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Hudson in the Civil War

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Hudsonandthecivilwar 111029103447-phpapp01

  1. 1. Feltonville: Abolitionism and the Civil War
  2. 2. Presented by Paul Brodeur For the Hudson Historical Society
  3. 3. Special Thanks to the Following Sources for Making This Presentation Possible
  4. 4. 13 th Mass Website at Copyright 2008 Brad Forbush And especially for all the personal assistance from Brad Forbush
  5. 5. Brigham’s Early Hudson History as written by Wilbur F. Brigham compiled and edited by Katherine Johnson and Lewis Halprin
  6. 6. The John Brown Bell <ul><li>Copyright 2008 by Joan Abshire </li></ul><ul><li>And most particularly for all of Joan's assistance, direction and inspiration. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Marlboro Daily Enterprise 1892 – 1920 & The Marlboro Mirror 1860-1865 <ul><li>With a special thank you to Kathy Lizotte Lynde for past, present and ongoing research. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cyrus Felton's two volumes of local history: Four Hundred Fifty Events Six Hundred Events Charles Hudson History of Marlborough Ella Bigelow Historical Reminiscences
  9. 9. John Buczek's History of Marlboro Website at containing Paul Polewacyk's History of the Marlborough Fire Department
  10. 10. And The Just Released History of the 125 th Quartermaster Company by Leonid E. Kondratiuk Director, Historical Services The Adjutant General’s Office Worcester, Massachusetts 2011
  11. 11. 1. Absolutely Abolitionist Feltonville 2. The Motivation of the Fire Department 3. John Brown's Raid and the Strange Story of Ledra and Seth Coolidge 4. Marlboro Mirror, November 10, 1860 5. War!!
  12. 12. Absolutely Abolitionist Feltonville
  13. 13. Hon. John Parker Hale <ul><li>Dec 25, 1846 Hon. John Parker Hale of NH lectured in Marlborough Town Hall on “War, Slavery, and Abolitionism”. </li></ul><ul><li>Hale was newly elected to the Senate from NH and champion of the Free Soil movement determined to keep slavery out of the new territories. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a staunch opponent of the war with Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1852, John Parker Hale would be the Free Soil candidate for President, losing to Democrat Franklin Pierce. </li></ul><ul><li>The Free Soil party would be one of the key groups that led to the formation of the Republican Party in 1855. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Born in Marlborough in 1795 in the Feltonville section of town. </li></ul><ul><li>Became a Universalist Minister and served in Westminster </li></ul><ul><li>Was both a State Representative and State Senator from Worcester County. </li></ul><ul><li>Was elected as a Whig to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1840 and served eight years. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1846 he argued passionately against the Mexican War, believing it to be an excuse to extend the institution of slavery into new territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote the definitive History of Marlborough for their Bicentennial in 1860, as well as the History of Lexington where he settled in his later years. </li></ul><ul><li>When Feltonville separated from Marlborough in 1866, he offered $500 to the new town if they would name it in his honor. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Rep. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Hudson </li></ul>
  15. 15. Charles Hudson, In Memoriam by Henry M. Smith
  16. 16. Charles Hudson, In Memoriam by Henry M. Smith Speeches: Discriminating Duties, 1841; The Annexation of Texas; The Tariff, 1846; The Wheat Trade of the Country, 1846; The Mexican War; The President’s Message on the War with Mexico, 1846; The Three Million Appropriation Bill, 1847; The Cost of the Mexican War, and the Finances of the Country, 1848; The Constitutional power of Congress over the Territories and the Right of Excluding Slavery Therefrom, 1848.
  17. 17. Charles Hudson, In Memoriam by Henry M. Smith
  18. 18. O. W Albee <ul><li>Obadiah Wheelock Albee was born in Milford , MA. And graduated from Brown University in 1832. </li></ul><ul><li>His first position was as preceptor of the local Gates Academy in 1833. The Academy was located near the present Walker Building on Main St., and became Marlboro High School in 1851. Albee then became its first Principal. </li></ul><ul><li>Albee was an ardent abolitionist and Free Soil activist, and was instrumental in organizing the local Free Soil Meeting in 1848. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from his role as educator, he was the State Representative for 4 years, the State Senator for 2 years, and a trial judge for 4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost every significant abolitionist activity in the Marlboro area bears his imprint. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Timeline 1848: Marlborough Free Soil Meeting 800 in attendance (Cyrus Felton) 1848: Harpers Ferry firehouse is built to house the equipment and fire bell for the National Armory (National Park Service)
  20. 20. Timeline Sept 18, 1850: The Fugitive Slave Act is passed, requiring any Federal Marshall or other official to aid in the return of slaves to their rightful owners. This begins the acceleration in the Underground Railroad throughout the country. A number of houses in Marlborough and Feltonville are converted to assist in the conveyance of slaves to Canada.
