a special character (*, $, !). See: Search Techniques.Yyearbooks: example Almanacs and Yearbooks are compendia of useful data and statistics; almanacs typically cover a broad spectrum of topics but do not include in-depth information. See: Reference Sources.

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