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ILOA Galaxy Forum Europe 2013 - solar system exploration - hajime yano

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ILOA Galaxy Forum Europe 2013 - solar system exploration - hajime yano

  1. 1. The ILOA Galaxy Forum Europe 2013 Solar System Exploration: A Review of the Hayabusa and IKAROS Missions April 5, 2013 International Space University Strasbourg Campus, Strasbourg, France Hajime YANO 1,2,3,4) 1) Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, Kanagawa, Japan 2) JAXA Space Exploration Center (JSPEC), JAXA, Kanagawa, Japan 3) Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Kanagawa, Japan4) Graduate School of System Design Management, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan Frontier! (Copyright: Gary Larson) 1
  2. 2. Technology Goal: Deep Space Port and Round-Trip Explorations, a Blue Print of JAXA Long-Term Vision Heliocentric 1(AU) 1.01(AU) 1.5(AU) 2~4(AU) 5.2(AU) Trojans Deep Space Port (Sun-Earth L2) Lunar Base Jovian Asteroid Mars Belt System Earth LEO Port LEOObservatories Further Deep Space L2 NEOs Observatories Hayabusa(Courtesy: JAXA, A. Ikeshita, AAAS) Earth Swing-by IES & Optical Navigation Touchdown for Sampling Earth Direct Re-entry Sample Return Western side “Body” side 10m Eastern side “Head” side 2
  3. 3. Main Belt Asteroids, Dwarf Planet, Moon and Earth: Comparison by Size Earth Moon Dwarf Planet Main Belt Asteroids (G~C?) (V) 1 Ceres 4 Vesta 21 Lutetia 974 x 908 km 578×560×458 km 132×101×76 km HST  Dawn HST  Dawn Rosetta Asteroids and Comets Visited So Far: Martian Satellites Comparison by Size and Spectral Types Koronis Family (C?) (S) Phobos: 26.8 × 22.4 × 18.4 km (S)Mars (C?)Crosser Deimos (Q) (S) (E) 15 × 12.2 × 10.4 kmNear Earth Objects (S) (S) (Collage Courtesy: E. Lakdawalla, TPS, 2010) Main Belt Asteroids Cometary Nucleus (M or C) (C) (S) 3
  4. 4. Near Earth Asteroid Itokawa:Comparison to a Terrestrial Landmark 224 m 142 m Ground Light Curve Model Ground Radar Model Kaasalainen, et al (2002.) Ostro et al.(2004)Chelyabinsk Event and 2012 DA14 Flyby 4
  5. 5. Extraterrestrial Material Accumulation Rate: ~100t per Day Average, Even NowZodiacal Light 1999 Leonid Meteor Strom (c) Yano, NHK, Nakanishi (c) M. Ishiguro, et al.Minor Bodies as Ingredients of Planets and Life HabitableMeteorites & Minor Bodies Planets EnvironmentCosmic Dust Rocks and Metals S-type Asteroids Terrestrial Ordinary Atmosphere Chondritres C,D,P-type OceanCarbonaceous Gaseous Chondritres Asteroids Water, Organics Land IDPs Comet Nucleus Icy 5
  6. 6. Hayabusa in 2003-10: Challenge to the First Asteroid Sample Return •Launch: May 9th, 2003 •Earth Gravity Assist: May 19th, 2004 •Itokawa Rendezvous: September 12th, 2005 •Sampling and Landing: November 19th and 25th, 2005 •Asteroid Departure: April 25th, 2007 •Earth Return: June 2010 Cost: ~180M US$ including s/c, launcher, & operation Hayabusa: To Establish Technologies for Deep Space Round-Trip Explorations(1) Ion engine system for interplanetary cruise (e.g., Deep Space-1)(2) Autonomous navigation and control by image processing (e.g., Deep Impact)(3) Surface sample collection from a microgravity body (e.g., OSIRIS)(4) Direct Earth re-entry from interplanetary space (e.g., Genesis & Stardust) Size: 1.6 x 1.1 x 1.0 (m); Mass: 510kg(wet) 6
