Cutting the Tree of Knowledge: Social Software, Information Architecture and Their Epistemic ConsequencesMichael Schiltz, FrederikTruyen and Hans Coppens<br />Shiming Yuan (Florence)<br />310301742<br />
Contemporary Social Theories<br />‘Man is not able to communicate; only communication is able to communicate.’<br /> (Luhmann, 1991) <br />Media are no pseudopods, stretching out of the human body. They follow the logic of escalation, leaving us and the history of writing behind themselves. <br />(Kittler, 1993)<br />
Contemporary Social Theories<br />Posthumanist and/or Antihumanistic<br />Described by NiklasLuhmann and Friedrich Kittler for the modern social system which excludes the traditional face to face communications, rather it relies on functions shifted from the traditional communication system such as oral communication, writing and printing press. Under the 21st century digital context, the escalation of technology will erase the traditional writing as a social medium, as a complete demise of the premises of humanism and the enlightenment in modern social systems.<br />
Scientific System shifted…<br />Traditionally<br />institutions, universities, curricula, individuals …<br />Digital Age<br />knowledge gathering and sharing tools — weblogs, wikis, facebook, Google …<br />Epistemic consequences:<br />Why do we find what we find?<br />How do we make informed decisions?<br />Do we know enough to ask the right questions?<br />suspicious<br />
From the Printing Press to the Digital Age<br /><ul><li>Two-way Communication</li></ul>telephone,<br />radio,<br />printed press,<br />TV<br />the Internet,<br />the World Wide Web (www) <br />VS<br /><ul><li>Marginal Economic Cost</li></ul>Information dissemination,<br />printed material (paper, infrastructure, printed press, etc)<br />Time, learning<br />VS<br />
The Cry for Open Access<br />Alternative publishing means are available with the technologies such as blogs, wikis, facebook, etc. <br />Open Access is drawn to enforce the freedom of information that includes the following principle:<br />· Removing price barriers, but be credited for;<br />· Removing permission barriers, such as having the reviewed information on the internet without copyright to block the research.<br />
The Cry for Open Access<br />The Open Access ideology was greatly enhanced by the technologies. This includes the new ways of disseminating data and results by the use of social software and social knowledge. The new wave of knowledge is seen from downloadable information from the Internet to the creation of online economy, the innovative way to organize data and information and to the new ways of classifying or identifying data, and eventually redefining the theory of knowledge.<br />
From Social Software to Social Knowledge<br />Social Software — instrumental to the growth of knowledge through information sharing.<br />REALLY ?<br />· mere distribution of information does not mean the growth of knowledge;<br />· information sharing does not lead to the equivalent of knowledge as traditional distribution channels.<br />
Knowledge vs Information<br /><ul><li> Information is processed data whereas knowledge is information that is modeled to be useful.
We need information to be able to get knowledge.
Information deals with the way data is related while knowledge examines patterns within a given set of information.
To get knowledge we need some cognitive and analytical ability while for information we do not need cognitive ability. </li></li></ul><li>Information become Knowledge<br />Knowledge: Beliefs of information, and the determination that the beliefs’ true. i.e. justified true belief.<br />Beliefs are not held by individuals, but considered to be known. The known is the method to obtain knowledge.<br />
Example…<br />How to install Linux on your computer?<br /><ul><li> Search the web
Chat online with other experts</li></li></ul><li>Just In Time Knowledge<br />NOT<br />activate all knowledge involved<br />BUT<br />Know how to access it when needed<br />The Internet and the World Wide Web make it possible that the right knowledge available at the right time. (Larry Kerschberg and HanjoJeong)<br />
Downloadable Beliefs<br />Within epistemology, when ‘to believe something’ means any cognitive content held as true. e.g.<br />to believe the sky is blue is to think that the proposition ‘the sky is blue’ is true. <br />The social network has vindicated that the traditional beliefs have become downloadable beliefs. Their accessibility and ready-for-download in the trusted environment warrants their truth.<br />
Example…<br />Spectrometry in a lab<br /><ul><li> know by heart all theories involved;
assume that the machinery involved is correctly calibrated;
assume that the machinery is correctly designed.</li></ul>Knowledge is no longer depending on facts and direct acquaintance, but on belief.<br />
Knowledge Economy<br />Social network knowledge — SAVES TIME<br />E.g. medical setting<br />On one hand, a professional network which links the physician to a network of specialists will help out the most difficult and unusual cases;<br />On the other hand, patients are able to educate themselves better on their condition, possibly providing valuable clues to the time-constrained doctor.<br />
Cutting the tree of Knowledge<br />The WWW brings in a complex matrix knowledge base that is a collection of individual pieces of information, or the leafs, the branches and the trees are cut and made into a slip box where all the information can be stored and identified, however, in a different way of classifying data with keywords and descriptive phasing which identifying information and verify in a completely different way. This resulted in the exposing the limitation of traditional taxonomists or the way of classification. The expanding ocean of data will be organized by folksonomy where the classification will be done by the use of tags and symbols. This is described as the future of social system and knowledge.<br />
Conclusion<br />The traditional economy and knowledge production over the printing press or single channel communication through radio and TV, will be replaced by digital publication where knowledge can be brought together at an instance using knowledge sharing and the availability of open access.<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVIcIRcAhxc&feature=related<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gu06K71JayE<br />
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