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"JAXA Space Science Program and International Collaboration"

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"JAXA Space Science Program and International Collaboration"

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"JAXA Space Science Program and International Collaboration"

  1. 1. JAXA Space Science Program and International Collaboration The 21st “Science in Japan” Forum US-Japan Collaboration in Space Sciences -Past, Present and Future- 10 June 2016 Cosmos Club, Washington, DC Saku Tsuneta Institute of Space and Astronautical Science Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency http://www.iki.rssi.ru/eng/iki50.htm
  2. 2. HAYABUSA 2003-2010 Asteroid Explorer AKARI(ASTRO-F)2006-2011 Infrared Astronomy KAGUYA(SELENE)2007-2009 Lunar Exploration SUZAKU(ASTRO-E2)2005- X-Ray Astronomy M-V Rocket AKATSUKI 2010- Venus Meteorogy Hisaki 2013 Planetary atmosphere HINODE(SOLAR-B)2006- Solar Observation IKAROS 2010 Solar Sail JAXA recent science missions HAYABUSA2 2014-2020 Asteroid Explorer 2 Hitomi(ASTRO-H) 2016- X-Ray Astronomy
  3. 3. Fiscal Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Operating/ConcludedUnderDevelopmentSounding BeingconsideredRocket ASTRO-EII(SUZAKU)’05 GEOTAIL’92 SOLAR-B(HINODE)’06 MUSES-C(HAYABUSA)’03 HAYABUSA1/2 SUZAKU Daytime Dynamo ’11,’13▼▼ CLASP ’15▼ MMS ’14 ▼ Space Science Cooperation with NASA and ESA ASTRO-F(AKARI)’05 PLANET-C(AKATSUKI) ’10 BepiColombo ’16 SPICA ’27-28 JUICE ’22 ▼ SPICA Bepi Colombo cooperation with NASA cooperation with ESA HAYABUSA2 ’14 ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ASTRO-H’15 ATHENA ’28 ▼Cooling Chain Core Technology Program HINODE HITOMI
  4. 4. ASTRO-H X-ray Observatory The ASTRO-H Hitomi was the result of close collaboration between NASA, JAXA and other countries from its initial concept throughout its construction.
  5. 5. Hitomi Launched in 17 Feb. 2016
  6. 6. Hitomi SXS In-flight calibration 4.6eV FWHM at 6keV 50mK achieved by the cryogenic system Cryogenic soft X-ray spectrometer was in perfect shape until the moment when communication to the spacecraft was lost (Mar 26)
  7. 7. Hitomi SXS In-flight calibration 4.6eV FWHM at 6keV 50mK achieved by the cryogenic system The Quiet Intracluster Medium in the Core of the Perseus Cluster submitted to Nature Cryogenic soft X-ray spectrometer was in perfect shape until the moment when communication to the spacecraft was lost (Mar 26)
  8. 8. Hitomi mishap • JAXA declared the shutdown of Hitomi on April 28, before achieving regular operations for science. This deeply disappointed the astrophysics community in the world, particularly people who have been involved in the development of the instruments aboard Hitomi over the years. • We were able to obtain SXS data of the Perseus cluster in the initial operation phase, which is a stunning demonstration for the in-orbit performance of the X-ray micro-calorimeter developed by NASA/GSFC. • ISAS, ISAS ASTRO-H project, primary contractor (NEC) and Japanese X-ray astronomy community are deeply aware of responsibility for the disaster. 8
  9. 9. Anomaly investigation and recovery of the mission • The anomaly is due to two different design-problems and one improper operation procedure all related to the Hitomi’s attitude control/safe-hold system. • Technical culprit was identified and deeper cause of the problems including sociological factors were analyzed in the JAXA report to GOJ. All findings are open to public. • My priorities have been (1) to fix the problems in our system that led to the mishap, (2) to recover the Hitomi science with SXS with NASA, and (3) to maintain the strong partnership with NASA and other agencies. 9
  10. 10. とうえい Mysterious bow in super-rotating Venus atmosphere Akatsuki Long-wave infrared (LIR) camera
  11. 11. Akatsuki IR2 camera
  12. 12. Hayabusa 2 • Sample return from a primordial asteroid Ryugu (formerly 1999JU3). • Small lander MASCOT provided by DLR/CNES for surface spectroscopy with microscope. • Small Carry-on Impactor to expose fresh subsurface materials
  13. 13. Hayabusa2 current status 13 ■ Original plan ● Revised plan ● Result (● and ● are overlapping with difference of 300m) Allowed window to reach Ryugu color contour every 10km, gray line altitude from Earth l1300 hours of ion-engine operation lPrecision (300m) navigation with DDOR technique lConsistent with JPL shadow navigation lExcellent calibration data using Earth and Moon taken during flyby
  14. 14. OH/H2O H2O/CO2 absorption feature H2O CO2 14 Hayabusa2 Earth swingby ONC TIR NIRS3 Earth Plant distributionColor image TIR thermal image ONC-T multi color Australia(higher T) NIRS3 Moon OH/H2O absorption feature?
