Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Knowledge Empowerment of Farmers:
Trimming down the loss...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Introduction
Lost harvest - Physical spoilage and partia...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
In developing countries, the food loss is highly evident...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Social Composition in Intervention Villages
PORAJA BHUMI...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Objectives
The present study attempts
1. To gauge the fo...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Methodology
• 50 farmers selected for each of the three ...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
• Integrated pest and disease management
• Crop nutrient...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Integrated pest and disease management
• Promotion of or...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Crop nutrient management
• Over application and under ap...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Efficient transportation of agricultural produce
• Tradi...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Post harvest food processing
Traditionally used foot ope...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Revival of efficient storage practices
• Challenges: Use...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Crop Pest infestations
Decreased incidence in
2013-14 ov...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Particulars
Paddy (in %) Finger millet (in %) Little mil...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Food loss in major vegetables grown in Kundra
Particular...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Food loss in major fruits grown in Kundra
Particulars
Ja...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
Conclusion
• Promotion of collective action
• Transfer o...
Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
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Value Chains: Knowledge Empowerment of Farmers: Trimming down the losses from ‘Lost Harvest’ and ‘Food Waste’ in the tribal tract of Koraput, Odisha, India

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Value Chains: Knowledge Empowerment of Farmers: Trimming down the losses from ‘Lost Harvest’ and ‘Food Waste’ in the tribal tract of Koraput, Odisha, India

  1. 1. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Knowledge Empowerment of Farmers: Trimming down the losses from ‘Lost Harvest’ and ‘Food waste’ in the tribal tract of Koraput, Odisha, India Chaudhury Shripati Mishra, Seema Tigga, Trinath Taraputia, Malay Kumar Sahu, Ashis Kumar Sagar M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Odisha, India International Food Security Dialogue 2014 Theme Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World
  2. 2. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Introduction Lost harvest - Physical spoilage and partial deterioration rendering the food unsuitable for consumption Food waste - Food losses occurring at the end of the food chain (Parfitt et al 2010) Around 1.3 billion tonnes of food which is one third of the annual global food production is lost or wasted every year (30% of total cereals, 40-50% of root crops, fruits and vegetables, 20% of oil seeds and 30% of meat, dairy and fish products) The per capita food waste: 95-115 kg per annum in North America and Europe, 6-11 kg per annum in sub-Saharan Africa and south and south-eastern Asia (FAO 2011)
  3. 3. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots In developing countries, the food loss is highly evident in the initial phases of the value chain due to ‘financial, managerial and technical constraints in harvesting techniques as well as storage and cooling facilities’. In India, food losses may negate the effects of growth in agricultural production and may adversely affect food and nutrition security of the nation facing grave challenges of malnutrition Incidences of stunting, wasting and underweight in 45%, 23% and 40% children below three years of age respectively Incidences of anaemia in 56% and 24% women and men respectively Anaemia reported in 79% children in the age group of 6 to 35 months (The National Family Survey 2005-06)