  7. 7. Orbits of Hayabusa and Itokawa Itokawa Itokawa EarthRendezvous Earth Orbit Crossing(2005/09) Sun Sun Earth Launch Asteroid Departure (2003/05) (2007/02) Earth Swing-by Earth Return (2004/05) (2010/06) From Launch to Rendezvous Earth Return Trajectory• Itokawa is a potentially hazardous asteroid, which intersectsEarth’s heliocentric orbit• Hayabusa follows the asteroid during the rendezvous phase 7
  8. 8. Alignments and Footprint Overlaps among the On-board Instruments ( M. Abe at al., XXXVII LPSC, (2006)) Hayabusa’s Tough & GoGate Position (2005/09/12~09/27)Home Position (09/27~10/05)Science Tour (10/05~10/21)Site Selection (10/28)Touch Downs (2 Rehearsals, 1 Image Navigation Test & 2 TDs)(11/04, 09, 12, 19, 25) 8
  9. 9. Landing Sites at the Muses-C Regio TD1 TM TD2TD1 = MUSES-C Regio High Altitude RegionSample Catcher: Room BTD2 = Equatorial MUSES-C Regio at the Edge of Shirakami CliffSample Catcher: Room A(The 2011 Science Special Issue based on the samples from here) (Yano, et al., MAPS, in prep.) <Retrieval, Transport, Landing of the ERC at Woomera in Cleaning, Storing, Purging> <Soil Sampling> Australia in June 14, 2010 <International Witness> <Arrival to Curation Facility> <XCT Scanning> 9
  10. 10. Initial Analysis by the HASPET in 2010-11Science Predicts Unknowns by Applying Nature’s Laws that Are Applicable to Any Places at Any Time: (e.g.) Itokawa’s Color and Albedo Heterogeneity Western side “Body” side 10m Eastern side “Head” side (Saito, et al., Science (2006)) • No previously observed asteroid bodies show large variations in both color and albedo. • Correlations between color and albedo on Itokawa can be found. • Generally, the brighter area is bluer, while the darker is redder. Cf. Space weathering evidence at landslides on Eros 10
  11. 11. Most Surfaces Indicate Similar Minerals at Larger Scale* Spectra of three typical regions are different each other in the depth of the 1-micron band. This disagreement is a result ofdifferent grain size as well as degrees of space weathering. (M.Abe, et al., Science (2006)) Ultra-microtoming TEM Analysis Answered the Asteroid- Meteorite Paradox with Space Weathering Evidence (Noguchi, et al., Science, 2011) Nano-phase iron particles on the top exterior of the individual particle 11
  12. 12. Rough Terrain Close-Ups * Bright patches are evident on darkened, monolithic boulders, implying brittle target impact craters as well as scratches by pebble mobility (Miyamoto, Yano, et al., Science, 2007) Smooth Terrain Comparison: Itokawa vs. Eros in the Same ScaleLittle Woomera Muses-C Regio Eros pond(Miyamoto, Yano, et al., Science, 2007) 12
  13. 13. Touch Down Site Close-Ups : ONC-T Descent Images (V-band)Discovery of Gravel Field at the Gravitational Low and Evidence of Granular Mobility in the Microgravity •Spatial Resolutions: 6~8 mm/pixel (cf. NEAR: 12 mm/px) •Densely filled with size-sorted (mm-cm) pebbles of similar brightness (Signs of flow along potential slope and possible seismic shaking:) (Yano, et al., Science (2006)) X-ray Tomography of 3D Internal Structure of Asteroid Regolith (Tsuchiyama, et al., Science, 2011) 13
  14. 14. Terrestrial Geological Features: Governed by Gravity, Heat, Air and Water Boulder Terrain Gravel FieldLandslides Sand Pond Breccia Asteroidal Geological Features: Mainly due to Impacts and Vibrations in Vacuum and Microgravity Boulder Terrain Gravel Field (Itokawa) (Itokawa) Landslides Fine Regolith Pond Breccia (Eros) (Eros) (Itokawa)How to form apparently similar geological features to the Earth?What these similarities and differences tell us about asteroid evolution? 14