  21. 21. Timeline Nov 11 1850: The Substance of Resolutions passed this day in Marlborough Town Meeting. (Cyrus Felton) “ Massachusetts cannot become the hunting ground for slaves.” “ We most decidedly disapprove of the Fugitive Slave Law, and will not aid, but will in all suitable and proper ways resist its execution.” But very few voted nay.
  22. 22. Timeline April 12 th 1851 the East Meeting house bell tolled 75 times because Thomas Sims, a colored person was taken from Boston back to Georgia as a slave. It was 75 years since Independence had been declared. (Cyrus Felton)
  23. 23. The West Village of Marlboro, centered around the Second Parish Church (Unitarian), was a hotbed of Abolitionism led by Rev. Horatio Alger, father of noted Rags to Riches author Horatio Alger Jr.
  24. 24. The Unitarian Church <ul><li>Rev. Horatio Alger </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mr. Alger’s pastorate lasted fourteen years. It was marked by ability, faithfulness, and especially by aggressive action on the slavery question.” </li></ul><ul><li>History of the Second Parish Church </li></ul><ul><li>by Edward Farwell Hayward </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Unitarian Church <ul><li>Rev. Horatio Alger </li></ul><ul><li>“… it was the duty of those churches who believed Slaveholding to be a sin, it being in diametrical opposition to the principles and spirit of Christianity, and put on record their determination to have no fellowship as Christians with it or those who are guilty of it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Quoted in </li></ul><ul><li>History of the Second Parish Church </li></ul><ul><li>by Edward Farwell Hayward </li></ul>
  26. 26. The State Disunion Convention held at Worcester, Mass. in January of 1857 was a unique exercise in northern secessionist thought.
  27. 28. (Gathered) for the purpose of considering the “practicability, probability, and expediency of a separation of the Free and Slave States”. Organizer: Rev. T. W. Higginson (Member of John Brown’s Secret Six) Among the six Vice Presidents: William Lloyd Garrison, Boston (publisher of The Liberator) Charles Brigham, Marlboro
  28. 29. “ Uncle Charles Brigham, ... a great temperance laborer and anti-slavery man, very public spirited and one of the founders and leading men of the Unitarian Church (Feltonville).” Ella Bigelow Historical Reminiscences of the Early Times in Marlborough
  29. 30. “ If the Union cannot stand the practical working of the truths enunciated in the Declaration of American Independence, it seems to me its value has been calculated. I am not, however, prepared to believe that the triumph of freedom requires the dissolution of the Union.” O.W. Albee Letter to the Worcester Disunion Convention
  30. 31. The Motivation of The Feltonville Fire Department
  31. 32. Fighting Fires in the Agricultural New England Towns in the Olden Days <ul><li>Mostly chimney fires or barn fires </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy: Save the people, save the animals, save the tools </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: buckets, buckets and more buckets </li></ul>
  32. 33. Population Growth in Marlboro 1830-1860 <ul><li>1830: 2,074 </li></ul><ul><li>1840: 2,092 </li></ul><ul><li>1850: 2,941 </li></ul><ul><li>1855: 4,288 </li></ul><ul><li>1860: 5,910 </li></ul>
  33. 34. In 1850 Marlboro there were three villages, each distinct enclaves of small factories and closely packed multi story houses surrounding small commercial areas and a central main Church. All areas between the villages remained farmland with sparse housing.
  34. 36. The Village of Feltonville 1856
  35. 37. The New Reality to Fighting Fires <ul><li>Buckets weren't good enough </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings were bigger, closer together </li></ul><ul><li>A more disciplined approach with more manpower and better equipment was needed. </li></ul>
  36. 38. This was the answer. An 1849 model hand tub pumper from the Howard & Davis Co. Boston. This is the actual pumper from the Marlboro East Village Torrent Company.