  15. 15. Hayabusa 2 mission 1/5 falcon hayabusa Hayabusa2-OSIRIS-REx collaboration in operation 15
  16. 16. Hayabusa 2 mission 1/5 falcon hayabusa Hayabusa2-OSIRIS-REx collaboration in operation ISAS/JAXA HAYABUSA2 mission • Launched: 2014, arrival:2018, departure: 2019, return: 2020 • Earth swing-by completed in Dec 2015 on its way for arrival at Ryugu in 2018 NASA OSIRIS-Rex mission • Launch: 2016, arrival:2018, departure: 2021, return: 2023 • Target: BENNU Sample & return is regarded as a high-risk mission and the collaboration including sample-exchange serves as a means for insurance for both science teams. 16
  17. 17. 2010 2020 2030 Hisaki(2013) SPICA (2027-28) BepiColombo (ESA, 2016) SLIM(2020) #4 (2022) #5(2024) ERG (2016) Astro-H (2016) JUICE (ESA, 2022) ATHENA(ESA, 2028) WFIRST(NASA, 2025) Phobos/Deimos (2022) LiteBIRD, Solar-Sail, Solar-C (2025) Proposals being reviewed NASA NewFrontiers2016 Strategic Large Missions (300M$ class) for JAXA- led flagship science mission with HIIA vehicle (3 in ten years) Competitively-chosen medium-sized focused missions (<150M$ class) with Epsilon rocket (every 2 year) Missions of opportunity for foreign agency-led mission Space Policy Commission under cabinet office intends to guarantee predetermined steady annual budget for space science and exploration to maintain its scientific activities
  18. 18. Large-size #3 Under selection LiteBIRD, Solar-Sail, (Solar-C) Strategic L-class missions with HIIA/H3 #4 ESA-Led SPICA #2 Martian Moons eXplorer (MMX) #1 ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Strategic Large Missions (300M$ class) for JAXA- led flagship science mission with HIIA/H3 vehicle (3 in ten years) FY2015 FY2022 FY2025 FY2027
  19. 19. Large-size #3 Under selection LiteBIRD, Solar-Sail, (Solar-C) Strategic L-class missions with HIIA/H3 #4 ESA-Led SPICA #2 Martian Moons eXplorer (MMX) #1 ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Strategic Large Missions (300M$ class) for JAXA- led flagship science mission with HIIA/H3 vehicle (3 in ten years) FY2015 FY2022 FY2025 FY2027 In spite of Hitomi mishap, MMX and SPICA are our top-priority missions. These missions should reach implementation phase as early as possible.
  20. 20. MMX JAXA’s exploration of the two moons of Mars with sample return from Phobos
  21. 21. MMX JAXA’s exploration of the two moons of Mars with sample return from Phobos JAXA’s mission to the Martian moons (MMX) will make close-up remote sensing and insitu observations of both moons, and return samples from Phobos.
  22. 22. MMX Mars at the outer-edge of the rocky planet region of the solar system Rocky planets Mars The location of the snow line Gas giants, icy planets
  23. 23. The big question to be addressed with MMX • Delivery of water, volatiles, organic compounds etc. from outside the snow line to entitle the rocky planet region to be habitable • Small bodies as delivery capsules • Dynamics of small bodies around the snow line in the early solar system • Mars at the gateway position to witness the process Comet (ice) Primodal asteroid (Hydrous mineral)
  24. 24. - Two leading hypotheses, unsettled controversy. - Revealing the origin would lead to better understanding of the behavior of small bodies around the snow line in the early solar system. MMX Enigmatic origin of the Martian moons Phobos samples are mixture of Mars materials and impactor materials: Mars sample return realized! We do learn about dynamics of the impactor. Phobos sample analysis characterizes a capsule that was on its way to deliver water and organic compounds to the inner-solar system. Mars sample return: When debris from the Mars surface found, we will be able to read-out the history of the Martian surface environment.
