communities of practice in which members interact, developing rules, expectations. This can also be considered a form of distributed cognition. Hutchins defines distributed cognition as “lo ok[ing] for a broader class of cognitive events and not expect[ing] all such events to be encompassed by the skin or skull of an individual . ‘ In other words in participatory culture knowledge is held by different members of the community, and only through sharing such knowledge is a complete picture possible. Within the participatory culture learning takes place in an informal manner, as members share information and expertise, as well as content, distributing throughout the community.
Content creation is a form of expressions (mashups, art, poetry) , collaborative problem solving (i.e. Wikipedia) , and has at its heart the possibility of circulations (i.e.YouTube).
Internet has always had potential for social interaction and promoting community but Web 2.0 apps and tools make it easier. When Oreilley first defined Web 2.0 he identified 3 practices: (a) designing and using software as a native web application that is constantly updated and delivered, (b) the harnessing of the collective intelligence of the small sites and users of the web, and (c) mash-ups of data and applications In Web 2.0 content is constantly evolving and updated - the interactive nature allows for learning and assimilating or accommodating information into a new knowledge schema. This suggests that Web 2.0 is a participatory culture. Adolescents do not recognize Web 2.0 - it is the Internet - this is their experience. Tapscott quote that internet to today;s teens - television. Do not recognize term web 2.o
ｷ Wiig’s 1993 definition of information as organized data, and knowledge as truth, belief and perspectives ｷ Spek, and Spijkervet’s 1997 definitions of data as not yet interpreted symbols, information as da ta with meaning � , and knowledge as th e ability of meaning ｷ Choo, Detler and Tumball’s 2000 definitions of data as f a cts and messages, information as da ta vested with meaning, and knowledge as belief. Knowledge is making personal meaning from information
While information as a collection of data that has been interpreted can be conceived of as inherently neutral, the LIS community seeks to define go od � information and ba d � information based on strategies that identify authority and accuracy . Bilal, 2004; Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future,&quot; 2008; O'Conner, 2009; Pawley, 2003; Weiler, 2005 As explored in the next section it is believed that information literacy is socially and contextually based. If this is so then information is a value neutral in terms of go od and ba d as defined within the discipline, information’s value is based on its value to an individual.
In terms of creating online content there can be multiple constructions. Entering information to create an online profile in MySpace or Facebook, uploading personal photos to a social networking site that are primarily personal as memorial items, or posting unedited video for similar reasons is considered creating content. But this ignores the second connotation of “to create �” . the understanding of creative becomes more problematic. For instance fanfiction, which is an original piece of writing using another’s published world and characters. Is this a truly creative work? Or is the derivative nature of the work limiting as it is limited in its novelty? Are fan music videos in which the music and the videos products of other artists work but in which the music and video are combined in a new way sufficiently novel to be considered creative?
From Cropley citing Taylor’s 5 stages of creativity. creators are exploring rules of a medium, and in some instances breaking the rules. The approach to content in this research is to recognize the novel nature of content to the creator, and to explore the process of creating without imposing judgment in regards to level of creativity. Content that does not rely on a template, or has been created for the purposes of creating art as defined by the creator will be considered sufficiently creative. Content that relies on a template or is created for archiving memories purposes will not be considered.
report the committee acknowledges the changing nature of the information environment, and the contextually based nature of encountering information Versions of this definition adopted by UNESCO and ACRL,
Definitions are simplified into a primary list of skills - necessary for ease, teaching. Over the years the definition of IL has continued to evolve, and to struggle with defining itself in a professional sense. Snavely and Cooper identify confusion surrounding IL when they write that 菟 h rases such as library skills, library use , or bibliographic instruction are sometime used synonymously with information literacy , even though they might actually be components of the larger term . � This confusion can be related to the fields need to define IL for practioners who needed to break IL into identifiable pieces that could lead to teaching and student learning outcomes.
Primary construct skills - issues of models which are skill based The use of models to design curriculum and to be useful in a learning environment has led to a blurring of boundaries between information literacy as a collection of skills to be mastered and the ability to learn, there is an assumption that mastering skills will lead to transferability in other contexts. There is also a blurring between notions of information behavior and IL - the behaviors being similar to identified skills in IL and ISP models James Elmborg argues that the “l a ck of precision about what information literacy means has prevented critical judgment about its importance, ” pointing to Pawley’s argument that it can be seen either as a set of skills or a dynamic form of education . In a reflection of the last twenty years of information literacy Loertscher reflects that the “mo vement for information literacy has produced a wide variety of practice ” and comments upon the “mi xed signals it seems to receive from the library profession as a whole. ”
information literacy practices defined as seeking information, using information, and construction of knowledge are often contextually placed within a collaborative social context. Lloyd uses the metaphor of landscapes to “re cast information literacy as a phenomenon more deeply connected with peoples’ formal and informal meaning making activities in all contexts. ” Focusing on the social nature of information Kimmo Tuominen writes � Various groups create local literary practices that is,” li teracy essentially means being able to enact in practice the rules of argumentation and reasoning that an affinity group in a specific knowledge domain considers good or eloquent.” O’Conner claims that “ reading such contexts and making judgments about truth claims requires more than the ability to locate, access, evaluate and select information; it requires deep intellectual engagement or mindfulness, ” moving the IL field beyond skills, recognizing that being literate requires an understanding of context .