  37. 39. Timeline <ul><li>1849: Town meeting voted to purchase three new hand tubs from the Howard & Davis Co. Boston </li></ul><ul><li>1853: By an act of the Mass. State Legislature approval was received to create a Fire Dept. </li></ul><ul><li>1855: Marlborough Fire Department was formed </li></ul>
  38. 40. Sylvester Bucklin <ul><li>Pastor of First Church from 1806 – 1832 </li></ul><ul><li>At an advanced age became the champion of the Marlboro Fire Dept </li></ul><ul><li>By 1860 there were 87 volunteers prepared for fire duty. </li></ul><ul><li>A large percentage of these men became members of Co. I and Co. F of the 13 th Regiment. </li></ul>
  39. 41. Marlborough Firefighters and the Fireman's Muster July 4, 1849, the first fireman's hand engine muster was held in Bath, Maine. Marlborough that year received three new engines and two years later were contestants for the first time. Since that time Marlborough's engines have been prominent in most musters held in New England where they originated. Several of the largest, and best, were held in Marlborough&quot;. H.H Esterbrook, Westboro, circa 1922 Quoted in Paul Polewacyk's history of the Marlboro Fire Department on John Buczek's Marlboro History Website
  40. 42. Marlborough Firefighters and the Fireman's Muster <ul><li>Each village competed separately and an intense rivalry developed. It was the first instance of competition between Marlboro and what is now Hudson, a tradition that continues to this day. </li></ul><ul><li>The History of the Eureka Engine Co. tells the full story of the development of firefighting from its origins in Feltonville to the early years as the town of Hudson. </li></ul><ul><li>There developed a sense of loyalty, community spirit and dedication to discipline within the members of the Fire Dept which continued to their time in service to the Union. </li></ul>
  41. 43. John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry and the Strange Tale of the Coolidge Boys
  42. 44. John Brown <ul><li>Born in 1800 in Connecticut, moved around in his youth, partly in Massachusetts. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1846 he moved to Springfield, MA and became an expert in the wool industry. </li></ul><ul><li>His many travels brought him in contact with most of the leading abolitionists of his day. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, he developed relationships with the Secret Six, abolitionists mostly from Massachusetts who became his financial backers. </li></ul><ul><li>In October of 1859 he led the raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, where his target was the Federal Armory, his first stop on a mission to free the slaves of the South. </li></ul>
  43. 45. An overhead view of Harpers Ferry. The Potomac River descends from the north and the Shenandoah comes in from the west. The white arrow is the relative position of the Engine House and the Red arrow is the substructure of the railroad bridge destroyed by the Confederates in the summer of 1861.
  44. 46. The bridge from the Maryland side looking at Harpers Ferry. The buildings left of center are the Wager Hotel buildings and just to the right a small water tower. Behind the tower sits the Engine House (not visible). Historic Photo Collection, National Historic Parks
  45. 47. These overhead street maps are from The Business Enterprises and Commercial Development of Harpers Ferry Lower Town Area, 1803-1861 by Charles W. Snell The circled area is the water tower. The Potomac River is to the right.
  46. 48. The Wager House Hotel complex including the Potomac Restaurant/Hotel was at times run as separate hotels but mostly as a single unit. The slaves of our story all would have worked in this area.
  47. 49. The Engine House where John Brown was isolated sat behind a fence and gate within the Armory complex and stood throughout the Civil War although all the buildings around it were totally destroyed.
  48. 50. The Raid, The Bell, & The Wager Hotel <ul><li>On the evening of October 16, 1859 John Brown and an 'army' of 23 men conspired to take hostages and take a large cache of weapons from the Armory. </li></ul><ul><li>Things immediately went bad and Brown decided to isolate a portion of the group with the hostages into the small firehouse that was used to protect the Armory. </li></ul><ul><li>The firehouse bell was a mere observer of events, but some later asserted that it was Brown's intention to ring the bell to promote a slave uprising. Makes for a good story. </li></ul><ul><li>The Wager Hotel was used as an overnight prison for captured abolitionists and, as William Geary reports, as a source of food for John Brown's prisoners. </li></ul>
  49. 51. Born a Slave But Made His Escape to Freedom Exciting Days In the Life of a Marlboro Barber “ Young (William) Geary was one of those who carried the breakfasts to the imprisoned men and in this way he had the opportunity of meeting John Brown.” Marlboro Daily Enterprise Wednesday, June 5, 1901
  50. 52. John Brown <ul><li>Eight, including John Brown were captured, tried and hung. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert E. Lee commanded the contingent of Marines that stormed the firehouse. J. E. B. Stuart was his aide-de-camp who spoke with Brown about surrender. Brown refused. </li></ul><ul><li>John Brown was hung in Charletown, Virginia on December 2, 1859. Stonewall Jackson and John Wilkes Booth were there. Remarkably, when Booth was caught and killed after the assassination of Lincoln, a photo of his fiance was found in his pocket. None other than the daughter of famed abolitionist John Parker Hale who had spoken in Marlboro, Christmas, 1846. </li></ul><ul><li>Cyrus Felton noted that on December 2, there was “an indignation meeting at Marlborough Town Hall, relating to the execution of John Brown in VA, a martyr to the cause of Human Liberty.” </li></ul>
  51. 53. from the Marlboro Enterprise – Monday, 30 May 1914 Mrs. Fanny Stanley, Who Died Saturday, Knew John Brown Personally “….when he was hung, she saw him go to his death on the scaffold. She was in a hotel at the time. She knew that he was to go to his death on that day and climbing to the topmost part of the hotel she saw the enactment of a tragedy that has gone down the ages. Mrs. Stanley said that when the drop was pulled, his face turned toward the north, prophetic of future development.”