  4. 4. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
  5. 5. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Social Composition in Intervention Villages PORAJA BHUMIA PENTHIABHATRA
  6. 6. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Objectives The present study attempts 1. To gauge the food loss at various levels of the value chain 2. To design and implement research initiatives to minimise the food loss 3. To assess the effect of interventions on lost harvest and food waste over a period of 24 months
  7. 7. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Methodology • 50 farmers selected for each of the three cereal crops (paddy, finger millet and little millet) • 150 vegetable cultivators selected with 30 farmers each for cauliflower, tomato, okra, pumpkin and brinjal • 30 fruit growers for each fruit namely Jack fruit, mango and banana selected • Equal numbers of men and women farmers belonging to Poraja, Bhumia, Penthia and Bhatra tribes selected • Random selection of 20 wholesalers and 30 retailers for each of the cereals, vegetables and fruits by employing the methodology of ‘overall assessment of the commodity movement system’ • Stakeholders of the food value chain interviewed using a questionnaire • Benchmark survey on Nov 2011 and Impact assessment survey in Jan 2014
  8. 8. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots • Integrated pest and disease management • Crop nutrient management • PVS trials to decrease shattering of grains • Efficient transportation of agricultural produce • Post harvest food processing • Revival of efficient storage practices • Strengthening of market linkages Results and Discussion
  9. 9. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Integrated pest and disease management • Promotion of organic pesticides (application of neem (Azadirachta indica)) • Inclusion of preventive practices • Use of trap crops (Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and marigold in vegetable cultivation and niger (Guizotia abyssinica) in finger millet and little millet) • Identification of pests and diseases and use of right dose rate of inorganic pesticides • Quality seed production and seed treatment • Periodic trainings • Intra-community knowledge and experience sharing
  10. 10. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Crop nutrient management • Over application and under application of macro and micro nutrients, leads to increased incidences of diseases (Rush et al., 1997) • Capacity building of the community on the recommended dose rates of macro and micro nutrients for common cereals, vegetables and fruits PVS trials to decrease shattering of grains • Improved varieties (GPU 67, GPU 45 and GPU 28) and landraces (Dasaramandia and Telengamandia) of finger millet with the attribute of least shattering of grains promoted • Paddy: Improved varieties (Jajati, Pratikshya and Sahabhagi) and landraces (Machakanta and Sapuri) • Little millet: Landrace (Badasuan)
  11. 11. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Efficient transportation of agricultural produce • Traditionally transported to storage facility or threshing yard on shoulders, head load and bullock cart, bicycle • Non-availability on time and high rental charges of mechanical modes of transport • Loss of harvest due to theft, rain/ hailstones, damage by birds, rodents and stray animals • Improper maintenance of containers/trailers of irregular size, shape, presence of cracks, uneven surface and corners, serrated ends, absence of strong guarding walls and lack of waterproof top covering facility • Provided power tillers with trailers as a not-for profit service • Proper plastic containers, waterproof top covering facility, round and smooth edges and compact side guards • Reduction in average transportation time of agricultural produce from storage area to wholesalers/retailers by 38%
