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Accelerometer sensor
By
Intakhab Khan (VTP2984)
Under the guidance of
Prof. A . Muthrasan
Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. Types
3. Working
4. Applications
5. Advantages and disadvantages
6. Manufacturers
18/05/2021 2
Accelerometer sensor
• Accelerometers are electronic sensor which are used to measure the acceleration of the vehicle
in all the three axis. It converts acceleration into electrical signals and sends it to electronic
control unit after amplification by which the acceleration value is interpreted. In vehicle these
accelerometers helps in finding acceleration in all thee axis for vehicle control, measurement of
vibration and shocks for engine control or suspension control and also used to deploy air bag
during accidents.
18/05/2021 3
Types of Accelerometers
Accelerometers
Piezoresistive piezoelectric
Capacitive
18/05/2021 4
Working
A. Capacitive Accelerometer
- It consists of mass attached with the springs, when the vehicle accelerates the mass moves
the opposite direction due to pseudo force which changes
the distance of separation between plates and as we know
capacitance of the capacitor is inversely proportional to the
distance of separation the capacitance changes with the
acceleration. This leads to change in voltage and this signal
is sent to ECU which is manipulated and converted into
acceleration value.
𝐶 =
𝐴ε˳
𝑑
18/05/2021 5
18/05/2021 6
3 axis accelerometer
18/05/2021 7
Working
B. Piezo resistive Accelerometer
- A piezo-resistive accelerometer has a stable structure composed on a silicon chip created by the
micromachining and semiconductor production technology. A mass and a beam on which a set
of the piezo-resisters are created on a silicon chip. A set of electrical bridged is formed by such
piezo-resistive resisters to generate signals proportional to the applied acceleration
- A piezoresistive accelerometer is based on changes in electrical resistance in a strain gauge.
sensors with conventional glued-on strain gauges or opt for microelectromechanical systems
(MEMS) technology instead.
18/05/2021 8
18/05/2021 9
Working
C. Piezoelectric Accelerometer
- It works under the principle of piezoelectric effect which is piezoelectric materials produce
electricity when put under physical stress. When the vehicle accelerates the force acts on the
mass (Pseudo force) which leads to deformation of piezoelectric crystal structure creating the
voltage across the material as per the given equation.
18/05/2021 10
𝐸 = 𝑔𝑡
𝑚𝑎
𝐴
g = voltage sensitivity
a = acceleration
A and t is area and thickness of crystal
m is seismic mass
18/05/2021 11
Application
• Automobile collision safety systems uses accelerometer. When a car is acted on by a powerful
dynamic force, the accelerometer (sensing a rapid deceleration) sends an electronic signal to
an ECU, which in turn deploys the airbags.
• Electronic stability control in vehicles uses Accelerometer along with gyroscope to measure the
vehicle orientation and dynamic condition
• Vibration and shock measurement (piezoelectric)
18/05/2021 12
Advantages Disadvantages
➨It is simple to interface.
➨It has high impedance.
➨It offers higher sensitivity.
➨It has high frequency response.
➨It is available at lower cost due to
advancement in MEMS technology
➨It uses built-in signal conditioning
circuit to measure capacitance.
➨An Accelerometer measures change in velocity only.
It does not measure a constant velocity.
➨An Accelerometer can not measure rotation around
its own axis of movement. Due to this, it is used in
conjunction with gyroscope to measure angular
velocity.
➨It is sensitive to temperature and operates over
limited temperature range.
➨Its efficiency degrades over time.
➨It requires external power for its operation.
➨The other disadvantages are less longevity and
hysteresis error.
18/05/2021 13
Manufacturers
• BOSCH
• NXP
• MEMSIC
• Kionix
• STMicrocontrollers
18/05/2021 14
Thank You
18/05/2021 15

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Accelerometer sensor

  • 1. Accelerometer sensor By Intakhab Khan (VTP2984) Under the guidance of Prof. A . Muthrasan
  • 2. Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. Types 3. Working 4. Applications 5. Advantages and disadvantages 6. Manufacturers 18/05/2021 2
  • 3. Accelerometer sensor • Accelerometers are electronic sensor which are used to measure the acceleration of the vehicle in all the three axis. It converts acceleration into electrical signals and sends it to electronic control unit after amplification by which the acceleration value is interpreted. In vehicle these accelerometers helps in finding acceleration in all thee axis for vehicle control, measurement of vibration and shocks for engine control or suspension control and also used to deploy air bag during accidents. 18/05/2021 3
  • 4. Types of Accelerometers Accelerometers Piezoresistive piezoelectric Capacitive 18/05/2021 4
  • 5. Working A. Capacitive Accelerometer - It consists of mass attached with the springs, when the vehicle accelerates the mass moves the opposite direction due to pseudo force which changes the distance of separation between plates and as we know capacitance of the capacitor is inversely proportional to the distance of separation the capacitance changes with the acceleration. This leads to change in voltage and this signal is sent to ECU which is manipulated and converted into acceleration value. 𝐶 = 𝐴ε˳ 𝑑 18/05/2021 5
  • 8. Working B. Piezo resistive Accelerometer - A piezo-resistive accelerometer has a stable structure composed on a silicon chip created by the micromachining and semiconductor production technology. A mass and a beam on which a set of the piezo-resisters are created on a silicon chip. A set of electrical bridged is formed by such piezo-resistive resisters to generate signals proportional to the applied acceleration - A piezoresistive accelerometer is based on changes in electrical resistance in a strain gauge. sensors with conventional glued-on strain gauges or opt for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology instead. 18/05/2021 8
  • 10. Working C. Piezoelectric Accelerometer - It works under the principle of piezoelectric effect which is piezoelectric materials produce electricity when put under physical stress. When the vehicle accelerates the force acts on the mass (Pseudo force) which leads to deformation of piezoelectric crystal structure creating the voltage across the material as per the given equation. 18/05/2021 10 𝐸 = 𝑔𝑡 𝑚𝑎 𝐴 g = voltage sensitivity a = acceleration A and t is area and thickness of crystal m is seismic mass
  • 12. Application • Automobile collision safety systems uses accelerometer. When a car is acted on by a powerful dynamic force, the accelerometer (sensing a rapid deceleration) sends an electronic signal to an ECU, which in turn deploys the airbags. • Electronic stability control in vehicles uses Accelerometer along with gyroscope to measure the vehicle orientation and dynamic condition • Vibration and shock measurement (piezoelectric) 18/05/2021 12
  • 13. Advantages Disadvantages ➨It is simple to interface. ➨It has high impedance. ➨It offers higher sensitivity. ➨It has high frequency response. ➨It is available at lower cost due to advancement in MEMS technology ➨It uses built-in signal conditioning circuit to measure capacitance. ➨An Accelerometer measures change in velocity only. It does not measure a constant velocity. ➨An Accelerometer can not measure rotation around its own axis of movement. Due to this, it is used in conjunction with gyroscope to measure angular velocity. ➨It is sensitive to temperature and operates over limited temperature range. ➨Its efficiency degrades over time. ➨It requires external power for its operation. ➨The other disadvantages are less longevity and hysteresis error. 18/05/2021 13
  • 14. Manufacturers • BOSCH • NXP • MEMSIC • Kionix • STMicrocontrollers 18/05/2021 14