  52. 54.   “ In my Company was a man who knew every secret hiding place in the mountains around Harper's Ferry and Maryland Heights and it was whispered that he had been one of John Brown's men who had escaped capture,  he would point out places where he had been with Brown's band -  his name was Ledra Coolidge, a quiet, earnest sort of man.” Charles Roundy, Co. F
  53. 55. “ In connection with these incidents, another of intense interest comes to our knowledge and that is that Silas Coolidge, a son of Rufus Coolidge, was one of the John Brown party and was wounded in the leg during the fight. He turned up in Hudson just prior to the war and when the war broke out enlisted in the 13th Regt.” Marlboro Enterprise, November 4, 1892
  54. 56. Of these two stories, the one concerning Ledra Coolidge probably has more validity. It is a first person account with direct observation albeit written years later as a memoir. The story concerning Silas Coolidge is problematic in that there are other parts of the news article that are probably false, and is written without attribution of source. Silas Coolidge died during the Civil War. Clearly, there may be a realistic connection. Charles Brigham was a fellow abolitionist in the circle of T.W. Higginson, one of John Brown’s Secret Six. Feltonville was a small village and any with strong abolitionist leanings would be known to each other. Was Brigham a financial supporter? Was one or both of the Coolidge boys involved in John Brown’s Raid? Intriguing! None of the histories of the raid make any mention of them. Only some local or family history tying them to known conspirators would certify the historical rumors.
  55. 57. Items from the Marlboro Mirror November 10, 1860
  56. 58. Items From the Marlboro Mirror November 10, 1860 <ul><li>In Marlborough, Lincoln received 516 out of 771 votes (66.92%) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ward Beecher was scheduled to deliver the kickoff lecture for the eighth season of Mechanics Institute lectures the following week. He had 500 offers to lecture and accepted 25. Marlborough was one of the 25. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mechanics Institute entertained many of the leading lecturers of the day. Abolition was a constant topic, although Temperance and world travel were frequent. Some of the important Abolitionists such as T. W. Higginson and Frederick Douglass spoke after the war on different topics. </li></ul>
  57. 59. Items From the Marlboro Mirror November 10, 1860 Anti-Slavery Lecture Mr. H. Ford Douglas, of Chicago, will lecture in Town Hall next Wednesday evening, Nov. 14 th at 7 o'clock. He will also lecture in the Baptist Church in Feltonville, on Thursday evening, 15 th at 7 o'clock.
  58. 60. H. Ford Douglas was a prominent Black Lecturer from Lincoln’s home state of Illinois. It is uncertain what words he spoke those two days in Marlboro, but it is likely that it reflected his disdain for the popular Lincoln as in this speech he gave in Framingham earlier that year.
  59. 61. H. Ford Douglas Speech at Framingham, July 4, 1860 <ul><li>“ I do not believe in the antislavery of Abraham Lincoln, because he is on the side of this slave power of which I am speaking, that has possession of the federal government. What does he propose to do? Simply to let the people and the territories regulate their domestic institutions in their own way.” </li></ul>
  60. 62. Douglas was correct. Although Lincoln was against slavery, his strategy was always to preserve the Union at whatever cost.
  61. 63. War!!
  62. 64. Construction of the 13 th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry <ul><li>Regiments contained about 1000 men </li></ul><ul><li>Companies comprised about 100 men </li></ul><ul><li>The 13 th Regiment was made up of 4 companies of Boston, formerly the 4 th Battalion Rifle militia (Co.’s A, B, C, D), Co. E from Roxbury, these reported to Ft. Independence on May 25 th , 1861. </li></ul><ul><li>The suburban based Companies: Co. I and Co. F from Marlboro, Co. G from Stoneham, Co. H from Natick and Co. K from Westboro reported by late June. </li></ul><ul><li>Term of Enlistment was 3 years. </li></ul>
  63. 65. The Feltonville Rifles (Co. F 13 th Mass Infantry) <ul><li>It has just been discovered that this unit is the 2 nd oldest military unit of this size in the country, first organized in Marlboro in December of 1660 to protect the frontier from hostile Indian activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of these recent discoveries, it was decided to award the 125 th Quartermaster Co. (the direct descendant of Co. F, 13 th Mass Infantry) the streamer for the battle at Lexington-Concord. The Marlboro Rifles, as they were known at that time, assisted in the attack against the retreat of the British back to Boston. They are the only company size militia unit in the country with this streamer. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly known as the Marlboro Rifles, at the time of the Civil War many of the members and officers were from Feltonville. </li></ul><ul><li>Feltonville did not have 100 men, so they recruited up to the last minute from surrounding areas. </li></ul>
  64. 66. Photo depicts the award ceremony for the 125 th Quartermaster Company for the Lexington – Concord Battle Streamer at the Massachusetts Army National Guard Historical Museum, October 16, 2011