  12. 12. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
  13. 13. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Post harvest food processing Traditionally used foot operated pounders (dhinki) and hand held pounders (musala) The average broken paddy grain content in foot operated pounding and hand held pounding are 18.3% and 14.7% respectively. Brought down to 6.5% with mechanical hulling Little millet dehuskers reduced the broken/damaged grain content from 14% in hand pounding to 4.3% in mechanical processing
  14. 14. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Revival of efficient storage practices • Challenges: Use of unsuitable containers, exposure to extreme temperatures inappropriate storage facility, improper storage practices leading to high moisture content, growth of moulds, insect and rodent infestation, loss of quality due to droppings of rodents and insects, spillage and leakage of agricultural produce during transportation • Promotion of traditional earthen pots and bamboo containers with organic insecticides and fungicides (turmeric, neem leaves and char), use of paddy straw as an affordable and effective packing material Strengthening of market linkages • Promotion of collective action through Community Based Organizations (CBOs) • Efficient and affordable transportation facility
  15. 15. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Crop Pest infestations Decreased incidence in 2013-14 over 2010-12 (in %) Diseases Decreased incidence in 2013-14 over 2010- 12 (in %) Paddy Plant Hoppers (BHP) 52 Blast disease 29 Stem borer 36 False Smut 17 Swarming caterpillar 42 Sheath Blight 22 Rice hispa 27 Stem rot 81 Finger millet Caterpillar 19 Cercospora leaf spot 21 - - Seedling and leaf blight 16 Cauliflower Diamondback moth 72 Stalk rot 34 - - Black rot 44 Tomato Fruit borer 41 Damping off disease 52 White fly 31 Early blight 43 Mite 12 Fusarium wilt 61 Okra Shoot and Fruit Borer 58 Yellow vein mosaic virus 07 Leaf Hopper 31 Powdery mildew 56 Okra Stemfly 24 Fusarium wilt 14 Pumpkin Phytophthora Blight 06 Bacterial Wilt 19 Powdery Mildew 17 - - Brinjal Shoot and fruit borer 48 Leaf blight and fruit rot disease 37 Stem borer 39 Fungal wilt 78 Epilachna beetle 83 Bacterial wilt 62 Jack fruit Shoot-borer caterpillar 21 Pink disease 26 Mealy bugs 81 Stem rot 16 Spittle bug 12 Gray blight 37 Jack scale 03 Charcoal rot 29 Mango Mealy Bugs 08 Anthracnose 22 Inflorescence Midge 19 Phoma Blight 35 Shoot Borer 28 Red Rust 19 Leaf Webber 13 Diplodia Stem-end Rot 31 Banana Banana Aphid 32 Panama Wilt 17 Rhizome Weevil 21 Leaf Spot, Leaf Streak or Sigatoka Disease 04 Pseudostem Borer 22 Crown Rot 18 Burrowing Nematode 09 Pseudostem Heart Rot 07
  16. 16. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots
  17. 17. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Particulars Paddy (in %) Finger millet (in %) Little millet (in %) 2010-11 2013-14 2010-11 2013-14 2010-11 2013-14 1. Production losses a)Pest b)Disease c)Damage by birds, rodents and stray animals d)Rain/ hailstones e)Shattering of grains f)Theft 5.92 7.81 1.21 0.18 0.49 0.32 2.12 3.43 1.18 0.22 0.17 0.29 0.72 0.94 0.52 0.48 0.69 - 0.19 0.24 0.54 0.53 0.69 - 0.96 1.09 1.22 0.86 0.51 - 0.57 0.35 1.18 0.96 0.22 - 2. Post harvest losses a)Harvesting b)Shattering of grains while transporting to threshing yard c)Damage by rodents in the threshing yard d)Broken grains/ excessive hulling/ dehusking e)Storage (molds/ humidity/ insect/ rodents) f)Physical damage during transportation (spillage/ breakage of grains/ leakage) 0.43 0.61 1.06 0.89 2.28 0.37 0.45 0.16 1.09 0.26 0.91 0.12 0.09 0.29 1.18 1.02 1.76 1.61 0.10 0.11 1.14 0.42 0.57 0.39 0.28 0.72 1.22 0.87 1.04 1.31 0.25 0.31 1.25 0.07 0.49 0.17 3. Losses during marketing a)Damage during handling b)Discarded (quality loss) c)Storage (molds/ humidity/ insect/ rodents) 0.03 0.51 1.79 0.04 0.19 0.61 0.18 0.64 2.06 0.17 0.34 1.67 0.17 0.13 0.99 0.19 0.09 0.64 Total loss 23.90 11.24 12.18 7.10 11.49 6.74 Food loss in major food grains cultivated in Kundra
