Presented by Sonali Senaratna Sellamuttu at the fifth International Conference on Water Resources and Hydropower Development in Asia (Colombo, Sri Lanka, 11-13 March 2014). Hydropower development in the Mekong River Basin is advancing rapidly but very little attention is paid to constructing and operating dams in ways that benefit all water users. Riparian and displaced are often unable to engage in their original livelihood activities after dam construction. New livelihood options for these communities can be created or included in dam planning, as made evident by two pilot studies highlighted in the presentation. The pilots, carried out under a CPWF Mekong project, were an integrated rice-fish culture near the Theun Hinboun Expansion Project (Lao PDR) and the introduction of a new strain of cassava near the Yali Dam site (Vietnam). These pilots showed how research for development and partnering with key actors in the private and public sectors has the potential to lead to the development of new livelihood-enhancement opportunities in modified environments created by dams.