Herring identifies these competing discourses in the public consciousness – fear and concern versus breathless optimism . Pa rticipation gap with in the age group, which has perhaps more authenticity than sweeping generalizations based on age . (Palfrey and Gasser)
these studies arise from an information behaviors perspective that emphasizes seeking without fully exploring the context of the environment or the need, or the actual change in knowledge on the part of the seeker. Todd and Edwards are an exception, considering utilization and determine the presence of an adolescent’s agency in synthesizing information from a variety of sources and integrating new information into their personal knowledge schema, they find that adolescents are c tive creators of new knowledge, manipulating information selectively, intentionally, and creatively. Everyday life information seeking research also indicates that adolescents view information gathering as a social process, often turning to their peers to meet information needs . The LIS field places value on authoritative sources, and does not necessarily consider peers authoritative sources of information; this may lead to the common analysis that adolescents lack information seeking skills, rather than recognizing the skills they develop through utilizing their peers as information source.
Exploring identity in a self-reflective manner is one of the major focuses of youth content creation - identity management (boyd), blogging as exploration (Huffaker), web site maintenance and finds that self promotion, publicity, as well as self-reflection, self inquiry, and self documentation play a role in motivating adolescence to create and maintain websites (Stern) Interest driven participation.
How does one become Information Literate in a Participatory Culture? Exploring Adolescent Content Creators in Web 2.0.
What is a Participatory Culture? “ culture with relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement, strong support for creating and sharing one’s creations, and some type of informal mentorship” -Jenkins 2005
Forms of a Participatory Culture? <ul><ul><ul><li>1. Affiliations – memberships, formal and informal, in online communities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Expressions – producing new creative forms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Collaborative problem solving – working together in teams, formal and informal, to complete tasks and develop new knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Circulations – shaping the flow of media </li></ul></ul></ul>
What is Web 2.0? <ul><li>From O’Reilly (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Native web applications - availability </li></ul><ul><li>Collective intelligence - social, promote interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Mash-ups of data and applications - creativity, ease of use. </li></ul>
What is Content? Information and Knowledge Information - interpreted data Knowledge - belief, personal truth Knowledge is personal interpretation of information.
Social Context <ul><ul><ul><li>“ kn owledge is not produced in the intentions of those who believe they hold it . . . It is produced in the process of interaction …knowledge is not the matter offered so much as the matter that is understood . (Lusted via Friere & Macedo, 1987) </li></ul></ul></ul>Knowledge is constructed between individuals or between individual and “text”. Knowledge is social.
Constructing Information Privileging information : Good & Bad
A Word about Creating <ul><li>bring into existence </li></ul><ul><li>to produce through artistic or imaginative effort </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Heritage Dictionary, 1985 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>notion that if something is creative it is an original piece and that it is novel . -Raymond Williams, Keywords, 1976
Defining Creating <ul><li>expressive spontaneity - novel only to the producer </li></ul><ul><li>inventive creativity and innovative creativity - what is known used in new ways. </li></ul>
Defining IL the ability “to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” “ le arned how to learn ” - ALA, Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report , 1989
Defining IL: Doyle’s Delphi Study <ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes that accurate and complete information is the basis for intelligent decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes the need for information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formulates questions based on information needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies potential sources of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develops successful search strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accesses sources of information including computer-based and other technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizes information for practical application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates new information into an existing body of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses information in critical thinking and problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul>
Defining IL : Research Constructs <ul><ul><ul><li>An amalgam of skills, attitudes, and knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A complex of ways of experiencing information use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A complex of ways of interacting with information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Christine Bruce, 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
Defining IL: Reconceptualizing <ul><li>Context : Workplace, Everyday Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information variety of forms (i.e.: experiential) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mindfulness, understanding of context and deep consideration beyond the notion of skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Constructions and Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Localized literacy practices with own set of rules and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Cognition - members of the community hold pieces of information that work together to create knowledge </li></ul></ul>
Who are Digital Youth? <ul><li>Popular constructions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>93 % of teenagers are online daily. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indications that divide is not access, but competencies </li></ul></ul></ul>
Who are Digital Youth? In LIS <ul><li>Research is primarily on youth as seekers </li></ul><ul><li>Research is primarily school based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing awareness of ELIS behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Construction of Youth in LIS Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Students (Youth) struggle finding best information and evaluating information in digital environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Students have a gap between confidence(high) and success (low). </li></ul>
Who are Digital Youth? Media and Communications Studies <ul><li>• hanging out which has a primarily social and communicative purpose </li></ul><ul><li>• messing around, a more media centric interest driven activity in which teens are exploring different online environments </li></ul><ul><li>geeking out which “represents a more intense engagement” with a more focused digital ecology </li></ul><ul><li>2 primary motivations: social and personal interests. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-from MacArthur study 2008 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>