  65. 67. Command of Co. F <ul><li>Captain: Henry Whitcomb </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Lieut: Abel H. Pope </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Lieut: Charles F. Morse </li></ul>
  66. 68. Private Charles Roundy <ul><li>Born in Boston, was 18 and living in Berlin at the outbreak of war. </li></ul><ul><li>Although sometimes inaccurate as to dates and times, his memoirs, written years later, of his time with Co. F are the best picture we have of that company. </li></ul>
  67. 69. Private Charles Roundy on Ft. Independence <ul><li>  “ The Feltonville Rifles left Feltonville, (now Hudson, Mass.) and our first stop was Marlboro, where we were joined by Company I, and at Westboro, by Company K, and we certainly owned that train on the way down.     We arrived in Boston, marched through the principal streets and took steamer for Fort Independence, Boston Harbor. </li></ul><ul><li>      Here we spent 8 weeks, drilling, marching and learning the duties of a soldier and what a delightful soldiers life we led perfecting ourselves in marching, guard duty and drill – drill – drill – then more drill.” </li></ul>
  68. 70. Ft. Independence at bottom of photo. Boston’s Logan Airport is top center
  69. 72. Regiment attached to Gen. Banks Division Army of the Potomac assigned to patrol and outpost duty on the Upper Potomac. Winter camp spent in Williamsport. The blue line from the left of the slide is the Potomac River, the line from the bottom is the Shenandoah River. The Potomac was the dividing line between North and South.
  70. 73. Private Charles Roundy Williamsport <ul><li>“ I was one of 21 detailed from the left of my company to report for Provost Guard duty for the winter in Hagerstown, so I saw but little of the regiment while there. </li></ul><ul><li>    But when spring came we were ordered back to the regiment and we found that nearly every company had attached a colored man.  Our own company with the rest, had one.” </li></ul>
  71. 74. This photo was taken at Williamsport, MD, probably by George L. Crosby a photographer and artist from Marlboro who had signed up with Co. F and brought his equipment with him. The camp follower slaves were known as ‘contraband’. There is every possibility that the two women to the right are Arenia and Fanny Geary, who relocated to Marlboro along with other Harpers Ferry slaves. Without pictures to compare there is no way of knowing for sure.
  72. 75. Crossing the Potomac in the beginning of March, their strategy was to stay between the troops of Stonewall Jackson and Washington DC. There were skirmishes but no battles in this period.
  73. 76. Concerning the John Brown Bell The Marlboro Enterprise November 4, 1892 <ul><li>“ It is among the most interesting and valuable relics of one of the most important and interesting epochs in the history of America, to be found in this state or nation and is beyond and above gold and silver value. Whenever it shall be seen or heard it will stir in the minds and hearts of the veterans memories of the bloody period in which the house where it once hung played so important a part. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the limits of Hudson there are other relics of this historical building in the shape of two elegant, massive brass torches taken therefore and which were an important part of the equipment of the company. They were sent home by Seth Haskell and have been the property of Eureka Engine Co. ever since. They have this week been republished and put in shape for inspection by the curious.” </li></ul>
  74. 77. History of the Eureka Engine Co. <ul><li>1862 </li></ul><ul><li>April 7, two torches taken at Winchester, VA, were received from A.H. Pope, Calvin Carter and S.G. Haskell </li></ul>
  75. 78. <ul><li>The two previous slides tell a vastly different story. The first says that the two ornamental torches came from the Engine House at Harpers Ferry, and would have tremendous value since they would be tied to John Brown. Company F was in Harpers Ferry only a short time, in August 1861. Presumably, they would have sent the torches home from Williamsport during their stay for winter camp. </li></ul><ul><li>The second slide makes more sense. Winchester was the Company’s first foray into the South. They were there from March 12 – March 18 and apparently found some means of sending the torches back. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to locate the torches have thus far been futile. They were at one of the fire houses in Hudson but mysteriously disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever their origin, they have historic value. </li></ul>
  76. 79. The 13 th Regiment continued its wandering movements through August of 1862, finally reaching Manassas at the end of the month. Due solely to illness, their troop strength had been cut in half from their original 1000 men.
  77. 80. On August 30, 1862, the 13 th engaged in their first serious battle, 2 nd Bull Run. It was also their worst engagement, with heavy losses. A few weeks later, they participated in Antietam, again with heavy losses. Starting with 500 men, they were down to 165 after both engagements.
  78. 81. Through the end of 1862 and spring of 1863, having been decimated by battle and illness, they were only minimally involved in battles to the south. At Chancellorsville, their old nemesis Gen. Stonewall Jackson, was killed by friendly fire.
