Subject cataloging a review


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Subject cataloging a review

  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Refresh memory with the concepts and principles of subject cataloging </li></ul><ul><li>Refresh memory with the rules in using Sears List of Subject Headings and Library of Congress Subject Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Show examples of subject headings </li></ul>
  3. 3. OUTLINE <ul><li>Definition of Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts and Principles of Subject Cataloging </li></ul><ul><li>Sears List of Subject Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress Subject Headings </li></ul>
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF TERMS <ul><li>Subject Cataloging </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Heading </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Content </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Authority Record </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Entry </li></ul>
  5. 5. SUBJECT CATALOGING <ul><li>The process of providing subject access points to bibliographic records. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of assigning subject headings to materials being cataloged. </li></ul>
  6. 6. SUBJECT HEADING <ul><li>The term (a word or a group of words) denoting a subject under which all material on that subject is entered in a catalog. </li></ul><ul><li>An authorized heading in a standard list of subject headings. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SUBJECT CONTENT <ul><li>The theme or topic treated by the author in the work whether stated in the title or not. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy ( Introduction to philosophy ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical literature ( Greek and Roman literature) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SUBJECT ANALYSIS <ul><li>The process of identifying the intellectual content of a work. </li></ul><ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify subject content(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine phase relations of subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent subject content with subject heading(s) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. SUBJECT CATALOG <ul><li>A catalog consisting of subject entries only. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject portion of a divided catalog. </li></ul>
  10. 10. SUBJ ECT AUTHORITY RECORD <ul><li>A record of a subject heading that shows its established form, cites the authorities consulted in determining the choice and form of the heading, and indicates the cross references made to and from the heading. </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of subject authority records is known as subject authority file. </li></ul>
  11. 11. SUBJECT ENTRY <ul><li>An entry in a catalog or a bibliography under a heading which indicates the subject of an item. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject card in a card catalog is an example of a subject entry. </li></ul>
  12. 12. IMPORTANCE OF SUBJECT CATALOGING <ul><li>It helps in determining subject content when the title of the work does not completely indicate what the material is all about. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides access to all relevant materials by subject. </li></ul><ul><li>It brings together all references to materials on the same subject. </li></ul><ul><li>It shows subject fields affiliations. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a formal description of subject content. </li></ul>
  13. 13. TYPES OF CATALOGS WITH SUBJECT ENTRIES <ul><li>Classed catalog – with hierarchical entries </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetical-specific catalog -contains specific subject headings arranged alphabetically </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary catalog – entries are interfiled in one alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><li>Divided catalog – author, title, and subject entries are separately arranged in alphabetical sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Online catalog – automated catalog </li></ul>
  14. 14. SUBJECT AUTHORITY FILE FUNCTIONS <ul><li>Serves as a source of controlled vocabulary and as a means for verifying and validating headings. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as the source for validation and verification of cross references, current status of headings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows user terminology and form of subject access points and cross references in the catalog. </li></ul>
  15. 15. PRINCIPLES
  16. 16. USER and USAGE <ul><li>The user and their usual way of looking or searching for information should be determined since these are important in determining the terms and forms of subject headings to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Birds instead of Ornithology (for a public library catalog) </li></ul>
  17. 17. UNIFORM HEADINGS <ul><li>Each subject should be represented in the catalog under only one heading and under only one form and format. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonymous terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variant spellings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign terms vs. local terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical vs. popular terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsolete vs. current terms </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Choice Among Synonymous Terms <ul><li>Adventure fiction </li></ul><ul><li>UF Adventure and adventures – </li></ul><ul><li>Fiction </li></ul><ul><li>Adventure stories </li></ul><ul><li>Suspense novels </li></ul>
  19. 19. Choice Among Variant Spellings <ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>UF Esthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Archeology </li></ul><ul><li>UF Archaeology </li></ul>
  20. 20. Foreign Terms vs. Local Terms <ul><li>Dung-aw instead of Crying for the dead, Pinakbet instead of Vegetable in tomato sauce, Bagnet instead of Deep fried pork). </li></ul><ul><li>There may be a list of subject headings specific to a “country” e.g. Filipinana subject headings list, which may be used as a source. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Technical vs. Popular Terms <ul><li>Cryogenics </li></ul><ul><li>USE Cold temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Gynecology </li></ul><ul><li>USE Women—Health and hygiene </li></ul>
  22. 22. Obsolete vs. Current Terms <ul><li>Computing machines </li></ul><ul><li>USE Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks </li></ul><ul><li>USE African American </li></ul>
