Women and children are here,where are the men?       …., the task is too difficult for them             International Inst...
Exploring best options for the inclusion ofrural poor in cassava value chain: lessons from small-scale cassava processing ...
Importance of cassava in ESA An ideal crop for food security Stable yield even during harsh weather Stores well undergro...
Production and yield, 2008  50.0                                                            Production (million MT)  40.0 ...
Yield (tons/ha)     South-Eastern Asia                                                        18.4          Southern Asia ...
Postharvest Issues                    Postharvest methods                                                                 ...
Postharvest constraints High labor input                                                                                 ...
Factors contributing to poor quality & safety of products Use of contaminated water, or lack of it, for processing . Mos...
 Occasional inadequate processing methods      o Short-cuts      o Repeated use of soak water Contamination during stora...
Low yield + high labor for processing                  +   Poor product quality & safety                                  ...
Profitability of traditional cassava production and                           processing in Tanzania                      ...
Farmers’ coping strategy : Cassava for food and less for cash        90        80                 Tanzania        70  %   ...
IITA’s Value Chain interventions:Value chain activities through special projects:Some examples: 2003 -2007: Small scale c...
Set-up value chain models…..…..to investigate and develop a sequence of inter-linkedagents and markets to transform cassav...
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
Setting-up the laboratory…….                                                           Development? Step 1: Partnership fo...
Issues of interest….. how cassava can be used as input for food, feed and industrial   raw material ; what factors are a...
Technology introduction : Machinery  Train and backstop equipment manufacturers in     machinery design and fabrication  ...
 Collective action for small-scale processing :     Introduce improved processing methods and related                    ...
 Work with industries to increase technical possibility of cassava   use in industrial processes   Bread and other Pastri...
Standards/certification (CRP2)Partnerships with national food regulatory agencies to establish themechanisms for verifying...
Assessment of quality and safety of products from mechanized                          and traditional processing         M...
Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin in traditional cassava flour and chips,                                     2008-2009  Products...
 Application of food quality and safety management measures       that prevent microbial and chemical contaminants       ...
Assessment of processing units ……Hygiene1. Sun-drying during wet seasons provides ample time for   multiplication of spoil...
Quality management guidelines for cassava and training ofprocessors Quality management procedures or guidelines. Control...
Assessment of value chain and actors’ performance                               Tanzania               International Insti...
Assessment of the technical efficiency and potential profitability          of the village processing units in TanzaniaPil...
The challenges of small scale village processing, 2007-2008 Raw material supply  o Seasonal variation in availability and...
Determinants of profitability and overall success of village processing                                units   o   Ability...
Potential market opportunities for cassava products                               (tons/year)           HQCF   Cassava Raw...
Processing machines300250200150100 50 0  2000        2002            2004                       2006                      ...
Mechanized processing systems by zone          International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’...
Categories of cassava value chain promoters             80Number of    70processing   60machines     50purchased    40    ...
Spread of mechanized village processing groups in Tanzania, 2010      2004:    < 8 villageprocessing groups               ...
Assessment of small scale village processing groups, 2009          Are the village processing groups processing regularly?...
Constraints of the village processing groups                     Simply doing nothing                                     ...
Assessment of mechanized processing versus traditional methods?   Profitability assessment using four different scenarios,...
Market options for cassava in Tanzania, 2009                       Cassava Products                                       ...
Targeted scale-based market linkages among producers,            processors and end-users (CAVA) Targeting market accordi...
Training of 70 end-user industries in Malawi villages                Potential demand for hqcf = 488 tons/year            ...
Training of end-user industries in Uganda villages                                        Potential demand for hqcf       ...
Possible price for hqcf in Uganda on the basisof 75% of the on-going price of wheat flour =US$ 562-590/ton        Internat...
On-going value chain activities & Future work1. Linking smallholder producers to market (CRP2)    Standards/certification...
Additional studies(a) Mechanisms by which change agents and smallholders   responded to the value chain innovations(b) Con...
 HQCF supply chain development – Ongoing; with national  partners                  Village processors &                  ...
Selecting appropriate drying technologies       International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d...
2. Food quality and safety   Application of food quality and safety management      measures that prevent microbial and c...
3. Prevention of food losses: the role of microbes in secondary   infection of CBSD infected roots    The role of microor...