  79. 82. Becoming aware that Gen. Robert E. Lee was marching north, the Union troops followed in pursuit. After three weeks of constant marching, the 13 th reached Gettysburg on July 1 and were immediately thrown into battle.
  80. 83. Slide prepared by Alan Cham berlain
  81. 84. July 14 th 1864 13 th MVI term of service ends – recent recruits and reenlistments transferred to 39 th July 18 th 3yr veteran William F. Brigham, Co. F, dies in Washington, DC Aug 1 17 officers and 265 men were mustered out from 13 th MVI on Boston Common
  82. 85. History of the 13 th Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Summary of Men Killed or Mortally Wounded <ul><li>Pritchard’s Mill, September 15,1861…………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughfare Gap, August 28, 1862…………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Bull Run, August 30, 1862………………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Antietam, September 17, 1862…………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862……………………………... </li></ul><ul><li>Fitzhugh Crossing, April 30, 1863………………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Chancellorsville, May 4, 1863…………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Gettysburg, July 1-4, 1863………………………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilderness, May 5, 1864………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>Spotsylvania, May 8, 1864………………………………………. </li></ul><ul><li>Bethesda Church, June 3, 1864………………………………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Petersburg, July, 1864…………………………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>An additional 40 men died of disease </li></ul><ul><li>In total, over its 3 years of service, 1,439 men served in the 13 th MVI </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>38 </li></ul><ul><li>26 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>24 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>12 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>121 </li></ul>
  83. 86. The following record of soldiers from Three Years in the Army by Charles E. Davis 1894
  84. 87. Soldiers of Co. F <ul><li>LEWIS ROBERTS ; age, 24; born. Charlotte, Vt.; shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61; taken prisoner May 6, '64, and died in Andersonville prison, July 22, '65, of pleuritis; buried in grave No. 12,505 </li></ul><ul><li>On July 9, 1864, Sgt. David Kennedy of the 9th Ohio Cavalry wrote in his diary: ' Wuld that I was an artist & had the material to paint this camp & all its horors or the tounge of some eloquent Statesman and had the privleage of expresing my mind to our hon. rulers at Washington, I should gloery to describe this hell on earth where it takes 7 of its ocupiants to make a shadow.' </li></ul><ul><li>During July and August, 1865, Clara Barton, a detachment of laborers and soldiers, and a former prisoner named Dorence Atwater, came to Andersonville cemetery to identify and mark the graves of the Union dead. As a prisoner, Atwater was assigned to record the names of deceased Union soldiers for the Confederates. Fearing loss of of the death record at war's end, Atwater made his own copy in hopes of notifying the relatives of some 12,000 dead interred at Andersonville. Thanks to his list and the Confederate records confiscated at the end of the war, only 460 of the Andersonville graves had to be marked &quot; Unknown U.S. Soldier.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Both notes from website ‘Anderson Civil War Prison’ by Kevin Frye </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  85. 88. Soldiers of Co. F <ul><li>THOMAS F. RATHBURN; age, 20; born, Bolton, Mass.; butcher; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61; died at Winchester, Va., March 15, '62. </li></ul><ul><li>First man killed in action, Co. F </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE A. ATKINSON; age, 25; born, Amherst, N.S.-, shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '6l; killed, July l, '63. </li></ul><ul><li>Killed first day of Gettysburg </li></ul><ul><li>JAMES H. BELSER ; age, 29; born, Inverness, Can.; carpenter; mustered in as corp., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out for promotion, March 7, '63; promoted to 2d lieut. 9th Regt. Colored Troops, March 7, '63; residence, Marlboro', Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>One of many foreign born members of Co. F, and one of a few who later became officers of Colored troops. </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE N. BRIDGEWATER ; age, 27; born, England; seaman; mustered in as corp., Co. F, July 16, '61; Nov. 16, '63, promoted to 1st lieut. U.S. Colored Troops. Died of disease while officer of Colored Troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Another foreign born member who became an officer in Colored troop. Bridgewater’s very extensive service papers are located at the Marlborough Historical Society, including papers relating to his recruitment of colored men in the South. </li></ul>