  15. 15. Image-Model Comparison of Granular Flow and Surface Potential on Itokawa * Images indicating directions of surface mobility © Univ. Tokyo, JAXA/ISAS Univ. Aizu, Kobe Univ., PSI, Univ. Michigan Miyamoto, Yano, et al., Science (2007) * Potential vectors match with granular flow images Gravity-Duration Diagram for the Microgravity Geology Experimental Facilities **** LongDay-Year 22wk~1yr wk~1 yr (10-3 ~ 10) -5 (10-3 ~ 10 -5) ISS Gardening, 1~2 wks Granular Soyuz Retrievable Free Flyers Convection, (10-3 ~ 10-4) 1 wk~1 yr Re-accumulation of (10-4 ~ 10-6) Ejecta Expendable Brazil Nuts EffectMin. Sub-Orbital Sounding Rockets ReusableM 3~5 min. (10-3 ~ 10-4) 5-10 min. (10-4 ~ 10-5) Dust Aggregate Granular Surfacei Parabolic Flights Balloon Capsule MobilitySec. ~30 sec.(10-4)n 20~30 sec. (1/4 ~ 10-2) Catapult-mode Drop Tower Non-G Effect, 4.5-9 sec(10-5) Dust Levitation. Small Tower 2 sec(10-3) Hypervelocity Impacts 10-0 10-1 Short Gravity Level (G) (Micro-G Geological Phenomena) 1999JU3 Itokawa Enceladus Earth Moon Ceres, Vesta Mars Human-Tended Unmanned* Plus counter-mass/low friction stages and underwater analog sites for longer duration 15
  16. 16. Past, Present and Future of Asteroid Itokawa Revealed by In-situ Observation and Sample Analysis Planetesimals Catastrophic Disruption Formation of Itokawa s Thermal Alteration Parent Body (> 10 km) of the Interior (< 4562Ma) Surface Mass Loss (10 s cm/My) Micrometeoroid Solar Wind Re-accumulation Impacts Galactic Cosmic Rays Formation of Itokawa as a rubble pile asteroid Space Weathering Granular Mobility/ Convection (100y ~ 1My) Present Hayabusa-2 in 2014-20:Carbonaceous Asteroid Sample Return and Internal Structure Study <Major Characteristics> ・The first rendezvous and sample return of a C- type asteroid (1999 JU3) ・The spacecraft system design has a direct heritage and lessons from Hayabusa-1 with an impactor <Scientific Objectives> (1) Material distribution map at the Main Asteroid Belt (2) Chemical evolution of water and organic material (Life precursors) (3) Internal structure and evolution process of highly porous primitive bodies OSIRIS-Rex NASA New Frontier Class 1999 RQ36 (B type) SR in 2016-22 16
  17. 17. Near Earth Objects: Itokawa vs. 1999 JU3 at a Glance Earth Crossing Orbits Itokawa Mars Earth 1999 JU3 (162723) 1999 JU3 (C) (25143) Itokawa (Collage International (S) Courtesy: Space P.Station Lee, 2006) (Model Courtesy: Kaasalainen, et al., 2008) (Collage Courtesy: ~980 m P. Lee, 2006) “Chicks” of Hayabusa: Sample Return Missions to sub-km~km Sized Bodies Post Hayabusa SeriesHayabusa Hayabusa-2 Hayabusa Mk-IIItokawa = S type 1999 JU3 = C type D type, Dormant comet(1996~/2003-10) Lessons Learned from Hayabusa Advanced, Full Model-change (2011~/2014-20) (Mid 2010’s~/Early 2020’s) OSIRIS-REx 1999 RQ36 = B type New Frontier Class Carbonaceous (2016-23) Chondrites Ordinary Chondrites IDP, AMMs, C type Tagish Marco Polo-R Lake? S type D type 1999 FG3 = C type Cosmic Vision-M Main Asteroid Belt (2022-29) 34 17
  18. 18. Technology Goal: Deep Space Port and Round-Trip Explorations, a Blue Print of JAXA Long-Term Vision Heliocentric 1(AU) 1.01(AU) 1.5(AU) 2~4(AU) 5.2(AU) Trojans Deep Space Port (Sun-Earth L2) Lunar Base Jovian Asteroid Mars Belt System Earth LEO Port LEOObservatories Further Deep Space L2 NEOs Observatories IKAROS IKAROS Venus Earth Helios-1 Sun 36 Galileo (Courtesy: Dermott, et al.) 18