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Exploring best options for the inclusion of rural poor in cassava value chain: lessons from small-scale cassava processing in East and Southern Africa

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Importance of cassava in East and Southern Africa,Postharvest Issues,Factors contributing to poor quality & safety of products,cassava's value chain,Assessment of quality and safety of products from mechanized
and traditional processing,Quality management guidelines for cassava and training of processors,Tanzania
Assessment of value chain and actors’ performance,Determinants of profitability and overall success of village processing units

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Exploring best options for the inclusion of rural poor in cassava value chain: lessons from small-scale cassava processing in East and Southern Africa

  1. 1. Women and children are here,where are the men? …., the task is too difficult for them International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  2. 2. Exploring best options for the inclusion ofrural poor in cassava value chain: lessons from small-scale cassava processing in East and Southern Africa Abass Adebayo International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  3. 3. Importance of cassava in ESA An ideal crop for food security Stable yield even during harsh weather Stores well underground Suitable for piecemeal harvesting – Household food security Many varieties (improved) are tolerant to diseasesAn export crop in the past (Madagascar, Tanzania, Uganda)An up-and-coming industrial raw material (Zambia, Tanzania, Madagascar) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  4. 4. Production and yield, 2008 50.0 Production (million MT) 40.0 Yield (tons/ha) 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0FAOSTAT, 2011 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  5. 5. Yield (tons/ha) South-Eastern Asia 18.4 Southern Asia 31.6 Eastern Asia 16.3 South America 13.5 Africa 10.1 Western Africa 11.4 Central Africa 9.0 Eastern Africa 8.8 Southern AfricaLow yield = Lack of global competitiveness International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  6. 6. Postharvest Issues Postharvest methods Pounding Storage of harvested roots Processing 1. Boiling/Roasting/Frying 2. Hand grating/pounding of fresh roots 3. Fermentation  Heap fermentation  Soaking Drying 4. Pounding of dried chips to flour 5. Sun-drying Storage of dried cassava International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  7. 7. Postharvest constraints High labor input Drying Long processing time Small output High postharvest loss High contamination: poor quality & safety Pounding  Women do the hard work Knowledge of processing machinery fabrication – developing Scale-up problems for processing/ lack of examples for the private sector to follow. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  8. 8. Factors contributing to poor quality & safety of products Use of contaminated water, or lack of it, for processing . Most fermentation practices promote fungi growth with potential aflatoxins contamination and discoloration Soaking Drying International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  9. 9.  Occasional inadequate processing methods o Short-cuts o Repeated use of soak water Contamination during storage Unhygienic handling, transportation and trading practicesStorage in the attics Handling International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  10. 10. Low yield + high labor for processing + Poor product quality & safety = Low market price International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  11. 11. Profitability of traditional cassava production and processing in Tanzania Southern zone Eastern zone Lake zone 150.0 100.0 US$/farmer/year 50.0 0.0 -50.0 Production Processing Production and -100.0 Processing -150.0 -200.0 to limit losses, farmers do not use hired labor and they allocate land for cassava production based on available family labor International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  12. 12. Farmers’ coping strategy : Cassava for food and less for cash 90 80 Tanzania 70 % 60 50 40 Food 30 Sale 20 10 0 Southern zone Eastern zone Lake zone higher proportion of farm output is for home consumption International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  13. 13. IITA’s Value Chain interventions:Value chain activities through special projects:Some examples: 2003 -2007: Small scale cassava processing project - Phase I 2004/2005: CIAT/IITA – Starch Project and Livelihoods project 2009-2010: UPoCA 2009-2011: CAVA 2009 – 2013: Small scale cassava processing project - Phase II Formulate value addition interventions that utilize collectiveaction to correct scale- and knowledge-related market failures International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  14. 14. Set-up value chain models…..…..to investigate and develop a sequence of inter-linkedagents and markets to transform cassava into products withattributes for which consumers are prepared to pay. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  15. 15. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  16. 16. Setting-up the laboratory……. Development? Step 1: Partnership formation: NARES, selected beneficiaries/ actors along the value chain Step 2: Value chain analysis and benchmarking Step 3: Introduction of technologies or innovations through training of value chain actors End 1Collecting the data…..… Research Step 4: Monitoring of the value chain performance Step 5: Evaluation or impact measurement 2 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  17. 17. Issues of interest….. how cassava can be used as input for food, feed and industrial raw material ; what factors are associated with its passage through several marketing or supply channels, including its transformation? how much and at which stage of the channels value is added to it; how the value can be maximized at the least possible total cost for the competitive advantage of every chain actor? International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  18. 