  86. 89. Soldiers of Co. F <ul><li>HENRY J. BRIGHAM; age 25; horn, Marlboro', Mass.; shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July l6,'6l; mustered out as sergt., Aug. l,'64; died, Aug., '65. </li></ul><ul><li>SIDNEY A. BRIGHAM; age, 20; born, Marlboro', Mass.; shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out, Feb. 14, '63; taken prisoner, Aug. 30, '62, but paroled in three days. </li></ul><ul><li>WILLIAM F. BRIGHAM; age, 19; born. West Acton, Mass.; shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co': F, July 16, '61; died of wounds, July 18, '64; promoted to Corp. </li></ul><ul><li>Three Brighams from Co. F. Their relation to the more famous Brighams from Feltonville/Hudson is unknown. William F. is not the twin brother of Historian Wilbur Brigham. That William F. Brigham died a year later having served with a different company. </li></ul>
  87. 90. Soldiers of Co. F <ul><li>CALVIN H. CARTER; age, 24; born, Berlin, Mass.; shoemaker; mustered in as sergt., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out, Nov. 14, '62; wounded at Manassas, Aug. 30, '62; declined commission; residence, Marlboro', Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>SETH G. HASKELL; age, 31; born, Marlboro', Mass.; trader; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out, Aug. 1, '64; residence, Hudson, Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Both involved in the Torch episode. Haskell was one of the very few who went through the war apparently unscathed. 95% of Co. F were either killed, wounded, or mustered out for disease. </li></ul>
  88. 91. Soldiers of Co. F <ul><li>LEDRA A. COOLIDGE ; age, 24; born, Marlboro', Mass.; shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61 mustered out as principal musician, Feb., '63. </li></ul><ul><li>SILAS A. COOLIDGE; age, 20; born, Bolton, Mass.; shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61 mustered out, Oct. 11, '62; reenlisted, Co. D, 59th Mass., Feb. 9, '64, and died July 1, '64. </li></ul><ul><li>Both implicated in John Brown’s raid. Their family relationship is unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE L. W. CROSS; age, 19; born, Hanover, N.H.; shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61; dropped from the rolls, Feb. 1, '62; reenlisted, Feb. 17, '62, in Co. G, 15th Mass., and was killed at Gettysburg, July 2, '63; left the 13th in January, '62, on a furlough; wrote to Captain Whitcomb for money to return, and was refused, whereupon he enlisted in the 15th. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an interesting story in here, but I don’t know what it is. </li></ul><ul><li>GEORGE T. DICKEY ; age, 35; born, Weston, Mass.; farmer; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61; died March 4, '62, at Williamsport, Md. </li></ul><ul><li>Probably one of the first to die of disease. The balance of the unit had already left for the South. </li></ul><ul><li>ABEL B HASTINGS; age, 18; born, Marlboro', Mass.; shoemaker; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out, Aug. 1, 64; wounded Aug. 30, 62, and taken prisoner at Gettysburg; residence, Marlboro, Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the many prisoners from the 13 th taken at Gettysburg. </li></ul>
  89. 92. Soldiers of Co. F <ul><li>CHARLES E. HAYNES; age, 24; born, Sudbury, Mass.; farmer; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out, Aug. 1, '64; wounded at Manassas, Aug. 30, '62, at Antietam, Sept. 17, '62, and at Spotsylvania, May, '64; residence, Sudbury, Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>One of a number of soldiers from Sudbury in Co. F. Wounded 3 times. </li></ul><ul><li>HENRY O'NEAL ; age, 24; born, Ireland; laborer; mustered in as priv., Co. F, July 23, '63; deserted, Nov. 5, '63. </li></ul><ul><li>JOHN QUINN; age, 23; born, Troy, N.Y.; sailor; mustered in as priv., Co. I, July 25, '63; deserted, Aug. 16, '63. </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these men were part of the New York draft riots. After Gettysburg, a draft was instituted to replenish troops. 190 men were drafted from Marlboro/Feltonville. In New York City, there was terrible rioting. Many of these men were transferred to Boston and inserted into Massachusetts units. The desertion rate from these men was exceedingly high. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Lt. ABEL H. POPE; age, 36; morocco-dresser; mustered in as 1st lieut., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out as capt., Oct. 3, '63; promoted to capt., Nov. 29, '62; wounded, Sept. 17, '62. </li></ul><ul><li>One of those involved in sending the torches back to Feltonville, he was wounded at Antietam. Does anyone know what a morocco-dresser is? </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. HENRY WHITCOMB; age, 41; farmer; mustered in as capt., Co. F, July 16 61; mustered out, Nov. 29,'62; wounded, Aug. 30,'62; deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>CHAS. F. MORSE; age, 29; born, Marlboro', Mass.; mustered in as 2d lieut., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out as capt.. May 10, '65; promoted to capt. and commissary of subsistence, Aug. 30, '62; served with the Army of the Potomac until April, '64; then at Chicago, as depot commissary of subsistence until March, '65, when returned to Army of Potomac as inspector of the commissary department of all the armies operating against Richmond residence, Marlboro', Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  90. 93. Soldiers of Co. F <ul><li>1 st Lt. ABEL H. POPE; age, 36; morocco-dresser; mustered in as 1st lieut., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out as capt., Oct. 3, '63; promoted to capt., Nov. 29, '62; wounded, Sept. 17, '62. </li></ul><ul><li>One of those involved in sending the torches back to Feltonville, he was wounded at Antietam. It appears that he was promoted to Captain when Henry Whitcomb was mustered out due to his wounds. Does anyone know what a morocco-dresser is? </li></ul><ul><li>Capt. HENRY WHITCOMB; age, 41; farmer; mustered in as capt., Co. F, July 16 61; mustered out, Nov. 29,'62; wounded, Aug. 30,'62; deceased. </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded at 2 nd Bull Run. It’s not clear from this entry whether he died from his wounds. