Strengthening R4D Activities and Partnerships in Southern Africa

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IITA R4D activities in southern Africa,Leadership & setting strategic direction of research programs,Cowpea production and commercialization challenges,Soybean utilization,Maize germplasm for southern Africa

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Strengthening R4D Activities and Partnerships in Southern Africa

  1. 1. Strengthening R4D Activities and Partnerships in Southern Africa David Chikoye IITA-Zambia 32 Poplar Avenue Lusaka 10 February 2011 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  2. 2. Presentation outline• R4D activities• R4D-S• Partnerships• Looking ahead International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  3. 3. • Angola13 countries in Southern Africa • Botswana • Lesotho • Madagascar • Malawi (IITA station) • Mauritius • Mozambique (IITA station) • Namibia • Seychelles • South Africa • Swaziland • Zambia (Regional hub) • Zimbabwe International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  4. 4. IITA R4D activities in southern Africa • Over 1000 projects implemented in southern Africa – 1984: Eastern & Southern Africa Root crops Research Network-ESARRN – 1994: Southern Africa Root crops Research Network –SARRNET- in 12 countries – Ecologically Sustainable Cowpea Protection Project (PEDUNE) in the 1990s in Mozambique – Biological control of cassava mealybug in the 80s in Zambia – Improving Rural Livelihoods In Southern Africa in the late 1990s – Sub-Saharan Challenge Program-Zimbabwe, Malawi and Mozambique (2006) – Tropical legume II (2007-10), etc International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  5. 5. • R4D challenges – Discipline isolation (cassava breeding only) – Scope management (No clear priorities, opportunistic & at times activities did not fit in the main agenda of IITA) – No clear exit strategy / competition with NARS • R4D-Support challenges – Inadequate administrative support – IITA Standard Operating Procedures were ignored (followed donor guidelines) • Partnership issues – Competition for recognition or resources – Lack of formal agreements – Use of research facilities – Credit, rewards and ownership of technologiesInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  6. 6. Terms of Reference (s)• Director (<100%) – Provide research leadership – set strategic directions for the research programs – Resource mobilization and allocation• Country Representative (10-0-20%) – Represent IITA to external organizations – facilitate partnerships – assist in formalization of agreements – Promote IITA’s work and image within each country• Scientist (10-5-0%) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  7. 7. Leadership & setting strategic direction ofresearch programsIITA Program Frameworks :• Horticulture and Tree Crops Systems• Cereals and Legume Systems – Situation analysis (present challenges/opportunities, significant achievements, lessons learned, critical gaps and future challenges/opportunities) – Framework development workshop (IITA and key partners) – Input from the BOT – Approval of frameworks (2008) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  8. 8. What changed?? Implementation approach &outputs in cereal & legume systems• Holistic approach along the Value chain• Outputs: • Enhance the productivity and sustainability of cereals & legume systems • Advocate policies and institutional arrangements to enhance commercialization and value addition • Disseminate information and knowledge to producers, processors, and consumers and other stakeholders in cereal and legume value chains • Enhance the competitiveness and profitability of cereal & legume systems International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  9. 9. What changed?? Priorities and geographicfocus in cereal & legume systems• Activities outside the main IITA agenda were weeded out of the program• Expanded into southern Africa (demand from partners and donors, e.g. Partners in Zambia demanded for NRM backstopping in maize systems from IITA)• Critical mass (60% in West Africa; 40% Southern Africa)  Malawi (Cassava breeding, Soybean breeding, Agricultural economist, Agronomist, Technology dissemination)  Mozambique (Cassava breeding & postharvest engineer, Legume agronomist & Food technologist)  Zambia (nutritionist, technology dissemination specialist)  Additional support from West Africa (cowpea, maize, ipm, GIS, etc) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  10. 10. Implementation of CLS program framework • Transfer technologies from West Africa to Southern Africa – Legumes (cowpeas and soybean) to diversify pre-dominantly maize–based systems in southern Africa International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  11. 11. Why Cowpeas? • Food for people (proteins) • Feed for livestock • Rejuvenates poor soils • Grows in harsh environments (dry areas in southern Africa) • Bigger picture  Food security/malnutrition  Intensify animal production  Income generation  Poverty alleviationInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  12. 