  23. 23. UNIQUE HEADINGS <ul><li>The same term should not be used in more than one sense. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold (Disease) ; Cold (Temperature) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. SPECIFIC ENTRY <ul><li>Chose the most specific subject heading available. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cats instead of Animals (if the book is about cats only) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. CROSS REFERENCES <ul><li>See or USE – unauthorized to authorized </li></ul><ul><li>See also – related headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BT – broader term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NT – narrower term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RT – related term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General reference – covers an entire category or class of headings </li></ul>
  26. 26. PHASE RELATIONS <ul><li>Influence phase </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Role of sociology in education </li></ul><ul><li>Bias Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.: Biology for Philippine schools </li></ul><ul><li>Tool or application phase </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.: Use of mathematics in art </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison phase </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.: Asian literature </li></ul>
  28. 28. BRIEF INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Developed by Minnie Earl Sears </li></ul><ul><li>First title : List of Subject Headings for Small Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Has patterns with LCSH with modifications appropriate for small libraries </li></ul>
  29. 29. TYPES OF MAIN HEADINGS <ul><li>Topical </li></ul><ul><li>Place or geographic </li></ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul>
  30. 30. FORM OF HEADINGS <ul><li>Single noun headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. : Essay (abstract concept) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essays (Concrete concept) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compound headings </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Satire and humor </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectival headings </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrase headings </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Electricity in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech </li></ul>
  31. 31. SUBDIVISIONS <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex .: English language--Grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic/Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex .: Flowers--Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronological/Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex .: Philippines—History—1946-1971 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex .: Chemistry—Dictionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Subdivisions: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Heading—Topical—Geographic—Chronological—Form </li></ul>
  32. 32. OMITTED SUBJECT HEADINGS <ul><li>Terms not included in the list but can be supplied by the cataloger: </li></ul><ul><li>- Proper names for persons, families, places, nationalities, national languages and literatures, events, ethnic tribes and corporate bodies </li></ul><ul><li>- Common names of animals, plants, objects, activities, diseases, foods, chemicals, minerals, etc. </li></ul>
  33. 33. KEY HEADINGS <ul><li>Authors - Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Groups – Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Languages – English language </li></ul><ul><li>Literature – English literature </li></ul><ul><li>Places – United States </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago (Ill.) </li></ul><ul><li>Public figures – Presidents—United States </li></ul><ul><li>Wars – World War, 1939-1945 </li></ul>
  34. 34. INDIVIDUAL BIOGRAPHY <ul><li>Heading is the name of biographee </li></ul><ul><li>Form takes on the rules from AACR2R </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obille, Kathleen Lourdes B., 1977- </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For materials containing significant information in the field to which they “belong” another subject heading on the field or discipline may be added. </li></ul>
  35. 35. AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL HEADINGS <ul><li>Subject heading to be assigned should be similar with the author entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865 </li></ul>
  36. 36. COLLECTIVE BIOGRAPHY <ul><li>General biography </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Biography </li></ul><ul><li>Biography—Dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>National biography </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Philippines—Biography </li></ul><ul><li>Professional / Subject biography </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Chemists ; Librarians ; Women-- Biography ; Baseball--Biography </li></ul>
  37. 37. WORK ABOUT BIOGRAPHY <ul><li>When the material discusses how to write biographies, assign the subject heading </li></ul><ul><li> Biography (as a literary form) </li></ul>
  38. 38. WORK ABOUT LITERATURE <ul><li>Where literature is the subject, this is treated like other works with subject headings representing the scope of the works. Examples : Literature; Drama; German drama—History and criticism </li></ul>
  39. 39. LITERARY WORKS <ul><li>For an individual literary work, no form heading is assigned. </li></ul><ul><li>For collections of works of more than one author, a literary form heading is assigned. Examples : Essays; American drama--Collections </li></ul><ul><li>For works about literature, assign subject headings representing the content and scope of the materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : American literature; Drama </li></ul>
  41. 41. BRIEF INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Originally developed by the Library of Congress for use on its cataloging records </li></ul><ul><li>First published in 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Omitted headings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name headings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headings with free floating subdivisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headings with free floating phrases </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. TYPES OF MAIN HEADINGS <ul><li>Topical </li></ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Headings for named entities </li></ul>