  18. 18. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Food loss in major vegetables grown in Kundra Particulars Cauliflower (in %) Tomato (in %) Ocra (in %) Pumpkin (in %) Brinjal (in %) 2010-11 2013-14 2010-11 2013-14 2010-11 2013-14 2010-11 2013-14 2010-11 2013-14 1. Production losses a)Pest b)Disease c)Damage by birds d)Damage by rodents and stray animals e)Rain/ hailstones f)Delayed harvest leading to excess ripening g)Rotten crop due to contact with ground h)Theft 5.07 11.74 0.32 0.93 0.47 - - 1.32 3.09 7.45 0.33 0.49 0.51 - - 1.28 2.06 8.16 2.31 1.82 4.46 2.18 3.03 0.97 1.75 4.89 2.21 1.63 4.25 1.88 2.47 1.02 7.24 11.92 0.09 0.27 0.21 0.41 - 0.25 5.45 8.01 0.1 0.29 0.19 0.48 - 0.3 2.54 14.87 1.67 6.17 0.22 - 0.21 0.54 2.33 9.07 1.54 5.19 0.15 - 0.17 0.48 8.05 13.03 - 1.38 0.52 0.04 1.67 0.21 7.14 8.79 - 1.4 0.44 0.04 1.39 0.25 2. Post harvest losses a)Picking/harvesting b)Grading/sorting c)Damage by rodents d)Packing the produce e)Temporary storage f)Fungal contamination g)Physical damage during transportation (pressed/pock marked) h)Economic loss due to partial damage 0.11 0.21 0.46 0.22 0.07 0.94 0.22 0.27 0.12 0.18 0.48 0.16 0.04 0.81 0.16 0.17 0.28 1.02 0.57 1.89 0.71 0.64 1.52 0.39 0.21 0.96 0.55 1.58 0.47 0.51 1.32 0.11 0.06 0.6 0.04 0.02 0.12 0.19 0.41 0.24 0.08 0.44 0.06 0.02 0.07 0.14 0.28 0.16 - 0.09 0.22 0.01 - 0.33 0.21 0.23 - 0.1 0.19 0.0 0.01 0.27 0.16 0.09 0.26 0.36 0.04 0.03 0.21 0.18 0.27 1.01 0.24 0.25 0.05 0.03 0.17 0.18 0.24 0.92 3. Losses during marketing a)Damage during handling b)Sorted out/discarded 0.05 3.41 0.03 2.85 1.09 2.62 0.92 2.5 0.17 3.07 0.19 2.85 0.12 2.02 0.14 1.88 0.42 3.48 0.36 2.48 Total loss 31.34 18.15 40.94 29.23 28.34 19.11 33.58 21.77 35.7 24.37
  19. 19. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Food loss in major fruits grown in Kundra Particulars Jack fruit (in %) Mango (in %) Banana (in %) 2010-11 2013-14 2010-11 2013-14 2010-11 2013-14 1. Production losses a)Pest b)Disease c)Damage by birds d)Damage by rodents and stray animals e)Rain/ hailstones f)Delayed harvest leading to excess ripening g)Theft 4.67 2.44 0.21 0.02 1.68 - 1.07 2.42 1.91 0.24 0.03 1.59 - 1.02 3.83 11.27 0.27 - 2.12 - 2.74 2.57 8.64 0.23 0.03 2.02 - 2.86 4.66 7.62 0.86 0.41 1.13 - 0.56 3.54 5.95 0.79 0.4 1.7 - 0.63 2. Post harvest losses a)Picking/harvesting b)Grading/sorting c)Damage by rodents d)Packing the produce e)Temporary storage f)Fungal contamination g)Physical damage during transportation (pressed/pock marked) h)Economic loss due to partial damage 0.09 0.27 0.08 0.98 0.04 2.08 1.58 1.81 0.05 0.22 0.08 0.76 0.03 1.85 1.39 1.66 0.18 0.47 0.12 0.21 - 0.19 1.12 1.14 0.14 0.33 0.13 0.18 0.01 0.14 0.08 1.02 0.14 0.59 0.72 0.22 0.14 1.37 1.53 1.39 0.11 0.47 0.68 0.24 0.11 1.18 1.34 1.19 3. Losses during marketing a)Damage during handling b)Sorted out/discarded 0.3 3.96 0.22 3.58 0.11 6.22 0.07 5.01 0.17 3.84 0.17 3.15 Total loss 22.23 17.05 29.99 23.46 25.35 21.65
  20. 20. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Conclusion • Promotion of collective action • Transfer of technology to communities • Decrease in food losses by 47.25%, 33.72% and 19.84% on an average in grains, vegetables and fruits respectively Acknowledgement • Department for Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD), Canada • International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada
  21. 21. Alleviating Poverty and Malnutrition in Agrobiodiversity Hotspots Thank you

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