  25. 25. SPICA – Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics • SPICA is optimized for mid- and far-IR astronomy. • SPICA unveils the “dusty era” in the Universe (evolution of galaxies), and finds a route to habitable planets (formation of planetary systems). • SPICA is launched at ambient temperature, and cooled down in space. The cryo-cooler system is a key heritage of JAXA ASTRO-H. • To be proposed to the ESA M5 slot as an ESA-led mission. l Baseline specifications l Telescope : 2.5 m aperture cooled <8 K l Core wavelength : 17–230 mm l Orbit : S-E L2 Halo Orbit l Launcher : JAXA H3 Vehicle l Launch Year : 2027–2028
  26. 26. AKARI FIS-FTS JWST/MIRI LimitingLineFlux(5s-1hr)/Wm-2 10-16 10-18 10-17 10-19 100 100020 200 350 Wavelength / mm 2010's SPICA Sensitivity Dramatic improvement ´100 Improvement AKARI IRC SPICA 2020's ALMA 10-20 10 10-15 SPICA/SAFARIR=25000 R=300 SOFIA HERSCHEL Spitzer R=3000
  27. 27. ? Foreign agency-led Large missions #3 Athena (ESA) #2 Jupiter Icy moons JUICE (ESA) #1 Bepi-Colombo (ESA) FY2018 FY2022 FY2028 Missions of opportunity for foreign agency-led mission
  28. 28. CNES Athena
  29. 29. ISAS Astrophysics and fundamental physics 2020s Lead cryogenic astrophysics missions 29 Hot and Energetic Universe Redshift(z) Wavelength (m) 10-12-10-8 m 10-5-10-4 m 10-3-10-2 m z=0.5 z=3 z>>10 Galaxy Evolution Formation of Solar Systems SPICA(ESA-led) ATHENA(ESA-led) Cosmic Microwave Background and Inflation (X-ray) (IR) (Milli-wave) LiteBIRD (JAXA-led) under assessment
  30. 30. Medium-size #4 Under selection Competitive M-class missions with Epsilon #3 Moon landing (SLIM) #2 van Allen belt (ERG) #1 Hisaki (UV planet) Competitively-chosen medium-sized focused missions (<150M$ class) with Epsilon rocket (every 2 year) FY2013 FY2016 FY2019 FY2021
  31. 31. Current Status • Assembly, integration, verification activities are going on at ISAS. • To be launched via upgraded Epsilon#2 in 2016 ERG Flight model 31
  32. 32. ISAS Engineering: Small lunar-lander (SLIM) for pinpoint landing technology demonstration
  33. 33. SLIM (Smart Lander for Investigating Moon) SLIM is a mission to demonstrate the technology for pin-point soft landing on lunar or planetary surface. • Image-based navigation utilizing Lunar terrain • Autonomous obstacle detection • Robust pin-point guidance • Landing shock absorber • High-performance propulsion • One science payload • Precursor of full-scale lunar or planetary missions Total Weight:520kg
  34. 34. BepiColombo MMO(ESA-led) Martian Moons eXplorer(MMX) (JAXA-led) Asteroid Sample Return Hayabusa, Hayabusa2 (JAXA-led) JUICE (ESA -led) 34 SLIM Moon landing (JAXA-led) ISAS Planetary science 2020s Lead sample & return Solar-power sail to Jupiter Trojan asteroids (JAXA-led) under assessment SPICA(ESA-led)
  35. 35. New JAXA Deep Space Station (available 2018, 54m, X&Ka bands) • The location is in favor of cooperation with oversea deep space stations. – Provide new attractive baseline of triangular shape for DDOR with either NASA or ESA stations. – Provide a complementary station for Australia. ● NASA ● ESA ● JAXA ● Goldstone ● New Norcia Usuda ● ●Canberra Madrid ●● Cebreros ● Maralgüe Hayabusa2 Earth flyby attained GNC accuracy of 300m via Differential One-way Ranging (Delta-DOR)
  36. 36. Technology driven Leads and creates space science programs Science driven Stimulates and encourages new technology development Uniqueness of ISAS: Close ties between space science and space technology Space Science Divisions Space Astronomy Astrophysics Solar System Science Interdisciplinary Space Science Space Technology Divisions Space Flight Systems Spacecraft Engineering 36
  37. 37. Recent accomplishments HAYABUSA & IKAROS Led by JAXA Lunar & Planetary Exploration Program Group 37
  38. 38. [Tech. Demo. #1] Solar sail deployment [Tech. Demo. #3] Photon propulsion [Tech. Demo. #4] Solar sail guidance, navigation and control Launch (21/May/2010) Venus Flyby (8/Dec/2010) [Tech. Demo. #2] Power generation by sail-mounted thin film solar cells Extended operation phase (Jan/2010 - now) ∼9/June/2010 ∼10/June/2010 IKAROS Technology Demonstration of Interplanetary Solar Power Sail Thin film solar cell Solar sail Diagonal 20m Led by JAXA Lunar & Planetary Exploration Program Group 38
  39. 39. 2003 HAYABUSA-1 2014 HAYABUSA-2 2022 Phobos/ Deimos SR Various missions related to sample return and/or atmospheric-entry are being discussed and proposed. Phobos/Deimos SR Trojan SR with Solarsail Mars EDL mission Deployable Aeroshell w/U. Tokyo HTV-R capsule(JAXA) Systems for 12km/s (Mpeak=40) reentry speed Thermal durability and response in high aerodynamics heating environment are evaluated with various materials in ISAS arc wind tunnel. 39
  40. 40. Summary • JAXA and space science community deeply appreciate substantial support from NASA and US scientists during the Hitomi crisis • My priorities have been (1) to fix the problems in our system that led to the mishap, (2) to recover the Hitomi science with SXS with NASA, and (3) to maintain the strong partnership with NASA and other agencies. • JAXA moves forward in spite of Hitomi disaster. This mishap shall make us and our system stronger, and make us more reliable partner in space science in the long run.

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