  43. 43. SYNTAX OF MAIN HEADINGS <ul><li>Single noun headings </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectival phrase headings </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctive phrase headings </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrase headings </li></ul><ul><li>Inverted phrase headings </li></ul><ul><li>Free floating phrase headings </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifiers </li></ul>
  44. 44. HEADINGS FOR NAMED ENTITIES <ul><li>Personal names </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate names </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdictional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-jurisdictional </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Personal Names <ul><li>Follow AACR2R rules as regards format. </li></ul><ul><li>Person </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Defoe, Daniel, 1661-1771 </li></ul><ul><li>Families </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Aquino family </li></ul><ul><li>Gods/goddesses </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Zeus (Greek deity) </li></ul><ul><li>Legendary character </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Merlin (Legendary character) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Corporate names <ul><li>Follow AACR2R format of headings for corporate bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>If used as main entry, its form of heading should be similar with the subject entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex .: Chinese Medical Association </li></ul>
  47. 47. Jurisdictional Geographic Names <ul><li>Established according to AACR2R </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples : Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigan (Ilocos Sur, Philippines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago (Ill.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regardless of the changes in geographic jurisdictions, the current name of the place should be used. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Non-jurisdictional Geographic Names <ul><li>Names of natural geographic features that may be used as subject entries but not used as main entries. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : Amazon River </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio River Valley </li></ul>
  49. 49. Generic Qualifiers <ul><li>Added to the non-jurisdictional name when there is a need to distinguish between headings and/or cross-references that have the same name and geographic qualifier. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.: Big Bear Lake (Calif. : City) </li></ul><ul><li>Big Bear Lake (Calif. : Lake) </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The inverted form is used when the name of the natural geographic feature consists of a specific and a generic term, and the generic term precedes the specific term. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>Fuji, Mount (Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>specific generic </li></ul><ul><li>But Rocky Mountains </li></ul><ul><li> (specific) (generic) </li></ul>ENTRY ELEMENT (for Geographic headings)
  51. 51. SUBDIVISIONS <ul><li>Topical </li></ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological </li></ul><ul><li>Free floating (form or topical) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Free Floating Subdivisions <ul><li>Free floating subdivisions of general application </li></ul><ul><li>Ex . Mathematics – Study and teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Free floating subdivisions under specific types of headings </li></ul><ul><li>Ex . Actors—Political activity </li></ul><ul><li>Free floating subdivisions indicated by “multiples” </li></ul><ul><li>Ex . Birth control—Religious aspects—Buddhism [Christianity, etc.] </li></ul><ul><li>Free floating subdivisions controlled by pattern headings </li></ul>
  53. 53. Examples of Pattern Headings Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616. Hamlet Literary works entered under author Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 Individual literary authors English language --Pronoun Languages and groups of languages
  54. 54. Geographic Subdivisions <ul><li>Direct (country follows heading) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Music—Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Education—Finance—Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect (country interposed between main heading and local place) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Charities—France--Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions (to be entered directly) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada Provinces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain Constituent Countries </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. LITERARY WORKS <ul><li>Works about literature in general </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Literature—History and criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Anthologies by more than one author </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Literature—Collections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual Works by one author </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No literary form headings are assigned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works about individual authors and works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Shakespeare, William--Biography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beard, Henry N. Bored of the Rings </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. BIOGRAPHY <ul><li>For individual biographies, the subject heading is the name of the biographee following the AACR2R format. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Twain, Mark, 1835-1910—Biography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For collection of biographies use the following examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biography; Biography—Dictionaries; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philosophers—Biography; </li></ul><ul><li>Art—Biography; Italy--Biography </li></ul>
  57. 57. CHILDREN’S MATERIALS <ul><li>Regular headings implying juvenile nature or with juvenile subdivisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples : Family--Juvenile drama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s plays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative headings for children’s materials (regular subject headings without juvenile subdivisions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headings are enclosed in brackets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: [Horsemanship—Fiction] </li></ul></ul>