Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Gender and Livelihoods: Women friendly interventions in finger millet cultivation in Nepal


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Gender and Livelihoods: Women friendly interventions in finger millet cultivation in Nepal

  1. 1. International Food Security Dialogue – 2014 Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Apr 30 – May 2, 2014
  2. 2. Rachana Devkota1, Kamal Khadka1, Hom Gartaula2, Asis Shrestha1, Swikar Karki1 and Pashupati Chaudhary1 Women-friendly interventions in finger millet cultivation in Nepal 1Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD), Pokhara, Nepal 2Department of Anthropology, University of Manitoba and International Development Studies, Menno Simons College, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg Correspondence: PO Box 324, Pokhara, Nepal, Email:, The is part of the CIFSRF supported project “Revalorizing small millets: Enhancing the food and nutritional security of women and children in rainfed regions of South Asia”
  3. 3. Background • Finger millet is 4th important cereal crop grown in Nepal, covering 9% of total cultivated area. • It is a climate-smart crop with the quality of resilience over drought, low soil fertility, and fragile and marginal land. • Finger millet is rich in iron, calcium, zinc, and dietary fiber; good for a healthy food choice. • It is a culturally important crop for some ethnic groups. • Women are important players in agricultural activities (>90% involvement).
  4. 4. Research Problem • Men’s increased entry into non-agricultural activities (within and outside the country) has put agricultural sector in the hands of women and elderly. • Women are less prioritized for agricultural technological development. • Neglected technological development, gender biased approach, and marginal millet cultivation go together.
  5. 5. Conceptual Framework • Women in agriculture: • Women are the main players in agriculture • Men’s entry into non-agricultural activities increases feminization of agriculture • Labour out-migration: • Movement of an individual or a group of individuals outside of his/her residence in search of employment. • Farm mechanization: • Farm machineries are considered men’s domain, women are less concerned • Women-friendly mechanization improves gender equality • Practical and strategic gender needs
  6. 6. Research Sites Map 1: Country map showing the study area in Nepal Kaski Dhading
  7. 7. Research Methodology • Action research - RESMISA • Baseline study comprised a survey among randomly selected 357 households from the three village development committees, conducted in 2012. • Focused survey comprised 106 respondents (61 women and 45 men). • Focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. • IBM SPSS Statistics and Excel computer programs were used for data analysis.
  8. 8. Results • Women in agricultural research • Involvement in variety selection • Involvement in technological intervention • Reducing drudgery and workload of women • Introduction of pedal thresher, fork weeder, line transplanting
  9. 9. • Empowerment through women’s involvement in variety selection • Gender differences in varietal preference: • Example: Men did not consider the production of straw, while women did; women preferred non-lodging variety, while men preferred the grain yield • Involvement in technological intervention • Gender differences in the choice of specific machinery or technology according to their involvement in a particular pre- and post-harvest agricultural practices • Example: Women are interested in thresher, men in (mini) tillers
  10. 10. • Introduction of pedal thresher Advantages: • Increased participation of male members in threshing, which was rare before • Lesser time required for threshing • Less inert materials in grains Future scope • The initial assumption was to overcome the problem of power-cut and unavailability of electric drum thresher. • There is potential for up scaling pedal thresher, but there is demand for electricity operated thresher, as at the current form it requires two persons Limitations: • Needs at least 2 persons to operate • Pedal still requires some physical effort Reducingdrudgeryandworkloadofwomen
  11. 11. Introductionoffork weeder Advantages: • Less effort, time and labour needed for weeding • Easy for weeding • It saves workers from snake and snake bites • Contributes to less back pain and less injury on hands while working Future scope • Though farmers shown their interest to take this technology over, but it needs modification to make it applicable for upright type weeds. Limitations: • Mainly suitable for tailing type weeds, but not upright type • More efficient in other crops such as cauliflower and cabbage • Finger millet have upright type weeds
  12. 12. Introductionoflinetransplanting Advantages: • Reduces time and labour for weeding • Easy thinning of finger millet • Easy fertilizer application • Improved plant population of maize Future scope: • Due to less time and labour required, there is potential for up scaling Limitations: • Due to larger spacing, there is high weed infestation
  13. 13. Conclusions • Should acknowledge women’s role in agriculture • Gender sensitive farm mechanization policy • Gender-sensitive intervention identifies specific gender needs • helps develop technologies that address the problems specific to men and women. • Participation in technology development increases women’s role in agricultural decision making. • Agricultural decision making can lead to household decision-making that ultimately leads to women’s empowerment
  14. 14. Thanks for your kind attention