12. Cowpea production and commercialization challenges• Biotic stresses (insects, diseases, Striga, alectra)• Abiotic stresses (drought, poor soil fertility, e.g. Phosphorus)• Socio-economic constraints (poor access improved seeds, management practices, organized commercial markets, processing industries & lack of government support ; different consumer preferences, & low farm-gate prices) Maruca International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  13. 13. Cowpea production and commercialization challengesFungal Diseases Anthracnose Rust Smut Pod rot Cercospora Source: Cowpea Pests and Disease International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  14. 14. Cowpea production and commercialization challengesParasitic weeds Striga gesnerioides Alectra International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  15. 15. Cowpea production and commercialization opportunitiesAchievements in cowpea research in West Africa• Genotypes for sole cropping or intercropping (IT89KD-374, IT89KD-349, IT89KD-288, IT88D-363, IT90K-277-2, IT93K-371-1, IT93k- 637-1)• Genotypes with disease resistance – Bacterial diseases ( IT81D-994, IT82E-16, IT86D-716, IT86D-719, IT89KD-374, IT90K-277-2, IT93K-573-1, IT93K-734, IT97K-556-4, IT97K-1069-6) – Viruses (TVu 201, TVu 410, TVu 1190, IT82D-889, IT86D-880, IT85F- 867-5, IT85F-2089-5, IT83S-818, IT90K-277-2, IT97K-556-4) – Fungal diseases (IT97K-556-4, IT97K-819-118, IT90K-76, IT95K-1090- 12, IT97K-1021-15, IT93K-438-2, IT93K-573-1, IT97K-556-4, IT95K- 1090-12, IT95K-1091-3) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  16. 16. Cowpea production and commercialization opportunities• Insect resistance – Aphids (IT89KD-288, IT89KD-374, IT89KD-391, IT90K-59,IT90K-76, IT90K-82-2, IT90K-277-2, IT93K-573-1) – Thrips (IT82D-716, IT83S-728-5, IT84S-2246-4, IT86D-719, IT87D- 941, IT88D-643-1) – Bruchids (IT81D-994, IT84S-2246-4, IT89KD-288, IT90K-76, IT90K- 277-2, IT93K-233-25, IT93K-543-8, IT94K-2052-3) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  17. 17. Cowpea production and commercialization opportunities• Resistance to parasitic weeds – Striga (IT82D-849, IT90K-59, IT90K-76, IT90K-82-2, IT93K-513, IT93K- 596-12, IT93K-693-2, IT97K-499-35 ) – Alectra (B 301, IT81D-994, IT90K-59, IT90K-76, IT90K-82-2, IT97K-499- 35)• Drought tolerance – Drought (IT98K-452-1, IT98K-205-8, IT97K-819-154, IT00K-1263 )• Dual purpose cowpea (IT81D-994, IT81D-985, IT86D-716, IT89KD- 245, IT89KD-288, IT93K-398-2, IT93K-637-1) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  18. 18. Cowpea production and commercialization opportunities• Improved N-fixation and efficient use of phosphorus (IT86D-715, IT96D-772, IT96D-739 and IT6D-740)• Consumer preferences and nutritional quality – Seed quality (color, texture, size) – Vegetable type (IT81D-1228-14, IT86D-880, IT95F-2089-5, IT92D-266, IT94K-968-3 ) – maturity (extra-early, early, medium, late) – plant type (erect, semi-erect, prostrate) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  19. 19. Targeting cowpea production and commercialization areasAreas in Zambia/Mozambique/Malawi with similar climate and soil conditions tonorthern Nigeria. The darker the area the higher the probability of similarity.Source: IITA-GIS Unit International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  20. 20. Promising Cowpea lines- IT98K-128-3- IT97K-390-2-IT97K-1069-6- IT98K-131-2- IT-16 (check)-IT00K-126-3- IT-18 (check) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  21. 21. Why soybean?? • Cash crop • Protein source (soy-maize blends) • Animal feed • Livestock fodder • Export market • Rejuvenates soils (N & Striga control) • BiofuelInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  22. 22. Invest in soybean research??• Soybean sub-sector study in Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe (40% of the area and 47% of the production in SSA)• The soybean subsector is in the maturity phase in South Africa, late growth phase in Zambia, early growth phase in Malawi, and emergence phase in Mozambique & decline phase in Zimbabwe• Constraints: the lack of profitable improved genetic and crop management technologies for smallholders; agricultural input and output markets; policy and infrastructure International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  23. 23. Invest in soybean research??• Opportunities to improve soybean sub-sector:  large &growing domestic demand for poultry feeds, edible oils and food products  Demand for improved locally adapted varieties, crop management and processing technologies  emerging demand for soybeans as feedstock for bio-diesel plants  soil fertility rotational benefits to maize• Strategic R4D priorities: increasing competitiveness through increasing yields or reducing unit cost of production and improving profitability through expanding market access International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  24. 