18. Technology introduction : Machinery  Train and backstop equipment manufacturers in machinery design and fabrication International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  19. 19.  Collective action for small-scale processing : Introduce improved processing methods and related technologiesMechanized chipping, grating, pressing, starch extraction, raised area drying. Grating/Chipping/ Pressing Raised area drying Starch settling High quality grits/flour Delivery for industrial use International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  20. 20.  Work with industries to increase technical possibility of cassava use in industrial processes Bread and other Pastries Large scale bakeries Training and In-factory testing of cassava …to diversify market options for cassava Paper/packaging farmers Biscuit International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  21. 21. Standards/certification (CRP2)Partnerships with national food regulatory agencies to establish themechanisms for verifying to consumers the quality, food safety, and/orproduction methods of cassava products. The following standards arenow operational in at least 7 countries 1. Fresh (Sweet)Cassava Roots – Specification 2. Dried Cassava Chips– Specification 3. Cassava Crisps –Specification 4. Composite Flour- Specification 5. Cassava Flour – Specification 6. Cassava Starch – Specification 7. Assay for Total Cyanogens International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  22. 22. Assessment of quality and safety of products from mechanized and traditional processing Microbial quality compliance test in Tanzania, 2010Microbial tests Values Tolerance Comment levels*Total plate count, cfu/g 6.7 x 104 -Total coliforms, cfu/g 1.1 x 103 -E. coli, cfu/g 9.3 x 101 Shall be absent Not compliantYeast and mould, cfu/g 2.6 x 103 103Salmonella, cfu/g Not detected Shall be absentVibrio cholerea, cfu/ g Not detected -*EAS 740:2010 & TZS 466: 2010 :- Cassava Flour – Specification International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  23. 23. Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin in traditional cassava flour and chips, 2008-2009 Products tested Brazzaville, Congo Tanzania Aflatoxin B1 Fumonisin Aflatoxin B1 (ppm) (ppm) (ppm) Cassava chips 0.35a 0.008a 0.28a Cassava flour 0.31a 0.009a Cassava chips: 4 0.89b month- storage Maize 1.07b 0.42b -On-going: Assessment of quality and safety of products fromtraditional and mechanized processing in Tanzania, Madagascar andZambia International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  24. 24.  Application of food quality and safety management measures that prevent microbial and chemical contaminants (CRP2/CRP3-RTB) Assessment of 21 processing units in Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique for quality management practices……Process control1. Both low and high in cyanide varieties are processed: mild processing techniques - chipping and quick drying may pose safety risks2. Water from rivers is used without pre-treatment.3. Processing machines: graters and chipper, are made of mild steel4. Weevil infestation problems during storage International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  25. 25. Assessment of processing units ……Hygiene1. Sun-drying during wet seasons provides ample time for multiplication of spoilage microorganisms.2. Public service hammer mills contaminate cassava flour3. Most processors lack good drainage systems4. Processors do not have necessary cleaning and sanitation tools.5. No hand-washing facilities nor hygiene rules6. Occasional weevil infestation during storage International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  26. 26. Quality management guidelines for cassava and training ofprocessors Quality management procedures or guidelines. Control measures to prevent health hazards/quality defects Good Manufacturing Practices Good Hygienic Practices Training on quality management and compliance. Processors and extension agents International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  27. 27. Assessment of value chain and actors’ performance Tanzania International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  28. 28. Assessment of the technical efficiency and potential profitability of the village processing units in TanzaniaPilot site Labor use: Capacity Profitability- IRRtype man-day/ utilization/day of or NPV processing-day operation(%) Chips 4 59% 135% Flour 1 19 48% -9806 US$ Flour 2 20 100% 77% Starch 8 100% 91% International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  29. 29. The challenges of small scale village processing, 2007-2008 Raw material supply o Seasonal variation in availability and cost of fresh roots; non- uniformity in quantity and quality. Scale of technology o Sun-drying was a major constraint - irregular processing, low volumes & inconsistent quality Poor image o Cassava is a subject of many myths and half-truths Infrastructure o Limited access to water, bad roads, poor transport systems and lack of processing equipment Low purchasing power: o Farmers can’t afford purchase ofAgriculture – Institut international low-cost credits International Institute of Tropical machines; no d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  30. 30. Determinants of profitability and overall success of village processing units o Ability to operate the plants at a high capacity utilization. o Efficient use of inputs such as labor. o Ability to maintain quality of products. o Availability of sufficient raw material at low cost. o Access to product market. o Good managerial skills. o Efficient support infrastructure (water, roads and transport systems). International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  31. 31. Potential market opportunities for cassava products (tons/year) HQCF Cassava Raw raw materialCountry Chips for cassava supply Feed equivalent as % of annual productionTanzania 47,500 45,000 370,000 6.0%Madagasc 9,400 36,000 181,600 8.0%arZambia 7,720 45,000 210,900 22.0% International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  32. 