  19. 19. Acquiring Outer Planet Exploration Capability: Development History of the Solar Power Sail in Japan 2003. August Balloon Test(B30-71) at 36km alt.: Active Deployment of Sail (4m) 2004. August Sounding Rocket(S310-34) at >100km alt.: Active Deployment of Sail (10m) Modeling of Sail Dynamics 2006. September M-V-7 Rocket Sub-payload (SSSAT) in LEO: Deployment Demo of Small Power Sail (5m) 2010. May H-IIA-17 Piggy-back (IKAROS) in deep space: First Solar Sail in Interplanetary Space Deployment of Sail Membrane (200 m^2) Early 2020’s Solar Power Sail (3000 m^2) with Ion Engines: Cruising Science (IR astronomy, High energy astrophysics, Dust) and Jupiter and Trojan explorations IKAROS in 2010-2013 The first Interplanetary Demo of Solar Sail Technology • May 21, 2010 Launched by H-IIA-17 • June 3-10, 2010 Sail deployment and produced power from ultra-thin solar cells on the sail • June 23, 2010~ ALADDIN started its dust measurementsH-IIA-17 Launch • July 9, 2010 Orbital determination by RARR confirmed solar radiation acceleration • Dec. 6, 2010 Venus flyby and the extended mission started ・ May 2011 First round trip to complete at aphelion ・ Oct. 2011 Last ALADDIN data down-linked (All Images Courtesy: JAXA) ・ Dec. 2011 The first hibernation period started . Sep. 2012 IKAROS resumed communication link again and ⑤ Visual Confirmation ALADDIN-E powered on . Oct. 2012 The second hibernation period started ① ③ ④ ② Venus Fly-by First stage (Statically) Second StageTwo-Step Sail Deployment (Dynamically) IKAROS Completed Its Nominal Operation with Full Success in 2010-11 and Continues Its Extended Operation to 2012 and Beyond. 19
  20. 20. Acceleration by Solar Radiation Pressure (Data on 2010/06/09 UTC) Increased Velocity [mm/s] The Second Stage Sail Deployment Lack of Velocity data due to the Deployment OperationAchieved Solar Radiation Propulsion(=0.1g) as Estimated  The World’s first solar sail was finally born! 20
  21. 21. IKAROS-ALLADIN System ALDN-S (37g in total) ALDN-S-1 (Anti-Sun Face) Substrate 9 micron-ALDN-S-4 thick PVDFSubstrate Sun Face ALDN-S-1 PVDF Sensor-L Sensors PVDF Sensor-S 80x100mm(9μm) 250x500mm (20μm) 20 micron- think PVDF ALDN-E (210 g) ALDN-S-3 IKAROS ALDN-S-2 Substrate Spacecraft Substrate ALDN-E Electric component 30x100x112mm ALDN-S ALDN-E SAIL-I/F LVDS 1W PVDF 8ch +5V,GND,-5V IKAROS Trajectory and Earth’s Circumsolar Dust Ring and Blob (Reach, et al., Icarus, 2010) Venus Flyby 21
  22. 22. Earth’s Circumsolar Dust Crossing for the Inbound and Outbound Trajectories NOTE: Attitude factor correction of the ALADDIN pointing face with respect to the solar and apex angles must still be made Plan Solar Power Sail for Jupiter-Trojan Exploration in Early 2020’s Synergy with JUICE Challenge to Jupiter SystemCondition of the Jovian SystemFormation and Evolution Trojans Galilean Satellites Jovian System Mechanism Magnetosphere 22
  23. 23. ConceptEnceladus Ocean Ice Plume Sample Return in 2020’s to Later Searching for “Neighbors” in a Present Ocean Lessons Learned from Hayabusa (1): Expect the Unexpected 23
  24. 24. Lessons Learned from Hayabusa (2): Know Your Enemy Ground Light Curve Model Ground Radar Model Kaasalainen, et al (2002) Ostro et al.(2004)Lessons Learned from Hayabusa (3): Prepare for Many Rehearsals 24
  25. 25. Lessons Learned from Hayabusa (4): Build the Best Team in the Worldand A Leader Must Understand True Followership Thank You! 25

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