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Lt. CHAS. F. MORSE; age, 29; born, Marlboro', Mass.; mustered in as 2d lieut., Co. F, July 16, '61; mustered out as capt.. May 10, '65; promoted to capt. and commissary of subsistence, Aug. 30, '62; served with the Army of the Potomac until April, '64; then at Chicago, as depot commissary of subsistence until March, '65, when returned to Army of Potomac as inspector of the commissary department of all the armies operating against Richmond residence, Marlboro', Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the many men from the 13 th Regiment to be promoted to greater responsibility. They were among the most educated and motivated men in the Union Army </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  91. 94. John S. Fay <ul><li>John S. Fay was certainly one of the most respected men in Marlboro, in Massachusetts, perhaps the entire Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>As a member of Co. F 13 th Regiment he had lost both his right arm and his right leg from wounds received at Fitzhugh’s Crossing. Shortly after his amputations he and his surgeon were taken prisoners of war and sent to Libby Prison. </li></ul><ul><li>At wars end he was made Postmaster in Marlboro, a position he held into the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>As Postmaster, he was the highest ranking Federal official in Marlboro. </li></ul><ul><li>As a member of the 13 th , he was the ideal man to have accepted the oath of Lysander Parker concerning the John Brown Bell. </li></ul>
  92. 96. George L. Crosby <ul><li>Despite the fact that he was a photographer, we have no photos of him. </li></ul><ul><li>At his shop in the Marlboro Main St. Union Block, he took photos, painted pictures, and made signs. </li></ul><ul><li>He brought his photo equipment to war and took many photos of individuals and camp life, including some contained in this presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisement is from the Marlboro Mirror, Oct. 1860 </li></ul>
  93. 97. George L. Crosby <ul><li>Crosby moved to Hannibal Missouri after the war, opened up a photo and painting studio, married and had two children. </li></ul><ul><li>He has two paintings in the Mark Twain Museum in Hannibal. </li></ul><ul><li>His life and those of his family ended tragically. The death notice appears next. </li></ul>
  94. 98. Hannibal Clipper Newspaper June, 1877 <ul><li>The local columns of The Clipper to-day contain the full particulars of one of the most distressing casualties which has ever occurred in this city. Mr. George L. Crosby, with his wife and two children, embracing we may say an entire family, were drowned in the outskirts of the city during the hard rain of yesterday afternoon, by being precipitated into a swollen stream, by the sinking of a bridge which they were attempting to cross with a horse and carriage. The occurrence is one which shocks a whole community; causes poignant grief and distress to relatives and friends, and furnishes the most forcible and impressive illustration possible of the brittle thread by which human life is suspended. </li></ul>
  95. 99. Bibliography All of the publications below are available at the Marlboro Public Library and the Marlboro Historical Society. Links to online, full-text versions of several of the publications below can be found at the Society’s website . <ul><li>History of the Town of Marlborough </li></ul><ul><li> by Charles Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Reminiscences of the Early Times in Marlborough </li></ul><ul><li>by Ella Bigelow </li></ul><ul><li>Four Hundred Fifty Events in Marlborough and Neighboring Towns </li></ul><ul><li>by Cyrus Felton </li></ul><ul><li>Six Hundred Events in Marlborough and Neighboring Towns </li></ul><ul><li> by Cyrus Felton </li></ul><ul><li>History of the Second Parish Church (Unitarian), Marlborough </li></ul><ul><li>by Edward Farwell Hayward </li></ul>
  96. 100. Bibliography The following resources are available online <ul><li>13 th Mass Website Brad Forbush webmaster </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>John Buczek’s Marlborough History Website </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The John Brown Bell by Joan Abshire </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Proceedings of the Worcester Disunion Convention </li></ul><ul><li>available at multiple sites </li></ul>
  97. 101. Bibliography The following resources were also used <ul><li>The Business Enterprises and Commercial Development of Harpers Ferry </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Town Area, 1803-1861 </li></ul><ul><li>by Charles W. Snell </li></ul><ul><li>The Marlboro Daily Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>1890 – 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>The Marlboro Mirror </li></ul><ul><li>1860 - 1870 </li></ul><ul><li>Three Years in the Army </li></ul><ul><li>by Charles E. Davis, 1894 </li></ul><ul><li>The John Brown Bell Tower Memorial </li></ul><ul><li>Tenth Anniversary of the Rededication Program, 1978 </li></ul>