32. Processing machines300250200150100 50 0 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Manual Chipper Powered Chipper Grater Dewatering machine International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  33. 33. Mechanized processing systems by zone International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  34. 34. Categories of cassava value chain promoters 80Number of 70processing 60machines 50purchased 40 30 20 10 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 (Oct.) Research Centers/Universities Dev. Agencies/NGOs District Governments Private Sector/Farmers International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  35. 35. Spread of mechanized village processing groups in Tanzania, 2010 2004: < 8 villageprocessing groups 2010: > 140 village processing groups International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  36. 36. Assessment of small scale village processing groups, 2009 Are the village processing groups processing regularly?25 Southern zone of Tanzania, 2009 232015 17 1510 8 9 5 6 6 7 6 3 3 4 0 Mtwara Rural Newala Tandahimba Masasi Village processing units (All) Processing regularly Not processing regularly International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  37. 37. Constraints of the village processing groups Simply doing nothing 53 Village processing No processing shed units/groups Market problems (none, far distance) Machine problem (Old, poor, not installed) No training Poor skills (business, processing) Competiton from fermented cassava (makopa)Water problems (expensive, limited access, lack)Group problems (disorganized, poor or lack of commitment, bad or weak leadership) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  38. 38. Assessment of mechanized processing versus traditional methods? Profitability assessment using four different scenarios, 2009350.0300.0250.0 81.3%200.0 61.4%150.0100.0 50.0 0.0 Selling price (US$/t) Costs (US$/t) % Profit Local flour sold at factory gate HQCF delivered to end-users Chips delivered to end-users Chips sold at factory gate International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  39. 39. Market options for cassava in Tanzania, 2009 Cassava Products USD/tonRural villages Dried chips (Udaga) 27-133Villages near cities Fresh cassava in the soil 10 Dried chips for animals 200 Dried chips for human 200-333 Cassava cuttings (500 pieces) 1Processing centersnear the cities High Quality Cassava Chips 267Farmers near Peeled roots at processing plantprocessing centers gate 33 High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF) 333 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  40. 40. Targeted scale-based market linkages among producers, processors and end-users (CAVA) Targeting market according to realizable capacities of the smallholder actors in the value chain.Village End-users Processors Farmers International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  41. 41. Training of 70 end-user industries in Malawi villages Potential demand for hqcf = 488 tons/year International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  42. 42. Training of end-user industries in Uganda villages Potential demand for hqcf = 1089 tons/year International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  43. 43. Possible price for hqcf in Uganda on the basisof 75% of the on-going price of wheat flour =US$ 562-590/ton International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  44. 44. On-going value chain activities & Future work1. Linking smallholder producers to market (CRP2)  Standards/certification o The impact of Standardization on product quality, market access and livelihoods (On-going student study with WU)  Conditions under which value chain innovations can lead to tangible impacts on smallholders’ income and food security (In collaboration with impact analysts - Nigeria, Tanzania, Madagascar, Zambia) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  45. 45. Additional studies(a) Mechanisms by which change agents and smallholders responded to the value chain innovations(b) Conditions that favour adoption of the innovations(c) Tangible impacts that accrued to the beneficiaries(d) Conditioning factors and policies to promote stronger growth in the processed cassava markets in ways that reduce smallholder risks(e) Best strategy for using hqcf to reduce the vulnerability of rural and urban poor to the global cereal price volatility. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  46. 46.  HQCF supply chain development – Ongoing; with national partners Village processors & Local Farmers End-Users business groups Entrepreneurs Out grower Intermediate farmers processors 750 tons HQCF per year Out grower Intermediate Final farmers processors processors (Mechanical Out grower Intermediate dryer) farmers processors Bread and biscuit bakers Out grower Intermediate flour mills textile mills farmers processors plywood & adhesive factories breweries supermarkets, etc International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  47. 47. Selecting appropriate drying technologies International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  48. 48. 2. Food quality and safety  Application of food quality and safety management measures that prevent microbial and chemical contaminants  Unit operations responsible for mycotoxins contamination in cassava products (On-going) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  49. 49. 3. Prevention of food losses: the role of microbes in secondary infection of CBSD infected roots  The role of microorganisms in post CBSD infection root deterioration and effect on food quality and yield o In collaboration with pathologists4. Food Quality profiling of new germplasms including food yield and starch properties International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org

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