24. IITA’s soybean research in West AfricaMany varieties developed for a range of uses• Nitrogen fixation ability• High grain yield• Pod shattering resistance• Seed longevity• Diseases resistance• Resistance to lodging• Tolerance to low Phosphorus• Striga hermonthica reduction ability• Dual-purpose soybeans• Resistance to soybean rust (since 2003)• Drought tolerance (since 2007) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  25. 25. Targeting soybean production and commercialization areasIITA Soybean Trial Sites in Malawi and Mozambique International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  26. 26. Targeting: extrapolation domains of Chitedze Research Station (Malawi) in ZambiaAreas in Zambia with similar climate and soil conditions to that of Chitedze Research Station inMalawi. The darker the area the higher the probability of similarity.Source: IITA-GIS Unit International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  27. 27. IITA’s soybean research in southern Africa Promising lines (grain yield 2-3 t/ha) • TGx 1740-2F • TGx 1830-20E • TGx 1485-1D • TGx 1835-10E • TGx 1904-6F • TGx 1908-8F • TGx 1937-1F • Magoye or Nasoko (local check-2 t/ha) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  28. 28. Promising rust resistant lines in Southern Africa Performance of rust resistant lines at Chitedze, Malawi, in 2009 Grain yield Rust scoreVariety (kg/ha) Days to mature (%)TGx 1987-11F 4450 127 11.9TGx 1987-64F 4118 140 11.9TGx 1987-62F 3882 136 11.7TGx 1987-8F 3613 137 9.9TGx 1987-23F 3583 137 12.4TGx 1987-18F 3450 136 10.0TGx 1485-1D (Check) 1532 133 24.2Magoye (Check) 1832 134 23.1Nasoko (Check) 3502 111 32.6Mean (22 lines) 2982 133 14.3SE 183 0.8 0.9LSD (0.05) 1412 5.9 6.6 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  29. 29. Soybean utilization• Soybean has a high nutritional value (protein and energy)• However, it cannot be consumed like other common legumes available to farmers---it needs prior processing• Main reasons of processing is to reduce antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitorsInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  30. 30. Maize germplasm for southern Africa Maize inbred lines, open pollinated varieties and hybrids of varying maturity groups adapted to the lowland savanna  Resistance/tolerance to Striga hermonthica  Tolerance to drought  Nitrogen use efficiency  Resistance to stem borers  Resistance to aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination  High lysine and tryptpophan content  Enhanced pro-vitamin A, zinc and iron concentrations International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  31. 31. Empowering partners Part of the exit strategy Build local capacity through:  Students  Trainers/extension  Scientists  Farmers  Processors  Fabricators International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  32. 32. R4D support achievements in southern Africa • Regional administrator, Country administrators, accounting officers and others • Standard operating procedures compliance • Signed MoUs in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia & with Golden Valley Research Trust on cowpea research in Zambia • Southern Africa Regional Hub – Legal documentation from Govt of Zambia – Hub fully functional by March 2011 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  33. 33. Partners in southern Africa • Traditional partners: DARS/Malawi, IIAM/Mozambique, ZARI/Zambia • New partners – Strong private sector participation in seed sector (Pannar, Seedco, Zamseed, Pioneer, Pedigree Seeds, etc) – Large commercial farmers – Mozambique (University of Eduardo Mondlane, UNILURIO, Ministry of health, Dept of agricultural extension, etc – Malawi (Bunda College of Agriculture, Chancellor college, SeedCo, farmer associations, etc) – Zambia (University of Zambia, Zamseed, GART) – South Africa (University of Pretoria, ARC,) • CG centers (ICRISAT, CIAT/TSBF, ILRI, CIMMYT, CIP) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  34. 34. IITA visibility in southern Africa • IITA/ZARI workshop • Visits to relevant government ministries • Open house and field days • Engage the media in collaboration with the communication office • Participation in national workshops, conference and symposia • Participation in agriculture/commercial shows International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  35. 35. Looking Ahead Coming soon... • CG reform and CRPs • IITA strategy, R4D model, program framework + management structures – Development, maturity and implementation phase (over 5 years) • CRPs relevant to IITA’s mission fit very well in our existing strategy, R4D model and program frameworks • CRPs are a platform to engage with new & more partners – Clarify roles of IITA vs partners (e.g. Contract research, e.g. GART – Strengthen linkages with private sector – Avenue to develop a standard reward system for partners International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  36. 36. Acknowledgements • General directorate • R4D directorate • R4D-Support • Country representatives in M&M • B&F • Scientists (Team-S) • Support staff • PartnersInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  37. 37. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org

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